Meaning of INDIRECT in English



a direct/indirect cause

Government policies are the direct cause of the problems facing the economy.

a direct/indirect influence

The Cubist painters had a direct influence on his work.

The federal government has an indirect influence on investment through its control of bank credits.

an indirect result

Some job losses were the indirect result of cheap imports.

an indirect tax (= a tax on things you buy )

The effect of indirect taxes is to raise the prices of goods.

indirect cost

indirect discourse

indirect object

indirect speech

indirect tax

indirect taxation (= tax on things you buy )




Only a little more indirect is the effect of the same cuckoo genes on the behaviour of the besotted host.

Subsequent interviews with key executives become more indirect but still useful.

The rationale for judicial intervention on the Y level is more indirect .

A more indirect and subtle consequence for reliability may be the effect of liberalization on the technological configuration of the system.

Sometimes this is clearly reflected in the work of art produced, sometimes the connection is more indirect .



An indirect channel utilises intermediaries or middlemen, such as wholesalers. 25.

Fifty percent of Sun's business comes from indirect channels and this will remain so in future, said Thompson.

It sells entirely through indirect channels .

CLARiiON will not use Data General's own sales force to market the products, only indirect channels .

Channel C represents one of the shorter indirect channels, where the retailer is omitted.

Channel D is another version of a shorter, indirect channel.


Nevertheless, it is probable that ownership does contain within it the potential for direct and indirect control .

Until recently, most governments have exercised either direct or indirect control over national telecommunications as well as international links.

A system of indirect control and accountability is thereby established over the directors as those responsible for the management of the company.

These all illustrate the general problem of indirect control .

Alternatively, where relevant, any of the indirect controls mentioned in Chapter 5 may be relied upon.


These included indirect costs such as losses incurred by the state export credit guarantee agency Coface.

I.. Estimate your expenditures for the first year of your business on a monthly basis: a. Total your indirect costs .

Give examples of expenditure that would be classified, in a manufacturing organization, as direct cost and indirect costs .

The annual tab for direct medical liability costs is about $ 7 billion, but indirect costs are much greater.

The costing of indirect costs or overheads is discussed in detail in Chapter 11.

In addition, there are indirect costs that must be considered.

There is a range of hidden or indirect costs .

There may of course also be hidden or indirect costs involved in training.


It did not outlaw indirect discrimination and indeed the concept of indirect discrimination did not appear in the legislation.

The second type of discrimination , indirect discrimination, is to deal with the more hidden forms of bias.

They are what is meant by indirect discrimination .

While schools and housing were required to tackle indirect discrimination , Whitehall was looking after its own.


Direct and indirect effects Multiple causality means that two or more causes tend to work together to produce an effect.

Its actions on various organs are the result of a combination of both direct and indirect effects .

In contrast to the redistributive capital tax considered in Section 8-3, the indirect effects reinforce the transfer.

Just as Bill Kestell noted earlier concerning tracks, the indirect effect of booby traps on infantry movement was serious.

But the indirect effects may be more profound.

It may carry out its views of public policy whatever indirect effect they may have upon the activities of the states.

Though we found no direct effects on pay, holding other things equal, we found indirect effects of motherhood on pay.

Later we will argue that some indirect effects occur due to cross-level interactions with chaotic population dynamics.


This would act as a public forum to discuss and recommend improvements to the controversial Tinkhundla system of indirect elections .

A further 30 seats were reserved for women, to be filled by indirect election by the Jatiya Sangsad.


Table 3.3 shows this indirect employment creation classified by the product category of the initial input.

The direct and indirect employment incomes generated will be used to purchase goods and services.


Nevertheless, the Lord Chancellor's Advisory Committee was convinced by the indirect evidence that there was such a drift.

Moreover, language change offers important indirect evidence about the nature of human language namely, that it is rule-governed.

Decisions about its value are therefore based on indirect evidence .

The added price of inconvenience is hard to measure and must be inferred from indirect evidence .

They do not in themselves betoken infection, although they can be taken as indirect evidence of infection in many cases.

They were designed principally to search for direct and indirect evidence of life on the Martian surface.

The findings presented here can provide only indirect evidence about any possible adverse effect of cimetidine on motor neurone disease.

The first indirect evidence for a falling population is the movement of wage rates.


Because such consequences are hard to predict, some Republicans argue that indirect government is worse than direct meddling.

The university research covers fundamental and applied research in various disciplines and is heavily dependent on direct and indirect government funding.

Taken together these are a significant help and in effect constitute an indirect government subsidy.


Only 14 out of 105 Crohn's disease patients showed perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody reactivity by indirect immunofluorescence assay.

In contrast, sera from all patients suffering from primary sclerosing cholangitis show a bright 3+ staining in the indirect immunofluorescence assay.

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was measured in 31 patients by indirect immunofluorescence .


In other countries considerable indirect influence is apparent, particularly in teacher education programmes.

To understand it, it is necessary to make a distinction be-tween the direct and indirect influence religion has on reproductive behavior.

But it was perhaps their indirect influence which, ultimately, was more significant.


All these provide indirect means of converting solar energy to forms of energy which are useful to us.

But other details, some of the most interesting, can not be confirmed by such indirect means .

The feistier sort of Republican is as hostile to big government by indirect means as to the direct variety.


Altering banks' liquidity or the rate of interest are indirect methods of controlling spending.

Hubble was forced, therefore, to use indirect methods to measure the distances.

However, in practice so far most organisations have selected the indirect method .

Different types of organisation for international selling were considered, including agents, distributors, licensing and export houses under indirect methods .

The analysis of trends over time offers another indirect method of considering age and cohort related effects upon health.

Dissatisfaction with this highly indirect method of attempting to secure a modus must have been considerable.

We must therefore resort to more indirect methods , such as the variation with time of copper-alloy composition or technology of production.

The Matiba faction demanded a direct secret ballot of all party members while Odinga insisted on an indirect method .


We have the subject - she, the object - the hammer, and the indirect object - the nail.

The nail is an indirect object because it is related to the verb through the preposition - on.


It was believed that the accident happened as an indirect result of heavy rain and snow storms in the city.

Their plight is an indirect result of the closure programme.

Some young people have died as a direct or indirect result of sniffing glue or other solvents.


The main reason for the change is the rise in indirect taxes such as valued added tax which affect the poor disproportionately.

For these reasons, indirect taxes are usually regarded as a more flexible instrument of macroeconomic policy.

However, others suggest that consumers are well aware of the impact of indirect taxes on the price level.

Although indirect taxes as a whole are regressive, there is some variation between different types of indirect tax.

In other words, the income and substitution effects we considered above apply to higher indirect taxes as well as to higher direct taxes.

Direct and indirect taxes: is it better to tax incomes or goods?

Their optimistic figure conveniently overlooked, for example, indirect taxes , such as those on petrol and drink.

Indirect taxes are, as a group, regressive, though this is not the case for all indirect taxes.


For example, the Long-term programme of Economic Stabilization recommended that there should be a shift away from indirect taxation towards direct taxation.

For individuals, the costs of maintaining a safe environment are, however, by no means all in the category of indirect taxation .

Sales taxes are another form of indirect taxation popular in the South.

As for indirect taxation , estimated Engel curves relate the expenditure of groups of households on taxed goods to total expenditure.

The recent shift towards indirect taxation would have lowered even further the position of this country in the comparative scene.

The government's budget was strengthened by increased customs revenue and more particularly by a spectacular rise in indirect taxation .

Comprehensive statutes deal with the direct and indirect taxation of individuals and companies.

Radical cuts to income tax plus large increases in national insurance and indirect taxation have made the tax system far more regressive.


There are two indirect ways of validating these estimates.

The question of who should receive higher education was an indirect way of asking what higher education was for.

But Derrida's subtle analyses show that logocentrism tends to manifest itself in extremely indirect ways .

Implication is an indirect way of conveying one's own meaning; inference is a process of discovering a fact outside oneself.

Some of them have been used as an indirect way of seeing the file by parents denied access for themselves.

In one indirect way , however, the new rate-of-return rules will affect the soon-to-be-privatised water and electricity industries.

The procedure can thus be viewed as being an indirect way of assessing the effects of habituation training.


There are two indirect ways of validating these estimates.

But Derrida's subtle analyses show that logocentrism tends to manifest itself in extremely indirect ways .


indirect lighting

George's comments were an indirect way of blaming me for the situation.

Since he left his wife Rick has only had indirect contact with his children.

The cab driver obviously took the indirect route to the hotel.


An equivalent definition of indirect race discrimination occurs in the Race Relations Act 1976.

Artificial light suits it very well, but in indirect sunlight it sometimes becomes pale.

Avoid negative words that leave writing vague and indirect .

Her language is not indirect at all.

Includes both open-market and private transactions involving direct and indirect holdings.

Measures are developed for indirect areas.

Sales taxes are another form of indirect taxation popular in the South.

This result is the first, albeit indirect , observation of gravitational radiation.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.