Meaning of CURRENCY in English



bond/currency/commodity etc trader

To the surprise of many Wall Street traders, the dollar rose yesterday.

common currency

Words like ‘spliff’ and ‘blunt’ have become common currency.

convertible currency

a convertible currency

counterfeit currency/money etc

counterfeit £10 notes

currency exchange

We have seen wide fluctuations in rates of currency exchange this year.

debase a currency/coinage (= reduce its value )


Nigeria has just devalued its currency .

hard currency

land/property/currency etc holding

companies with large property holdings

single currency

Europe is moving steadily towards a single currency.

soft currency

weak currency/economy etc

The pound was weak against the dollar.




Perhaps in two or three years we will have a convertible currency .

The reserves are composed of convertible foreign currencies , gold and International Monetary Fund special drawing rights.

There is still no mobile phone system, no credit cards and no convertible currency .

The world's major currencies are all convertible into other currencies on demand by residents and non-residents of those countries.

He has argued for the introduction of a convertible currency parallel to the existing non-convertible rouble.


As a general point banks in many countries were highly regulated in relation to deposits and lending conducted in their own domestic currency .

The standard economic answer to both these questions is that the price of foreign exchange should be raised in terms of the domestic currency .

This market constitutes the Eurocurrency market plus deposits in domestic and foreign currency held by non-residents.

Government intervention, usually involving the direct buying or selling of domestic and foreign currencies by central banks.

Foreign currency receipts must be converted into the domestic currency in use in the exporter's country.

An importer might be able to make payment in his own domestic currency if this is acceptable to the exporter.

Any company or bank conducting business outside of its domestic currency zone must have access to international capital.

The reader should ascertain the position regarding his own domestic currency .


To convert foreign currency into sterling divide the amount by the rate of exchange.

Kumar was arrested on Saturday last week, charged with violating foreign currency laws.

Such economic nationalists favored import-substitution strategies that reduced the need for foreign currency by producing vital goods domestically.

Predictably, as Table 3.4 confirms, their liabilities are overwhelmingly in foreign currency and are heavily weighted towards time deposits.

Derivatives are contracts whose values are tied to an underlying security, such as a foreign currency or a bond.

The market also contains around 10-12 foreign exchange brokers who link buyers and sellers of foreign currency .


Anything bringing hard currency into the island is welcomed.

In 1982 oil made up about 60% of the Soviet Union's hard currency income.

They could be purchased with hard currency but not roubles.

The black market in hard currency was reborn.

The decree also established from Jan. 1, 1991, currency exchanges where enterprises could sell roubles for hard currency.

From Sept. 15 foreigners were forbidden to export scarce consumer goods, unless purchased for hard currency .

It is almost as if there is an orchestrated campaign to take hard currency out of the market-place.

The Communist foreign trading company, Limex, was commissioned to market the Wall and drum up some hard currency .


The medium of world commerce was often the sterling bill of exchange, which provided something like an international currency .

We can offer current accounts with overdraft facilities and deposit and loan accounts in any major international currency .

Central bank governors have blown fortunes trying to fight against momentum in the international currency market.

The least bad variant might actually be for the international currency markets to take it apart.

Otherwise we put the continuity of vital work in jeopardy by failing to shelter it from the winds of international currency exchanges.


At a stroke the government removed about 70% of the local currency from the economy.

Agriculture and construction division sales fell 6 percent to 3. 375 billion francs, and rose 5 percent in local currencies .

Devaluation will increase the local currency costs of servicing foreign currency-denominated debt.

They also need to know what the local currency is, the exchange rate and the rate of inflation.

In local currencies , group sales rose 14 percent.

Mr Mugabe's government could and did buy farmland over the years using local currency .

In local currencies , sales rose 11 percent from 14. 75 billion francs.


During this period the dollar appreciated by 55 percent as an average against major currencies .

Moreover, technically speaking, this would be the perfect moment to amalgamate the three major currencies into one.

Meanwhile, the dollar was higher against other major currencies .

The minimum balance is US$1,000 or the equivalent in the major currencies and US$3,000 otherwise.

Problem No. 3 is that they accept only major currencies .

The minimum balance is the equivalent of US$10,000 in major currencies and US$15,000 otherwise.

The dollar fell against a basket of 10 major currencies tracked by Finex, a financial futures exchange.


Thousands of residents could walk about the city observing the fall of the national currency .

Moreover once there are separate national currencies , there are costs of servicing the foreign exchange market.

Member countries retain their respective currencies but there exists a parallel currency which circulates side by side with the national currencies.

First, most people like their national currency .

If there is no insulating national currency , declining competitiveness must translate directly into unemployment.

As prices for other foods, electricity and gasoline more than tripled, the national currency , the lev, crashed.

This is not the case when a national currency is replaced by a foreign currency.

Here the dollar gradually replaces the national currency as a reserve value, means of payment and unit of account.


Frequently, the government will simply announce a new currency and guarantee that currency with some-thing of value, like gold.

And fears are multiplying that professional counterfeiters will take advantage of the unfamiliarity of the new currency to circulate forged notes.

In practice, the issue of new currency in the United Kingdom is geared towards meeting the expenditure requirements of consumers.

Will that be enough to prompt support for the new currency among the public in the eurozone countries?

I shall invite them to join us in putting the pound, franc and lira into a new currency bloc.


By converting pounds to other currencies investors are gambling that the pound will fall.

Alongside these markets, using in some cases quite literally parallel instruments, are markets for lending and borrowing other currencies .

People will thus choose to keep their liquid assets in other currencies .

Appendix 3 Exchange Rate Comparisons Table 9.6 shows data for the sterling effective exchange rate as well as for other currencies .

Banks also make other currency advances to traders, multinational corporations and sovereign governments.

Most of the business was in shorter-term sterling futures as the pound gained against other currencies .

One is a parity grid arrangement, whereby upper and lower intervention rates are established for each currency against every other currency.

This was due mainly to the very high value of sterling against other currencies .


If at some stage we entered into a single currency , we should have to deal with a different matter.

It came at a moment when skepticism over the pace toward full economic union and the single currency has been mounting.

A society with n independent currencies should be times as stable as one with a single currency.

It simply agreed a timetable for producing a single currency by, at the latest, 1999 - with or without Britain.

The exchange rate mechanism is a voluntary prototype for a single currency .

The greater the economic impact of the single currency , the greater the pressure for and chance of further harmonization.

A fundamental policy split between them could threaten the successful functioning of the single currency .

Whether there would continue to be a single currency was, however, unresolved.


A strong currency strategy is not without risks.

A country that maintains a strong banking system and a strong, stable currency reaps real rewards.

One was that it might not be as attractive as some of the stronger currencies and so its general acceptability might suffer.

While governments dither, funds leave those countries with weak currencies and go to those countries with strong currencies.

While a strong currency has some virtues, officialdom is probably a little too complacent.

But many critics claim the policy of a strong currency has decisively contributed to sluggish growth and record unemployment in both countries.

But the dollar was regarded as a strong currency and was therefore popular in international trade.

A strong currency is also fueling prospects for moderating consumer prices and falling rates.


This could not support weak currencies indefinitely.

That will lead them to seek weaker currencies to boost their exports, traders said.

Attention on world money markets then switched to the next weakest currency - the pound.

While governments dither, funds leave those countries with weak currencies and go to those countries with strong currencies.


Rothschild's Old Court International Reserves has the widest choice of currencies and it is easy to invest.

These are key ideas in the dominant ideology of patriarchy which have much wider currency and impact than in penology.

This belief gained wide currency among Sinhalese of all social strata in the twentieth century.

This argument has received wide currency , in part because it again presents Gloucester as the victim of circumstances rather than their manipulator.

Oral tradition was written down and gained a wider currency than ever before.

Nevertheless the suggestion that structuralism and poststructuralism have denied history is a persuasive one which now has wide currency .



This cuts out the currency board as middleman, and has a similar economic effect.

However, with a currency board , the process is reversible.

Only Hong Kong, which had a formal currency board , retained its exchange rate; its experience is worth studying.

A similar argument can be made for currency boards , on which Schuler had enthused earlier.


Top of the agenda will be the currency crisis .

Rolls warning JET-engine giant Rolls-Royce warned yesterday it may switch some production abroad because of Britain's currency crisis .

The extremely lucrative trade in endangered species is proving irresistible to countries in grave currency crisis .

The currency crisis , with higher mortgages and interest rates, means that consumers have far less disposable income.


Czechoslovakia still insists on an inflated hard currency exchange rate which reflects its closed economy.

But that friendship got her in trouble when her boss asked her to make the currency exchange .

Best of all was to stroll about the currency exchange booths.

The strength or weakness of the dollar dominates the ebbs and flows of world rates of currency exchange .

Crowds gathered yesterday outside currency exchanges in the capital, Ankara.

Unable to control the situation and unwilling to accept the real state of things the Central Bank simply closed the currency exchange .

If they just make a straight currency exchange , they will still be liable for the yen interest payments.

International trade thus involves an element of currency exchange risk.


Pay determination is also hampered by such factors as inflation rates and currency fluctuations against the pound.

National wage agreements no longer guarantee job security, particularly when currency fluctuations can make job creation unprofitable, he said.

And with currency fluctuations , salaries with appear attractive initially can become decreasingly so over time.

They are subject to alteration through increases in air fares and currency fluctuations .


In return for a freer hand in the currency market private dealers were expected to play a more active role in industrial investment.

The bond and currency markets , trading primarily via phone, operated throughout the day, but sluggishly.

Governments have already decided that they can not accept a free currency market .

In currency markets , when the going gets tough, the investors go to safer places.

In London, light trading on currency markets saw the pound gain 10 points against a weak dollar to close at 1.4843.

Can the currency market be calmed before things get out of hand?

As the currency markets know only too well, a potentially damaging row over interest-rate policy has broken out.

The rationale for an external currency market is differential national regulation.


But even as the country's gold and currency reserves continued to drain away, worse was to come.

Danzig's already depleted currency reserves dropped steadily.

Growth this year is estimated at 4 %, and exports and foreign currency reserves are up.

Foreign currency reserves had plunged to some US$2,300 million in early March, barely enough to cover three weeks' imports.


But the currency traders will not be forgotten.


The creation of a currency union removes this disadvantage.

In a parallel currency union , a member country's currency competes with the parallel currency.

Similarly, a parallel currency union shares certain features with a currency union.

In a currency union these transactions costs are eliminated.

His economics minister is talking of currency union between the two Germanies by July.

Further, in a currency union no government of a member country can manipulate the money supply growth rate for electoral purposes.

Its central provision was the currency union of I July 1990, but it contained a number of other important provisions.



A country is required within 3 - 5 years to repurchase its drawings through buying back its own currency with foreign currencies.

Rupiah are sold to buy dollars and other currencies to purchase those imports.

Banker's drafts come a little more expensive but can be bought in any currency .

They will therefore sell sterling and buy foreign currencies .


The company has created its own internal currency .


The dramatic move - effectively devaluing our currency - exposed the Prime Minister's general election pledges of economic recovery as worthless.

To lower admission standards would be, in effect, to devalue the currency in which their diploma had been issued.

Because cheats devalue the currency , business goes a long way to protect its brands.

To reach an accord, the government will likely have to devalue its currency , which would help boost exports.

For a high inflation country, the ability occasionally to devalue its currency is important and its exercise can yield benefits.

Governments sometimes responded by promptly devaluing the currency to offset the cost disadvantage of the wage increases.


It was in these conditions that Marxist ideas began to gain currency .

But then, of course, I knew how that idea had gained currency .

During the 1880s Marxism began to gain currency among the revolutionary intelligentsia.

Two misconceptions about the Treaty of Maastricht have been allowed to gain currency .

This belief gained wide currency among Sinhalese of all social strata in the twentieth century.

It gained currency during the period of national reawakening in the nineteenth century.

Oral tradition was written down and gained a wider currency than ever before.


We have exactly the same option to join a single currency at the same time as other member states if we wish.

Few, though, believe Britain will join the single currency when it is scheduled to begin in January 1999.

Can a majority of public opinion be won over to vote for joining a single currency in just three or four years?

This would not happen were Britain to join the single currency .

The Leader of the Opposition previously expressed three conditions for joining a single currency .

But we are not obliged to join in a single currency if we do not want to.


Contributions are flexible, may be paid in any freely-convertible currency and may be salary related.

Nevertheless, because of the greater uncertainties in the foreign exchange markets, more attention needs to be paid to currency risk.

The price can be set below the competitors to attract foreign buyers who have to pay in hard currency .

According to the Treaty, non-signatories would have to pay hard currency for their imports from the new Soviet Union.

The companies had to be paid in their own currencies , at a much less favourable exchange rate than last year.

And if you want interest paid in another currency , most banks and building societies offer special accounts with this option available.


Some 4,000 of the 13,000 currency dealers who had flourished in the 1980s struggled on, trading the remaining independent currencies.

More advanced services include stock and mutual fund brokerage or trading services, currency trading, and credit or debit card management.


A lot of the food grown in Mexico is exported to earn hard currency .

Investors continued to swap yen for the currencies of nations that offer higher interest rates.

Local banks give better rates for converting your traveler's checks into foreign currency .

The dollar is now the overwhelming world currency .

The Euro will eventually replace European national currencies.

We soon got used to using Italian currency .

What's the local currency in Malta?

You can argue about the single currency but you can't opt out of the European Single Market.


Bank credit card vouchers and traveller's cheques and foreign currencies are entered on separate paying-in slips.

It earns foreign currency by selling Pitcairn stamps, which used to be popular with collectors.

It is almost as if there is an orchestrated campaign to take hard currency out of the market-place.

Moreover, the reform process itself is part of the currency of political debate.

One definition is exchanged for another, semantic currency is taken from one discursive economy and converted into the currency of another.

The minimum balance is US$1,000 or the equivalent in the major currencies and US$3,000 otherwise.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.