Wetlands are those areas where water saturation is the dominant factor determining the nature of soil development and the types of plant and animal communities living in the surrounding environment. The identification of wetlands and associated habitats is regulated by complex federal legislation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), the (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (formerly the Soil Conservation Service: SCS), and the (Department of the Interior) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), have developed definitions of wetlands in response to their regulatory responsibilities. The single feature that all wetlands have in common is a soil or substrate that is saturated with water during at least a part of the growing season. These saturated conditions control the types of plants and animals that live in these areas. Other common names for wetlands are Sloughs, Ponds, Swamps, Bogs, and Marshes. Basically, all definitions of wetlands require that one or more attributes be met: (1) Wetland Hydrology: At some point of time in the growing season the substrate is periodically or permanently saturated with or covered by water; (2) Hydrophytic Vegetation: At least periodically, the land supports predominantly water-loving plants such as cattails, rushes, or sedges; (3) Hydric Soils: The area contains undrained, wet soil which is anaerobic, or lacks oxygen in the upper levels.

Environmental engineering English vocabulary.      Английский словарь экологического инжиниринга.