Meaning of ESTIMATE in English
 ESTIMATE

I. noun
COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES
the estimated cost (= one that is guessed and may not be exact )
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The estimated cost was in the region of £3,000.
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ ADJECTIVE
accurate
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It became essential to obtain an accurate estimate of just how many tigers were left.
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Thus half the effort of benefitcost analysis would devolve upon the firm, whose owners' best interests dictate accurate cost estimates .
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Similarly, accurate estimates of the marginal costs of production are often very difficult to obtain.
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So even in 1966, the twelveminute figure does not appear to have been an accurate estimate .
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The most reliable and accurate estimates can normally be obtained using one of the true crossareal interpolation methods.
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Some leading Republican members of Congress said Friday they consider $ 825 million to be a more accurate estimate .
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All are now agreed that that proved to be a remarkably accurate estimate .
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Second, how can we be sure that it provides for an accurate and reliable estimate of that population?
average
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Results matched the average estimate from 11 analysts surveyed by Zacks Investment Research.
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As with most groups, the average estimates for women are two to four times higher than those for men.
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Wall Street expected earnings of 71 cents, the average estimate of 12 analysts surveyed by Zacks Investment Research.
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The results yesterday beat the average estimate of 19 cents, based on a poll of seven analysts by Zacks Investment Research.
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Analysts had expected it to earn 36 cents a share, the average estimate of four analysts surveyed by Zacks Investment Research.
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The results were in line with the average estimate of 71 cents a share from 13 analysts surveyed by Zacks Investment Research.
conservative
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Even this conservative estimate of problem loans amounts to a striking 8% of the total loans in banks' portfolios.
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But on conservative estimates its size is likely to triple by 2025.
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At a conservative estimate the water was nearly a yard deep, even near the edge.
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Any differences that emerged could therefore be regarded as conservative estimates for the species as a whole.
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Duke reckoned it at a mile and threequarters; the most conservative estimates put it at over a mile.
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By conservative estimates , the agency has pared 2, 200 jobs in the past two years through attrition and early retirement.
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All the data published on the effect of gillnets on small cetaceans probably represents a conservative estimate of the number of deaths.
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A conservative estimate is that 6 percent are homeless.
current
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This is about a factor of 3 smaller than current best estimates of the neutron star radius.
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Under this arrangement, Faurer was responsible for current intelligence, estimates , scientific and technical intelligence, and research.
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But this slumped to a third quarter loss of £126 million. Current estimates suggest fourth quarter profits of around £24 million.
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Gummer admitted that current estimates of traffic growth, and hence trafficrelated pollution, were incompatible with sustainability.
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Our current estimate of 70 cases per million population per year is certainly the minimum for the reasons described.
early
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He hadn't been dead for very long  my earlier estimate of around six hours will be somewhere near the mark.
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The earthquake registered a magnitude of 6.8, according to early estimates .
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This represented 8 percent of the total as against an earlier estimate of 5.6 percent.
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Our earliest estimate now is around midDecember.
good
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This is about a factor of 3 smaller than current best estimates of the neutron star radius.
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The best estimates are that Cairo has half a million roof dwellers.
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Downstream people must be willing to take risks based on their best possible estimate of the future.
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According to the best estimates , all this took place between 3. 7 and 4. 5 billion years ago.
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A star's spectrum thus contains thousands of peaks and valleys, which provide a good estimate of that star's composition.
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Taken together, they may be applied jointly to produce a better estimate of the cost of equity capital.
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We may expect to generate a better estimate by using pseudocosts.
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But the best estimates now place them at about 350, 000 and growing rapidly.
high
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Total debt stock for 1990 was estimated at US$16,446 million, more than US$11,000 million higher than 1989 estimates.
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These steps give a higher estimate of X, as follows: 1.
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The differences are small, varying between 32,000 jobs a year being the lowest estimate , to 38,000 being the highest estimate.
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For these higher estimates nonconventional sources play an important role.
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He attributed the higher estimate to David Hartman, the Austin banker who ran against Whitehead in 1994.
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The figure is three time higher than previous estimates .
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The government said the change to chain weights was largely responsible for the higher estimate .
initial
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Spitfire restorations to airworthy status have notoriously exceeded initial estimates of timing and cost, irrespective of start point condition.
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An initial estimate was made of the typesetting combination responsible for the character.
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This figure lies on the high side of our initial estimate but two factors must be borne in mind.
low
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Neither the authorship nor the commission were known to Sotheby's then, and it too had a similarly low estimate .
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The differences are small, varying between 32,000 jobs a year being the lowest estimate , to 38,000 being the highest estimate.
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Fifteen dollars was clearly a low estimate .
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The instructor's low estimate of patron capability.
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When the bids were returned, the lowest estimate by far was from Hunts Point.
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Not that the difference between the lowest and highest estimate is of any significance.
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This August Committee Meeting accepted the lowest estimates for building the clubhouse and the workshop.
mean
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Population projections for 2050 range between 7.7 billion and 10.6 billion, with a mean estimate of 9.4 billion.
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The mean estimate provided by First Call was 33 cents.
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However, it received a mean accident estimate , 6.90, which is below the average for the 40 junctions.
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That beat a mean estimate of 88 cents a share based on forecasts of 20 analysts surveyed by Zacks Investment Research.
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Both mean cost estimates have been compared between treatment groups, and the significance of any difference tested using randomisation test procedures.
official
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Some 800 grams of plutonium lie in the sediments of the Mururoa lagoon, according to official estimates .
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There was no official estimate of how many people were stranded or delayed.
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The latest figures for the disease are way above their official estimate for1992.
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Experts like Freyle claim the official estimate of casualties is way understated.
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It was the official estimate from the Soviet spokesman at the international conference at Vienna this year.
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For state and local governments, circumventing the glitch could cost more than $ 100 million, according to official estimates .
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Lovech was open from 1959 until April 1962 and interned 12,035, people according to official estimates .
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Of the 19,067 engines in stock in 19212, 64 percent were unusable according to official estimates .
original
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Always question any increase in price and ask why it was not included in the original estimates .
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This was unchanged from the original estimate reported by Insee on Nov. 29.
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Your original estimate , I think, was more realistic.
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Never mind that figure was four times the original estimate for the safety assessment.
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Nuclear power stations are notoriously unreliable and construction costs go way over original estimates .
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The original damage estimate was $ 10, 000, later raised to $ 100, 000.
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The original estimates are joined to the new ones by lines.
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The reinstatement was thorough, taking place over two years and costing much more than the original estimate .
preliminary
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A preliminary estimate suggests a likely ceiling of between 120 and 130 machines.
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The victory came at a cost, however. Preliminary estimates put the lawyers' campaign at nearly $ 14 million.
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The government will release a preliminary estimate of fullyear gross domestic product tomorrow.
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Gans' preliminary estimate about the Tuesday turnout means the spurt four years ago was an exception to the trend.
previous
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Recent surveys show previous estimates of whale numbers to be wildly optimistic.
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This is a revision of the previous unofficial estimate , which was: everybody except A.C.
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This result is marginally bigger than the previous traditional estimate of 11p.
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There have been previous estimates that he had spent $ 12 million thus far.
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The figure is three time higher than previous estimates .
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The Board says that a new assessment of the polonium impact puts the risk at only one hundredth of its previous estimate .
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Again, the level of risk implied by this explanation seems inconsistent with the dosimetry and previous estimates of genetic risk.
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The uncertainty in the 12.5 billion year figure is 3.0, which encompasses most previous cosmological estimates .
reasonable
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Use the five steps and chart below to work out a reasonable estimate of the cost of rebuilding your home.
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The most difficult part of the job lies in developing reasonable estimates of the equations for the curves.
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Of this, 4 million cubic kilometres is a reasonable estimate for the freshwater we could extract.
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Suitable accounting policies applied consistently and making use of reasonable and prudent estimates have been used in preparation of the accounts.
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Radiometric dating has nearly reached the stage when we can make reasonable estimates at the stage, if not the zone level.
recent
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This far exceeds more recent estimates for 1983 given at the Online conference in December.
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Reserves under the continental slopes are not included in these recent estimates .
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The most recent estimates suggest that Britain has a population of about 250,000 adult badgers and 105,000 cubs.
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The most convincing recent estimate records a fall in that proportion from 77 percent in 1905 to 61 percent in 1916.
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More recent estimates have varied wildly.
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A recent estimate suggests that members with farming and related experience are twice as numerous as those experienced in the park purposes.
reliable
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Sampling theory showed that reliable estimates of population characteristics could be arrived at using appropriately constructed samples.
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Quite sophisticated equipment and trained manpower is required to make reliable estimates .
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The most reliable and accurate estimates can normally be obtained using one of the true crossareal interpolation methods.
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The practice is quite widespread, but no one has achieved any very reliable estimate of its scale, let alone a trend.
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Second, how can we be sure that it provides for an accurate and reliable estimate of that population?
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Better designed studies with more complete reporting of data would enable more reliable estimates of efficacy of treatment.
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How reliable are its estimates of security betas?
rough
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While the cost has yet to be calculated, rough government estimates show it likely will run to billions of dollars.
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One in 5,000 is a rough estimate .
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Calculate a rough estimate of interest at 1 percent per month.
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You should be able to give a rough estimate of how much work each stage of the case is likely to entail.
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As a rough estimate , the average number of records required per title is 5.
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A rough estimate of the current amount of housebuilding in towns of over 50,000 population is around 15 percent.
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It seems worthwhile to attempt such a semiquantitative approach if only to give rough estimates of the parameters involved.
■ NOUN
cost
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The presentation of a complete proposal comprising system design, implementation plan and cost estimates must be made by 31 December 1984.
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But Boeing officials have said that cost estimates at this point are too premature to be credible.
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This, with the total cost estimate , is the basis for estimating the return on investment of the project.
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While this discussion was continuing, Schuster was still taking in the implications of the cost estimates .
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Both mean cost estimates have been compared between treatment groups, and the significance of any difference tested using randomisation test procedures.
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The architectural study by HellmuthObataKassabaum would be used by construction managers to develop a more specific cost estimate by spring.
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Thus even if Capital cost estimates come out higher it would not greatly lower the gain associated with gascoal conversion.
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Thus half the effort of benefitcost analysis would devolve upon the firm, whose owners' best interests dictate accurate cost estimates .
■ VERB
based
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To supplement traditional budgetary methods, mediumterm financial planning based on estimates of economic growth was advocated.
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Flight timings in this brochure are based on our best estimate and historic experience of airline flying programmes.
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Initial investments of this type are relatively easy to plan because they are based on actual estimates .
compare
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Researchers compared those estimates with the actual waiting times taken from a computerized database.
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This compares with structure plan estimates of need totalling 231,000 to 233,000 over the fiveyear period.
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But compared with past estimates , this one was a surprise.
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This could be compared with an estimate of the same prevalence from some previous survey to give a measure of secular change.
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On Tuesday, the company reported disappointing fourthquarter earnings of 72 cents a share, compared with estimates of 88 cents.
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Rank orderings of difficulties and hazards with advancing age will be compared with estimates given by skilled driving instructors.
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Otherwise, actual profit on continuing operations is compared with the 120day estimate .
exceed
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For these reasons a number of highly estimated lots failed to find buyers while others far exceeded their estimates.
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The profits exceeded analysts' estimates .
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Spitfire restorations to airworthy status have notoriously exceeded initial estimates of timing and cost, irrespective of start point condition.
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Kriegel was determined not to let the cost exceed the estimate without a fight.
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In all the funeral exceeded the bishop's estimate by over £540, amounting to £940 18s. 11d.
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This total of 84 million far exceeds all other estimates that we have seen.
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There was the rub  Rose Lipman complained they were exceeding the estimates .
give
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A cost of living index based more widely than on wheat, gives the estimates in Table 7.4.
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Q: Could you give us an estimate as to how many people were in the ditch?
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A builder will need to give an estimate for the building work.
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These steps give a higher estimate of X, as follows: 1.
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You should be able to give a rough estimate of how much work each stage of the case is likely to entail.
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Campbell did not give a dollar estimate of the damage in Grand Forks County.
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Current data on which regulatory decisions are based, because they are incomplete, give an imprecise estimate of risk.
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The company declined to give specific estimates .
make
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Quite sophisticated equipment and trained manpower is required to make reliable estimates .
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And with this data they then make an estimate of the current computation on allies or some such thing.
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Other surveys, including those carried out in relatively prosperous areas such as Bristol made similar estimates .
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Ideally, rehabilitation began with doctors evaluating patients and making estimates about the potential recovery of muscle use and strength.
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Since alcohol consumption may have varied with time, efforts were made to obtain estimates based on patient recall and chart review.
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As soon as a primary or secondary copy has been made , the estimate will be updated.
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I try to make a just estimate of myself as I do of everyone else, really.
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Radiometric dating has nearly reached the stage when we can make reasonable estimates at the stage, if not the zone level.
obtain
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It became essential to obtain an accurate estimate of just how many tigers were left.
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If this is the type of thing you had in mind I shall obtain an estimate from him.
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Similarly, we can obtain an estimate for the power spectrum on scales from bulkflow studies.
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Typically organisations require employees to obtain two or three estimates and base their payment on the lowest one.
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Since alcohol consumption may have varied with time, efforts were made to obtain estimates based on patient recall and chart review.
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Since is a constant across countries you should obtain the same estimate of it in this second case.
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It is important to obtain detailed estimates .
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However, if it is felt that the estimate is excessive, an alternative estimate should be obtained .
produce
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The survey has produced the first national estimate of below tolerable standard houses derived from consistently applied methods.
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Taken together, they may be applied jointly to produce a better estimate of the cost of equity capital.
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Each year local authorities produce estimates of likely expenditure for the coming year.
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It is also hoped to produce estimates across the board up to 1962 as a contribution to the complete picture up to the present.
provide
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A star's spectrum thus contains thousands of peaks and valleys, which provide a good estimate of that star's composition.
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Table 3. 2 provides individual estimate for gaseous coal seams with the geometric mean used wherever a wide spread is given.
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We will be pleased to provide you with an estimate of these costs in advance, on request.
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Seismologists can also provide statistical estimates of the longterm seismic hazard.
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With regards to the expected Community Charge arrears at 1 April 1993, I have provided my best estimate .
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Faecal concentrations, however, provide only an indirect estimate of the drug available in the tissues.
revise
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Table 6.13 below shows a revised estimate of daily water use.
PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
a ballpark figure/estimate/amount
a conservative estimate/guess
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Conservative estimates indicate at least 150 people were killed in the military coup.
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All the data published on the effect of gillnets on small cetaceans probably represents a conservative estimate of the number of deaths.
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At a conservative estimate the water was nearly a yard deep, even near the edge.
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At a conservative estimate they had cost considerably more than she had just paid for her night's lodging.
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By even a conservative estimate, about 10,000 Dall's porpoise were harpooned each year from 1976 to 1987.
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I understand that is a conservative estimate.
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Narcotics agents believe a conservative estimate of the number of laboratories is between 200 and 300.
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On a conservative estimate, there are now about 5,000 books or articles that deal with it, at least in part.
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On this basis imitation tasks ought to be regarded as giving a conservative estimate of the child's grammatical knowledge.
an outside figure/estimate etc
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
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According to a government estimate , the number of refugees is at least 18 million.
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According to some estimates, almost two thirds of the city has been destroyed by the earthquake.
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At a rough estimate , staff are recycling less than a quarter of the paper we buy.
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I'm allowing $300, but that's only an estimate .
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I've asked the builders to give us an estimate for fixing the roof.
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Officials said Huntcor's estimate of building costs was about $3 million more than expected.
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The final cost was £2000 higher than the original estimate .
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The paintings have been valued at $3.5 million, which is probably a conservative estimate .
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These are the figures, but they're only a rough estimate .
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This proposal represents a rough estimate of the cost of materials and labor.
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We're predicting a 10% rise in oil prices  and that's a conservative estimate .
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We got two or three estimates on the car.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
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A number of estimates have been made of the effects of regional policy in terms of new jobs created directly and indirectly.
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But outside observers have been sharply scaling back their estimates.
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December sales will put earnings for the fourth quarter and all of fiscal 1996 below Wall Street analysts' estimates.
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Lovech was open from 1959 until April 1962 and interned 12,035, people according to official estimates.
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Q: Could you give us an estimate as to how many people were in the ditch?
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This leads immediately to an estimate of about 360,000 heavily employed trainers needed in addition to school, college and tertiary education staff.
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This was done by giving subjects a maximum number of accidents which their estimates could not exceed.
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With estimates as high as $ 200 billion, this is a very important question.
II. verb
COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS
■ NOUN
analyst
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Some analysts have estimated the potential investment at more than $ 100 billion by companies with their sights set on productionsharing deals.
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Demand has been heavy and analysts estimated that Ford makes $ 10, 000 on each Expedition it sells.
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The company posted sales of $ 57million for 1994, and analysts estimate similar sales for 1995.
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Cavallari, the Adventis analyst , estimates that Napster accounts for 3 percent of all Internet traffic.
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That boosted the reported payroll increase by approximately 75, 000, some analysts estimated .
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Wall Street analysts had estimated net income of 41.
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Benefits analysts have estimated that companies now providing health insurance pay, on average, about 10 percent of their payroll.
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The company earned $ 1. 89 a share last quarter, 5 percent higher than analysts estimated .
cost
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Its cost is estimated as £77 million.
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The final costs were an estimated $ 66 million in public and private costs.
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Staff costs have not been estimated .
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There are no cost estimates for implementing the program.
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While the war was still in progress costs had been estimated lower, at between F5,000 million and F7,000 million.
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For four additional options considered, boiler conversion costs are estimated at $ 47 per kilowatt.
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Production will run into November and cost an estimated $ 20 million.
costs
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Financial environmental appraisal is used to estimate the potential costs and benefits of responding to shortfalls highlighted in other audits.
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Estimators working in the construction industry and manufacturing businesses have different methods of and motivations for estimating costs .
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Before proceeding to estimate the costs of corporate crime, one last distinction needs to be made.
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Sierra said of the estimated repair costs .
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Such software offers addons such as modules to estimate quantities, labour costs , and labour schedules.
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The program also provides recipes, a shopping list, estimated meal costs and a nutritional analysis of the recipes.
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This project will estimate the benefits and costs of wildlife habitats and compare the results using different valuation techniques.
department
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The Department of Energy estimates future NO2 emissions at up to 2.1 million tonnes by 2000.
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The fire department estimates that damage at 50 Congress St. is about $ 500, 000, Caron said.
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The Department of Energy estimates that 10 percent of our electricity could come from hot dry rock in 125 years' time.
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The Commerce Department estimates that figure will rise to $ 45. 8 billion by 2000.
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The Recreation and Park Department recently estimated 120 people camped in the park despite steppedup police enforcement of anticamping laws.
earnings
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Co. analyst Joseph LaManna slashed his 1995 earnings estimate to 73 cents a share from 95 cents.
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Computer and semiconductor stocks slid as three brokerage firms downgraded earnings estimates for Dell Computer.
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The consensus earnings estimate from analysts surveyed by First Call was $ 1. 14 a share, excluding the charges.
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Co. slashed its 1996 earnings estimate to $ 1. 00 a share from $ 1. 40.
loss
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Even with such a drastic cut, we estimated our losses for the first year as being in the region of £148,000.
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Gary Locke estimated losses totaling billions of dollars, as damage reports of highways, homes and businesses continued to trickle in.
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Extrapolating his results to the entire Nature Reserve, Onyeanusi estimated that the actual loss of biomass was low.
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Sales are down 10 percent this year, resulting in an estimated loss of $ 75 million for 1995.
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Mr Mayo estimates that loan loss reserves will have to be increased by a third, assuming an economic soft landing.
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He also estimates that the loss of revenue to schools over four years would be $ 1 billion.
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Now London was a glorious bust and overdue for consolidation, at an estimated loss of a hundred million dollars.
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One lawmaker estimated actual losses at $ 100 million.
number
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South Ossetia's nationalist fighters were estimated to number 3,000, although they had no united command structure.
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These weapons left over from wars and civil conflicts in 60 countries are estimated to number 100 million.
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For accident estimates this is as would be expected since subjects were specifically estimating the total number .
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Unfortunately, there is as yet no basis for estimating their total number or total mass.
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Guiraudios estimated that the number of Minitel terminals installed will reach 8m to 9m within the next four to five years.
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By estimating the expected number of each chromosome and comparing it with the observed number, any significant departures can be recorded.
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Today, he estimates , the number of collectors has dropped to about 50.
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Since then, the Amani Trust estimates that twice that number have been killed.
official
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Navy officials estimated that having one 911 emergency center for the San Diego bases will save $ 4. 4 million.
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But officials have estimated that at least 20 million pounds were brought into the United States illegally just last year.
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Parking and Traffic officials estimate the replacement project would take two years.
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Earlier, Democratic officials had estimated that there were several dozen.
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Federal officials estimate that the timber salvaged from Southeastern forests damaged by Opal will generate about $ 10 million.
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Utility officials estimated that 17,000 customers in the Seattle area were without power.
people
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Until recently, lower military officials had taken the blame for the estimated 3,000 people who were murdered or went missing.
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Earthquake and fires level San Francisco, killing an estimated 700 people .
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Thousands of slumdwellers were killed, and an estimated 100,000 people were made homeless.
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An estimated 5, 000 people are currently active as music therapists.
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An estimated 150,000 people crossed when the bridge opened last Saturday15 times the number expected.
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In all, an estimated 100, 000 people in San Diego work in telecommunicationsrelated firms.
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An estimated 300,000 people were killed.
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An estimated 2, 500 people have survived crashes because their cars were equipped with air bags.
population
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The commission estimates the population on the basis of the electoral register  but is working with the artificially low 1991 registers.
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State biologists estimate its statewide population at 4, 000 to 6, 000, but exact figures are not known.
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When small samples are used to estimate population standard deviations, the results are biased in the direction of underestimation.
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Some historians have estimated a slave population in eighthcentury Sussex of almost twenty thousand.
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Two years later it was estimated that the cod population amounted to no more than 1700 tonnes.
rate
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The firm's estimated successful assignment completion rate of 80% compares well with other leading firms.
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In 1860 John Phillips proposed 96m years, based on estimated rates of erosion and sedimentation.
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Unfortunately we are hardly yet in a position to estimate these rates in terms of years.
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I can be used to graphically estimate the rate of gas generation.
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Table 4 shows the proportion of individuals who have estimated hazard rates and reservation wages which fall with duration.
report
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The report estimates that about 234,000 shells have been imported since 1981.
▪
Sources said the report estimates that the Prop.
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Senate report in 1991 estimated Cheng's net worth at more than $ 30 million.
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A new report released yesterday now estimates the bill at $ 232. 02 million.
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Recent news reports have estimated that 150 remain.
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The report estimated firstyear sales between 202, 000 and 236, 000 units.
sale
▪
Calloway estimated the sales potential of such a book at one million copies worldwide.
▪
Analysts estimate sales could reach $ 300 million a year once regulatory hurdles are cleared and full marketing gets under way.
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PelFreez estimates that rabbit sales have climbed a steady 10 to 20 percent over the past few years.
▪
The company posted sales of $ 57million for 1994, and analysts estimate similar sales for 1995.
▪
The report estimated firstyear sales between 202, 000 and 236, 000 units.
▪
Analysts estimate similar sales for 1995.
value
▪
By calculating A, B and C it is possible to estimate the value which experiments should find.
▪
Most items sold for amounts within a few hundred dollars of the estimated value .
▪
In this chapter, we shall examine the nature of these two concepts and estimate their value for teachers.
▪
Jackson estimated the total potential value of these business opportunities at $ 200 million.
▪
Is this a record and by what percentage would you estimate it increases the value of my dwelling?
▪
The Independent Sector, which commissioned the poll, estimated the dollar value of their time $ 170 billion.
▪
With private companies, Datastream has estimated the value of the shareholdings in line with prevailing stock market values.
▪
The World Bank estimates that the value of this trade will be twenty times greater by 2005 than it was in 1994.
EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES
▪
Analysts estimate the business earned about $135 million last year.
▪
At that point, the public sector deficit was estimated to be around £45 billion.
▪
Can you estimate how much fabric you will need for the curtains?
▪
His personal fortune is estimated at £150 million.
▪
Industry sources estimate the value of the ranch at $7 million.
▪
Our staff will help you estimate how much fabric you will require.
▪
Police estimate that over 10,000 people took part in the demonstration.
▪
The committee did not estimate how much such a program would cost.
▪
The mechanic estimated the cost of repairs at $350.
▪
The police department estimates that the number of violent crimes will increase this year by about 15%.
EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS
▪
Analysts estimate sales could reach $ 300 million a year once regulatory hurdles are cleared and full marketing gets under way.
▪
As much as £750,000 extra in investment from Manchester and other northern councils was estimated to be available if the paper moved.
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At moderate speeds, Wade estimated, the toppedoff tanks gave him a twohundredmile cruising range.
▪
He estimates that between 35 41 percent of all useful land is affected by erosion.
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Lambert said the state has estimated that 75, 000 Texas families are educating their children at home.
▪
The real amount at risk is perhaps only 1 percent to 1. 5 percent of the notional figure, bankers estimate .
▪
Ultimately biliary cirrhosis results and the median survival has been estimated to be 12 years.
▪
Up to 60, 000 temporary jobs are expected to pump an estimated $ 2 billion in wages into the local economy.
Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary. Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5. 2012