Meaning of WRITTEN in English



a written agreement

There is usually a written agreement between the borrower and the bank.

a written apology

The police sent a written apology to the family.

a written confession

A police interview may lead to a written confession.

a written constitution

A written consitution forms the fundamental law of the nation.

a written contract

All employees should have a written contract.

a written exam

There is a written exam at the end of the course.

a written inquiry

I submitted a written inquiry to the local council.

a written record

Where written records do survive, they are incomplete.

a written report

Mr Thomas asked me to send him a written report.

a written request

If you wish to take you child on holiday during the school term, you must make a formal written request.

a written statement

One neighbour said in a written statement that she often heard a baby ‘crying for help’.

a written test

Selection was based on written tests in English and mathematics.

a written/oral examination

For French, there is an oral and a written examination.

official/written/formal notification

We received official notification that Harry was missing.

sth is written all over sb’s face (= their feelings can be seen very clearly in their expression )

You’re jealous – it’s written all over your face!

written consent

If you are under 18, you need your parents’ written consent to get married.

written instructions

Each member of the team was issued with written instructions.

written permission

Doctors need written permission from the patient before they can operate.


be written up

It got a lot of airplay from John Peel, and was written up extensively by the music press.

Parliamentary proceedings are written up and published in the daily Hansard.

Previously Venturous had been a noteworthy arrival to be written up in the local press.

Results of investigations and the like will need to be written up.

Several points were discussed; these will be written up more fully in the minutes.

The incident was written up in the local newspaper.

The research will be written up as it proceeds, and will be published in 1986.

Their pecuniary interests were probably greater than their antiquarian ones, and their errors were written up by the historian.

be written/set/cast in tablets of stone

have sth written all over it

have sth/be written all over your face

not worth the paper it is written on/printed on

sth is written in the stars

II. adjective




As long as proper written accounts are maintained, everyone can be paid back when the band begins to make money.

The first written account dates from 1883.

Doak now has over 30 written accounts of dolphins living in close proximity to humans.


These criteria must be included in the written agreement .

Your intruder alarm must not be altered or replaced without our prior written agreement . 6.

Their services were modest, and collective written agreements with employers remained exceptional.

The plan should form the basis of a written agreement with those having parental responsibility for the child.

When written agreement is received from the client fax the draft advertisement to the agency.

It is not essential to have a written agreement .

In such cases a written agreement can strengthen your case and perhaps save you some money.


That was confirmed in a written answer from the Minister of State for the Armed Forces.

The full breakdown of the figures was given in a parliamentary written answer on 3 December.

In addition, questions may be put down for written answer .

As Mr. Hurd pointed out in his written answer , there is no equivalent determinate sentence for murder.

Written questions receive written answers published in the Reports of Parliamentary Debates.

Gather in all the written answers from the trainees.

One other initiative was announced in a written answer to me only today, so it is topical and relevant.


A written apology was received from a boy who had accidentally, while playing badminton, caused damage to a picture.

Blackburn sent a written apology to the umpire in question and has since apologised personally to him.


Ninth-century users had their own criteria of utility, and they preferred to use oral alongside written communications in most contexts.

Make sure that the written communication can be clearly seen. 1.

In the case of written communication , the personal type is one-to-one, as represented by letters.

Do the parents have problems with written communications from school?

Real teachers with real kids have to take care with written communication .


Yes, I have changed insurance companies and, yes, I have asked for written confirmation of cover.

Your written confirmation includes an invoice for the balance due.

We will send written confirmation of your booking as quickly as possible.

Confirm delivery date and make sure you send written confirmation of all the details.

If in any doubt, we should ask the client for written confirmation of our understanding of the criteria.


Each patient provided written consent after being fully informed about the study and the freedom to withdraw.

The study was approved by the institutional review board of the Mayo Clinic and all patients gave written consent .

Informed written consent was obtained before the study.

Alternatively the contractor may sub-let the work to a domestic sub-contractor with the written consent of the architect.

All subjects gave fully informed written consent .

In the case of non-private customers, prior written notification is sometimes acceptable in place of the customer's written consent .

The study was approved by the Western Infirmary ethics committee and each patient gave informed written consent .


Excluding the Contact group, each of the three centres had user committees with written constitutions .

It brought forth the age of written constitutions and codified basic rights.

One has led to the written constitution , but it has also led to revolution and at times tyranny.

It is conceived as the first step towards a written constitution for the United Kingdom.

Adopt a written constitution , of which the Bill of Rights will form the centrepiece.

Indeed, it goes beyond that, so far as is necessary to promote a written constitution based on federal principles.

Take a written constitution and a Bill of Rights.


At one extreme one may find a written contract containing many detailed clauses setting out the terms of the contract.

Written contracts of employment A written contract of employment should seek to cover all possible material points.

In the case of a written contract the sale will be by sample only if that is included in the writing.

Do you need to provide a written contract for them - and what should go in it?

The whole 45-year partnership was based on a handshake - no written contract at all.

And, of course, you had no written contract .

It was accepted by the Court of Appeal that the letter had to be construed as part of the written contract .

If the written contract specifies conditions of weight, measurement and the like, those conditions must be complied with.


Boulestin was impatient of written detail .

He claimed it often took three weeks for written details to arrive on his desk.

Full written details of this offer are available on request from any office of Birmingham Midshires Property Services.

Full written details can be made available on request.

We put it in writing, sending written details up the hierarchy in case we have to prove we have fulfilled our role.

Get written details of all fees involved - valuation, land registry and the cost of indemnity.


Sometimes, particularly in some types of written discourse , we have only a very general or limited knowledge.

Psychology is predominantly a written discourse , conducted through the publication of books and papers.

This is a type which occurs throughout written discourse .

After all, written discourse is divided into paragraphs whose boundaries are marked by indentations.

Topic-shifts in written discourse then could be identified with the beginning of each new paragraph.

Verb-phrase anaphora occurs when a verb-phrase depends for its interpretation on another verb-phrase occurring earlier in the spoken or written discourse .

Conversely, there are times when readers do have rights to affect written discourse .


Industrial society has multiplied not only written documents , but artifacts of all kinds.

One factor inhibiting the spread of written documents had been fear of forgery.

This would find expression in a written document or documents.

As the uniqueness of the written document disappeared, so the status of the file was lowered.

The degree of formality ranged from elaborate and schematic written documents to a simple mental rehearsal of what would happen next.

Some like the apparent safety of the carefully crafted written document .

They retained and emphasised, instead, the written documents deliberately produced by a centralised Chancery and other Norman offices and institutions.

Acceptance can be signified not only by a written document , but also by conduct.


This may be in the form of a report containing written evidence , diagrams or graphs as appropriate.

Sonia Jackson, who contributes this chapter, was one of those who gave written evidence to the Committee.

There is a great deal of written evidence available on the subject for those who care to take a deeper look.

The Arbitrators may call any relevant person to give evidence , or may ask for further written evidence.

This is a matter upon which no contemporary written evidence survives, and has been much disputed.

The committee is now inviting written evidence by the end of September from interested organisations and individuals.


Knowing how to use your head is not a subject you can study for a written exam .

The candidates faced hours of written exams , manoeuvres and then a gruelling road test through Milton Keynes.

The majority of marks will come from a written exam .

They attacked the internal assessments, which teachers have normally defended as superior to the traditional written exams .

The award will be based on continual assessments of skills and competence so staff will not have to sit any written exams .

The course is assessed by two extended essays, four essays and a written exam .


Assessment is by written examination and dissertation.

The degree is awarded on the basis of written examinations and/or the presentation of a satisfactory thesis.

Diplomas are awarded to candidates who reach a satisfactory standard in written examinations following nine months of coursework.

Assessment: Each module is examined by a 90-minute written examination at the end of April.

The written examinations would provide the opportunity for assessing whether the student had acquired a sufficiently analytical approach to the subject.

Coursework and project assessment, written examinations and dissertation.


It can not be recorded in written form elsewhere, however; the understanding is intuitive.

Their written forms , like autobiographies, biographies, and interviews, make up a large part of contemporary western feminist literature.

The Hawaiian tongue was given a written form for the express purpose of translating the Bible.

Most utterances, they claim, serve both functions but written forms facilitate the differentiation and separation of the functions.

It is the fact of being the written form which establishes it as the standard.

They are published in authoritative, written form and, as acts of Parliament, are interpreted by the courts.

Identify your problem area and define your objectives briefly and coherently in written form . 4.

It also treats in detail the pronunciation, written forms , inflexions, constructions, and derivation of each word.


The survey also found that a quarter of foster parents had received no written information on the Act.

The families received no explanations, and received no written information regarding the procedures or the law.

There were several subsequent contacts, with Pons seeking written information about the Brigham Young University neutron spectrometer.

Often a telephone call to the editor of a specialist publication and then some follow-up, specially written information is far better.

One can be confident that those responsible for such productions sometimes had access to valuable oral and written information which no longer survives.


The adjutant directed him to the hospital next door, giving him written instructions on how to find the ward.

Inefficiency obviously arises because of the necessity to reduce everything to written instructions .

Problems may arise with obtaining written instructions for the lace carriage and motif cams.

Students are therefore required to comply with all verbal or written instructions on safety given to them by staff.

A diagram is easier to follow than written instructions .

On 26 October 1856 Alexander gave written instructions to Nazimov to collect the ideas of the north-western gentry more systematically.

For this intarsia collar, follow the written instructions at the same time as following the intarsia chart.

But written instructions in the blank spaces of books themselves do survive and so do tiny marginal thumbnail sketches to indicate subjects.


Attainment target 3: A growing ability to construct and convey meaning in written language matching style to audience and purpose.

By contrast, written language found in books has no such contextual support.

Yet when written language is imperfectly identified and not fully understood it will tend to seem opaque in any case.

As long as they get some exposure to written language , most learners will acquire at least a modicum of literacy.

The former branch of this first dichotomy takes written language at once into a mode which speakers seldom use.

For written language this involves information about how letters combine to form words, or orthography.


Your case may be strengthened by preparing written material to back up what you say.

This varied from the offer of consultancy Price Waterhouse to written materials , and link people.

Text type typefaces used for the main text of written material .

The researchers will read and analyse the written material and will follow up some responses with face-to-face interviews.

You may have access to any written material directly concerning you, held within the Home.

Staff do not, either verbally or in their written material , give more prominence to one establishment than others.

You will, of course, study all the written material relating to your work.

Both spoken and written material were taken into consideration.


He glanced briefly at the written note , put it aside and went on with the meeting.

Already many district nurses and health visitors record details of their work on hand held terminals, rather than in written notes .

The B flat bass saxophone sounds two octaves and a tone below the written note .

The horn in C sounded an octave lower than the written note .

Memorise the locations where you spot the crowds or better still, make a few written notes .

A written note if the message is at all complicated.


Resignation Any member may resign by giving written notice to the council, accompanied by his certificate of membership.

A councillor may give written notice to his council that he wishes to receive a financial loss allowance instead of an attendance allowance.

In any case, the Tribunal will give written notice of its decision to both parties within 28 days of the meeting.

He may revert to an attendance allowance by further written notice .

All classes of objectors must lodge and intimate a written notice of objection.

We remind you that failure to supply a written notice immediately is an offence.

Notice to quit Landlords are normally required to give twenty-eight days' written notice to quit.

If renting, confirm written notice with landlord.


In the case of non-private customers, prior written notification is sometimes acceptable in place of the customer's written consent.

As with all advice to clients, written notification must follow the spoken word.


In fact, he says he needs written permission a week in advance before delivery lorries can get to his home.

Since only one card was available it was agreed that others could obtain goods with written permission from the holder. 3.

We will also pay any expenses you have our written permission to claim.

He said that written permission would still be required for marches.

All Autocar &038; Motor test results are subject to world copyright and may not be reproduced without the editor's written permission .

Dawn's parents had to give their written permission for the transfer, which added to their anxieties about the situation.

If a girl had two parents still at home, she had to get written permission from both of them before performing.


He referred to the new written policy and circulated four letters from parents objecting to the proposed closure.

Given both these features, written policies are still likely to remain pious statements of intent unless supported by financial mechanisms.


Ostensibly, both oral and written questions seek information.

This remains very largely the case so far as written questions are concerned.

They will discuss how they designed their written questions and semi-structured interviews.

It was mentioned in the preface that a number of written questions were put to academics as part of this study.

Invited guests were asked to submit written questions in advance.


It has been suggested by one author that, for instance, written records of staff training should be kept.

Their attitudes to written records can seem cavalier, and contradictory.

Nigel Cramer got a first telephone report from Bedford in the mid-morning, long before the written record arrived.

This visit will also serve as an introduction to written records and their importance for history.

Illiterates leave no written record of their views, but they nevertheless reflect and act accordingly.

Note-taking encourages active learning and provides you with some written record of what you've been studying.

It creates a written record which your debtor can not deny receiving.

In committing the count's rights to written record , Henry's clerks had conferred on them new authority.


The Minister also told me in a written reply about the education and social opportunities that were available to young offenders.

You will receive a written reply from the officer once your complaint has been looked into.


Thomas asked Meagher to send him a written report .

Sharing can be through meetings and conferences, but a written report is obviously more easily accessible to others.

There is always the problem of maintaining an encouraging tone to written reports .

They will receive written reports annually and their children's schools will be inspected every four years.

This will usually involve summarising the main points, findings and conclusions of the written report .

As a public service, schools should provide each year a written report on each child's progress.

Whatever the type of residency it is interesting and helpful to evaluate your experience whether through an exhibition or a written report .


Appeals can be by way of a hearing or by written representation .

The appeal will be determined by way of written representations , which must be made by May 1st.

Appeals can be decided either through a public inquiry or by written representations .

The other parties then have two days after service to file written representations at court.

It may also invite all or any of the parties to make written representations before the hearing.


Otherwise a written request for leave, giving reasons, must be filed at court and served on the parties.

In fact Kosky personally handed me the written request .

This branch in its turn will not cooperate until he can produce a written request from you ....


All video and audio exercises require an oral or written response , and opportunity for grammar and vocabulary practice.

The analysis stage is invariably carried out on the basis of written responses to a questionnaire.


This close similarity indicates a second written source .

Unlike structured databases, Viewdata is useful for a great variety of written source materials.

Using documents as a basis for class activities Many class activities can arise from work focused around original written sources .

A written source , a visual source and a statistical source is one fruitful combination.

The written sources are few, and offer a selective view of this age.

There are no contemporary Scandinavian written sources apart from rune stones.

Various early works are accorded particular standing by virtue of the absence of statutes or other written sources covering a particular area.


The hearing was adjourned to allow all parties to submit written statements by April 24.

Such a right instilled trust in the written statements by carriers and encouraged consignees to deal with distant and unknown sellers.

The appeal will be dealt with by an exchange of written statements .

Difficult concepts can be illustrated on a hand-out as diagrams or graphs, backed up by short, clear, written statements .

Further details were set out in the written statement published on 13 November.

The initial approach should be made informally; thereafter you may submit a written statement of your grievance.

Ideally the combined written statement and budget estimate should stand as the Development or Corporate Plan of the governing body.

They had given him one written statement .


The Committee has made its written submissions and will be making oral representations on this topic.

At Westport 25 members of the public spoke and several written submissions were handed in including one from Archbishop Cassidy of Tuam.

The Secretary of State called for written submissions from the parties involved.

The appeal will be decided by written submissions .


The results are from written tests unless otherwise stated.

Thus, although these pupils generally have difficulty with reading, this does not mean that written tests should be ruled out.

The written test success rates are given in the table below.

In another written test on tabular data one set of questions was about a calendar which was provided.

Identification of 3-D shapes from their 2-D representation was the subject of two groups of items in written tests .

Extended Response Commonly known as an essay, this form of assessment is the most open-ended type of written test .

He conducted a four-day pedestrian awareness course which included classroom work, practical experience outside the school and a written test .

This item was in a written test and also in a mental test.


There is a clearly written text with an illustrated chronology of the country's history taking it up to 1992.

The incorporation of hand written text placed on top of the photographs referenced women's un acknowledged areas of writing, diaries and letters.

Indeed, the conditions of Elizabethan and later Stuart regulation of drama required a written text .

The approach is conceptual and skills-based, with extensive use of audio-visual resources, fieldwork and written texts .

These variations can include the use of signs and diagrams to replace, or partly replace, written text .


This procedure includes an oral and/or written warning , suspension or summary dismissal.

A further complaint may lead to a written warning , which will sometimes be described as final.

The customer must be given the written warning .

If you are given a written warning , you may be asked to sign a copy to acknowledge receipt.

Technically, the offence merited a written warning that could lead to a sacking.


If you want your hand written words of wisdom saved for posterity use quality paper and permanent ink.

Speech is not an attempt to pronounce written words .

One item which is becoming more significant is powers of communication - both spoken and written word .

After all, electronic communications has many similarities to the oral technologies which pre-dated the written word .

In fact, the 1959 Act has worked to secure a very large measure of freedom in Britain for the written word .

The written word did not however really help me train Holmes.

The medium of transmission is human influence of various kinds, the spoken and written word , personal example and so on.

What he experienced through his hands made more sense to him than written words of instruction.


Perhaps they've never been taught to write or how to handle criticism of their written work .

The maximum permitted enrolment was thirty-two students and written work was an explicit expectation.

Such pupils should be enabled to produce their written work on a word processor or concept keyboard.

The spin-offs in written work are considerable.

The tutorial provides the opportunity to develop themes or discuss problems usually on the basis of written work .

The full-colour illustrations will motivate children's interest and provide an excellent springboard for both oral and written work .

Although encouraged, written work by students was not a formal requirement.

Planning and producing written work , quoting sources, checking: these too are often daunting tasks for the student.


Don't sign any written agreement until you have read every word of the contract.

She was illiterate, and could not understand the written details on the insurance form.

Some expressions are more common in spoken English than in written English.


Attainment target 3: A growing ability to construct and convey meaning in written language matching style to audience and purpose.

However you organise your checking routine, it is crucial to present written work which has been checked over for spelling.

In other subjects too they may need written and other materials with simplified language demands but perhaps higher demands in other respects.

One factor inhibiting the spread of written documents had been fear of forgery.

One has led to the written constitution, but it has also led to revolution and at times tyranny.

The written test success rates are given in the table below.

We put it in writing, sending written details up the hierarchy in case we have to prove we have fulfilled our role.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.