Meaning of HARD in English

HARD

I. adjective

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a cold/hard heart (= used about someone who does not feel sympathy for other people )

It takes a hard heart not to be moved by these images of suffering.

a difficult/hard/tough decision

In the end I took the difficult decision to retire early.

a dull/hard/heavy thud

There was a dull thud as the box hit the floor.

a hard chair (= not comfortable )

I sat on a hard chair in the corridor and waited.

a hard day (= difficult and tiring )

Sit down – you look as though you’ve had a hard day.

a hard kick

A hard kick to the knee could cause a lot of damage.

a hard stare (= very steady, with a lot of attention )

As he passed, he gave us a hard stare.

a hard/heavy frost (= a severe frost )

We’ve had three continuous nights of hard frost.

a hard/powerful punch

My stomach took a couple of hard punches.

a hard/soft cover

I never buy books in hard cover – they’re much more expensive.

a hard/soft wood

Oak is a hard wood.

a hard/strong currency (= currency from a country with a strong economy )

They accept American dollars and other hard currencies.

a tough/hard battle

He faces a tough battle to prove his innocence.

be badly/severely/hard hit

The company has been hard hit by the drop in consumer confidence.

be difficult/hard to judge

The economic results of the reforms are difficult to judge.

be hard of hearing (= not be able to hear well )

The subtitling service is intended for people who are hard of hearing.

be hard to bear

The situation was very hard to bear.

be hard/difficult to imagine

It’s hard to imagine the suffering she must have gone through.

be hard/easy/impossible etc to please

She’s hard to please. Everything has to be perfect.

bit...hard

Nina pushed her fist into her mouth and bit down hard .

blowing hard

A cold breeze was blowing hard .

brake sharply/hard (= brake quickly )

He braked sharply to avoid the dog.

breathe heavily/hard (= breathe loudly especially after exercise )

He’d been running and he was breathing hard.

come down hard on

We need to come down hard on young offenders.

cracking down hard

The police are cracking down hard on violent crime.

difficult/hard

Some of the questions in the last section were very difficult.

difficult/hard/easy etc to guess

It’s hard to guess his age because he dyes his hair.

difficult/hard/impossible etc to credit

We found his statement hard to credit.

easy/difficult/hard etc to follow

The plot is a little difficult to follow.

find it hard/easy/difficult etc (to do sth)

Hyperactive children find it difficult to concentrate.

firm/soft/hard etc mattress

an old, lumpy mattress

hard bargaining

The 4% pay raise was the result of some hard bargaining .

hard by

in a house hard by the city gate

hard cash

hard cheese

Use a hard cheese such as Cheddar for grating.

hard copy

hard core

the hard core of the Communist party

hard court

hard currency

hard disk

hard drive

hard drugs ( also class A drugs British English ) (= strong drugs such as heroin, cocaine etc )

He was in prison for dealing hard drugs.

hard drugs

hard evidence (= very clear evidence which proves that something is true )

They have no hard evidence to support their claim.

hard facts (= information that is definitely true and can be proven )

His theory is supported by hard facts.

hard graft

Our success has been due to sheer hard graft .

hard hat

hard labour

hard muscles (= strong, firm muscles )

the hard muscles of his back and shoulders

hard of hearing

hard porn

hard rock

hard sell

hard shoulder

hard site

hard slog

months of hard slog

hard slog

a long hard slog uphill

hard thinking

Over the next two days a lot of hard thinking went into the campaign.

hard to come by

Jobs were hard to come by .

hard to swallow (= difficult to believe )

I found his story a bit hard to swallow .

hard to take

Liz found his criticisms hard to take .

hard up

I’m a bit hard up at the moment.

hard

It hadn’t rained for weeks and the earth was hard.

hard

The path has a hard surface suitable for wheelchairs and pushchairs.

hard

It’s been very hard work, but I’ve loved every moment of it.

hard (= containing a lot of calcium )

Hard water is formed as rainwater passes down through layers of limestone.

hard

She was trying hard not to show her impatience.

hard (= with a lot of mental effort )

I bet, if you think really hard, you can think of something to do.

hard/difficult to pin down

The flavour was hard to pin down.

hard/difficult to resist

The temptation to follow them was hard to resist.

hard/difficult to stomach

Rob found Cathy’s attitude hard to stomach.

hard/floppy/A etc drive

hard/rough/slow etc going

I’m getting the work done, but it’s slow going.

hard/strenuous/vigorous exercise (= involving a lot of physical effort )

Pregnant women should avoid strenuous exercise.

Hit...hard

Hit the ball as hard as you can.

it is difficult/hard to cope

We were finding it difficult to cope financially.

it is difficult/hard/impossible to exaggerate sth (= used to say that something cannot be made to seem more important etc than it already is )

It is difficult to exaggerate the strength of people’s feelings on this matter.

it is hard/difficult to fault sb/sth

You might not like O'Donnel’s arrogance, but it’s hard to fault what he does on the field.

it is hard/difficult to overestimate sth (= used to emphasize that something is very important )

It is hard to overestimate the effect the war has had on these children.

it rains heavily/hard (= a lot of water comes down )

It was raining heavily when we arrived in New York.

listen carefully/intently/hard etc

The whole class was listening attentively.

Liz stood still and listened hard very carefully .

long and hard (= hard, for a long time, before making a decision )

I thought long and hard about taking the role.

long hard look (= examine very carefully )

This month, take a long hard look at where your money is going.

push...hard

Encourage your kids to try new things, but try not to push them too hard .

pushing hard

He was pushing hard for welfare reform.

severe/hard/harsh (= very cold )

In a hard winter, many birds starve.

stare hard/intently (= very steadily, with a lot of attention )

She stared hard at him for a moment.

swallowed hard

Leo swallowed hard and walked into the room.

take a tough/firm/hard line on sth

The school takes a very tough line on drugs.

the hard/easy part

Deciding what you're going to cook is the easy part.

tough/hard

He said he expected the race to be tough.

try your best/hardest (= make as much effort as possible )

Try your best to block out other distractions.

work...hard

I’m going to have to work really hard to pass these exams.

working hard

The company is working hard to improve its image.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ NOUN

case

Epiphone Sheraton, sunburst, including hard case , £250.

A hard case , he thought.

Of course they will, but in hard cases judges must make controversial judgments of political morality whichever conception of law they hold.

These are, indeed, hard cases to win.

A hard case calls for decision.

Conventionalism fails here as it fails in cross-section, in explaining how particular hard cases like our samples are debated and decided.

Also old but usable Jazz Bass hard case .

Fender Strat, white with hard case , £175.

cash

Intellectuals were called on to transform their knowledge into hard cash .

Luckily, the chatter of cold hard cash later persuaded the state to sell the name to the highest bidder.

John's role was to get together as much hard cash as possible.

Two Model Village awards will not suffice our merchants for cold, hard cash .

Chamois and crystal hunters began to convert their mountain skills into hard cash by becoming mountain guides for the more adventurous tourists.

The social types turned out en masse to cheer on their friends and to put a little hard cash on the line.

For the City has not been prepared to back his business with hard cash .

There was very little hard cash .

copy

The Stand-alone Hard Copy system allows the user to produce, on suitable media, hard copies of online modules.

A hard copy map of their course was spread out over the console before him.

The hard copy volume is deleted from the hard copy directory regardless of whether it has been accepted or rejected.

Note that modules can only be hard copied if they are online and can not be nominated for hard copy individually.

This utility allows you to alter images in such a way as to produce the best possible hard copy from your printer.

These hard copy keywords must be entered as the final keywords in the configuration file.

The full size terminal can store up to 37 Prestel pages in memory for review or printing to hard copy .

Three departments attempt to keep the use of hard copy to a minimum by extensive use of online services.

core

The other kind of move that is ruled out is one that violates the hard core , as we have already mentioned.

There are not, however, too many hard core pumpernickel types left, certainly not enough to support small bakeries.

The hard core of Newtonian physics is comprised of Newton's laws of motion plus his law of gravitational attraction.

I believed the drill instructor was hard core , nose to the grindstone, always screaming and shouting.

The plotters represented the hard core of the right wing.

I would like to add to this that we could totally eradicate the hard core of the crisis by the year 2000.

Order is maintained by the inviolability of the hard core of a programme and by the positive heuristic that accompanies it.

Others are on the run with their families, leaving a hard core to take their guns and guard their property.

currency

They could be purchased with hard currency but not roubles.

Pizza is the hard currency of our relationship with these children.

From Sept. 15 foreigners were forbidden to export scarce consumer goods, unless purchased for hard currency .

No tax is involved in these countries, and holding the plan offshore means you can use hard currency .

Repatriation of profits would be possible by converting roubles into hard currency on the new exchanges.

Trade with other former members of Comecon is to be in hard currency , if it takes place at all.

Would it not continue to need the hard currency and expertise which a westernised Hong Kong attracted?

According to the Treaty, non-signatories would have to pay hard currency for their imports from the new Soviet Union.

day

Next time we'd come prepared for longer, harder days .

Floral print After a hard day in the garden, come in and relax on beautiful tapestry cushions designed by Kaffe Fassett.

And the few shillings earned was more than welcome in those hard days .

A bit of companionship with fellow climbers and walkers is just the job at the end of a hard day .

decision

He made the hard decision to abandon the Old World.

They say it must have been such a hard decision .

But it was a hard decision .

This, too, was a hard decision because Gary Stevens merited prime consideration.

In old age Ramsey looked back and knew that this was the hardest decision of his life.

The officials who are retiring or were defeated had to make hard decisions after the flood.

The hard decisions need to be taken early.

Apart from this, the 1994 budget's main feature is to put off some hard decisions on weapons-procurement.

disk

It tells you which files belonging to which programs are on your hard disk and it can also compress files.

The hard disk drive is fast, too, with its own on-board cache.

A hard disk enables the microcomputer to store vast amounts of information on disk.

Grimmer agents were saying it was a case of an entirely lost hard disk .

So they use a section of that old hard disk to store the overflow.

Some one has suffered a trashed hard disk or corrupted file or lost an important configuration setting.

drive

Is the hard drive from a reputable manufacturer?

It will also move a program from one hard drive to another or from one computer to another.

In the next window, browse to the file's location on your hard drive and select it, then click Next.

The hard drive is slower than the one on the Dell.

This includes the serial and parallel ports, the hard drive , the screen and finally, the whole machine.

The other kind is disk storage, commonly on a hard drive or floppy disk.

It is important to keep your disks in order, especially hard drives which hold lots of information.

A cookie is simply a small data file on your hard drive .

drug

Dealing in drugs , particularly hard drugs, is not an activity condoned by any of the community organisations on the estate.

No topless dancers, no hard drugs , no trial.

Our reporters uncovered a generation who have been sucked into a dark underworld of solvent abuse and hard drugs .

Tobacco and alcohol are far more harmful than the so-called hard drugs , heroin and cocaine.

Is it fair to equate alcohol with hard drugs ?

He accepted that legalisation would not necessarily greatly increase addiction to hard drugs such as cocaine and heroin.

The linking of alcohol and hard drugs confuses health education messages.

She warned that even the first injection of hard drugs can kill.

edge

X100's body will be rounded and sculpted, with soft, flowing lines and no hard edges or chrome highlights.

The demonstrations, meanwhile, began to take on a harder edge in recent weeks.

She remains gutsy throughout presenting a harder edge to previous Ritas I have seen.

He had a hard edge to his voice.

Flats are suitable for larger strokes, holding a good charge of pigment and are good for hard edges .

Her smile broadened, lost its hard edge .

These can be made tighter by running the material over a hard edge to squeeze the coils.

Touched the hard edge of diamonds.

evidence

Developers and investors seek to reduce risk, and a key influence on their thinking will be hard evidence of success.

There is no hard evidence of files spirited away and even if they were, nobody knows whether they contain anything sinister.

This was a pseudo-historical theory for which there was no hard evidence .

The board reported in March that there is little hard evidence about the amount of this new type of fraud.

But, again, the commission found no hard evidence that Mr Wahid had lied or misused the money.

There are surely many answers to this question, not one of which is impeccably established by hard evidence .

At present, there is considerable speculation about developments in the Corridor but little hard evidence .

To what extent is it founded on hard evidence ?

fact

We supply the hard facts so you can do-it-yourself.

The hard fact is that computers are complicated, and always will be.

Cultural differences Cultural differences are often the hardest facts for expatriates to accept.

The time zone changes as we went west further increased our sensation that time was no longer a hard fact .

So what are the hard facts ?

But in the mutable world of the modern organization, major decisions are seldom made solely on the basis of hard facts .

It was a greatly respected and slightly feared publication, dealing in hard fact , abrasive as Maggie herself was abrasive.

Ultimately, the answers lie in the hard fact that racism and sexism remain powerful currents in our national life.

hat

You haven't got hard hats on.

If hydrogen sulfide or some other poisonous gas is detected, Donahue dons an airtight breathing device and a hard hat .

However, cyclists make a good example because they too are starting to wear hard hats .

When no vapors are present, he simply wears the hard hat .

All men on site will be required to wear hard hats and safety boots at all times within the designated areas.

Radio across town were handing out hard hats for a press tour of their nearly completed Beverly Hills facility.

A hard hat can protect you from having a metal spike go through your skull and into your brain.

I had to put my hard hat on and go to work.

hit

Graham Cowdrey kept the runs flowing with a hard hit 88.

Particularly hard hit would be relatives of immigrants legally in the United States.

The number of job offerings was down 11% from the previous year, with studio teaching positions particularly hard hit .

New Jersey and New York will be especially hard hit .

Andy, whose estranged wife Fergie has caused much of the dismay, could be the hardest hit .

Countries not so reliant on oil because of lack of industrial development can be hard hit indirectly.

Among the hardest hit has been Aerospace, which faces a tough time over the next two to three years.

Californians have been particularly hard hit .

labour

And hard labour ... the railway navvies remembered by a rock band.

Charged with obscenity the magistrates gave them six months hard labour each.

Workers who lose their jobs are sent to farm camps, along with bureaucrats doing two weeks' hard labour .

The Vote reported one incident of child assault in Surrey, where a man was sentenced to only four months hard labour .

But the hard labour for criminals which replaced judicial execution was so appalling that it was in effect a living death.

However, an extra month's hard labour made good the loss.

He was given six months' hard labour after he refused on principle to pay the fine.

Theo took a shorter journey-to Wormwood Scrubs, where he did four months' hard labour .

life

He said he'd had a hard life .

He had a hard life on the island.

She married him, had two children in two years and, she says, endured a hard life .

They led a very hard life , always hungry, sometimes without food for several days.

She too is seventy but looks like a thirty-four-year-old who led a very hard life .

Graham had a hard life from childhood.

She knew that Jonnie had had a hard life .

line

Use a cotton bud to blend the colours together, so there are no hard lines .

But regulators are taking a harder line these days.

Scott ignored his insult and continued walking, his face set in hard lines .

I have suffered as a result of this merciless hard line plenty of times myself.

For both sides in this conflict have returned to the hardest of hard lines .

But the Clinton administration is still taking a hard line .

De Gaulle took a hard line towards the strike.

But both sides are taking a hard line .

look

This can only be assessed by examining the meaning of hard look more closely.

He ignored her and threw a hard look at me: I better not tell.

I gave him a hard look .

Clarisa gave her a hard look .

She wanted some one outside Orkney to take a long, hard look at what was happening within the islands.

The hard look that seems wrong on a face so young was suddenly gone.

The next stage is to take a long, hard look at yourself.

The next time you see a personal computer, take a long, hard look .

man

Of course Jeeves would disapprove: but then he is a hard man to please.

He had to be diplomat, psychologist, hard man , soft man, entrepreneur, spiritual leader, general and peacekeeper.

But Cooper is more than a hard man .

In the video Jones is, in the main, observing rather than advocating the ruthless antics of the hard men .

Secondly, the band launched heavy metal hard man Ted Nugent, one of rock's more notable characters.

Unlike everybody else, however, the hard man did not look up the neighbourhood exorcist in Thompson's Local Directory.

It was all pleasantly noisy without any air of aggression, there were no yobs or self-styled hard men among the customers.

Wimbledon's hard man ran across the pitch to point threateningly at Middlesbrough assistant manager John Pickering.

part

The harder parts gave a much more satisfactory finish with clean shiny cutter marks even in the interlocking grain.

In fact, the hardest part is getting the printer out of the box.

The hard part was in the years to come.

The creation of these lunar ephemerides turned out to be the hardest part of the problem.

The hard part is sorting the good memories from the bad.

The hard part would be working it into her schedule.

The hardest part is finding a provider that supports it.

That had been the hard part , immensely hard, getting the permission.

rock

It is very difficult dealing with fractures and dislocations which have happened on fairly hard rock climbs.

Its overhanging walls provide a number of hard rock climbs.

They still play honest hard rock , but now it sounds fresher and has thousands of hard edges.

The harder rocks stand out as ledges, the softer ones form steep slopes.

In an area with such rapid changes in temperature as to erode hard rock into sand, soft shells would not have survived.

Erosion of hard rocks is usually very different.

Differential erosion of the rocks has resulted in the hard rocks being left as peaks separated by deeply eroded valleys and ravines.

shoulder

She wanted to give in, weaken, her eyes closing and her fingers curling on his hard shoulders .

He left her on the hard shoulder , near Epping, Essex, saying she would only have to wait 15 minutes.

The two children, Mark in Georgina's arms, were spotted along the hard shoulder .

I pictured a man taking leave of his motor; wobbling from the fast lane towards the hard shoulder .

He pulled up on the hard shoulder , switched off and got out.

The body of the pregnant housewife was found near the M-50 motorway after her car broke down on the hard shoulder .

thing

Well, it is the hardest thing for humans to do, Lord.

The hardest thing about snowshoeing is getting the tethered shoe attached securely to your feet.

They usually seem disappointed when I confess that the hardest thing to deal with is lack of sleep.

The hardest thing I ever did was leave.

How he could just sit there in that silence was the hardest thing I have ever tried to figure out.

The hardest thing for most women to accept now is the white shoe.

Mystification is simple; clarity is the hardest thing of all.

In fact, the hardest thing for a great many people is to win.

time

By Hugh Hebert COMEDY-thrillers could have a hard time without small black books that disappear containing the clue to mysterious fortunes.

Somehow with the right count Glover had a harder time believing any ofit was real.

Her stepdaughter was only twelve, still a child, and a child who had had a hard time .

For Uncle Allen the truly hard times seemed all behind him.

However, you would not get £149.95p each if you fell on hard times and wanted to sell your sovereigns.

Then agents have a hard time distinguishing illegal aliens from others, he said.

The 1930s were hard times , so I think they will be forgiven for this slight oversight.

With this theme, I had a hard time working in math and science.

times

But Johnny Herbert's had his fair share of hard times .

His large manufacturing company was in the throes of hard times .

If nothing else, the bank's comical detachment from real life may prove a comfort in these hard times .

The dean himself was incredible in guiding me through some hard times .

The Cambridge University Automobile Club had clearly fallen on hard times , too.

For Uncle Allen the truly hard times seemed all behind him.

The hard times foreseen by Nicholas senior now came.

Stories about hard times teach the value of perseverance and hard work.

water

Scum is formed when soaps and detergents react with hard water .

It is very sensitive to calcium and does not do well in alkaline or hard water .

It is tolerant of most water conditions, although very hard water may result in the fish's eyes becoming cloudy.

It also grows well in soft as well as medium hard water .

Water condition: Very indifferent to conditions, but medium hard water with slight acidity is preferred.

They withstand artificial illumination well not only from above but also from the sides and are indifferent to moderately hard water .

way

It must be won, and won the hard way .

Indefatigable, playing the hard way , with his own set of rules to back him up.

I learned this the hard way .

I've been in and out of places, I've had to learn the hard way .

What followed was three years of adults learning the hard way about performance and change.

I was brought up the hard way .

I have done it the hard way .

work

This is hard work which Karen and her assistants tackle with enthusiasm and dexterity.

Perhaps his / her more modest achievements are indeed due to hard work and a love of learning.

A short spell of hard work in quiet surroundings would not be a bad thing.

Success comes from hard work , dedication, teamwork, discipline.

How good of you to do all that work - and it is such hard work!

He had worked hard all his life, and hard work always gave him tangible results.

The hard work of preparation was punctuated by various diversions.

Everyone complained about the heat and the flies and the hard work , but Luna complained less than the rest of us.

worker

Since then he has shown every sign of being a pragmatist, an adroit politician and a very hard worker .

He is supposedly not the hardest worker ever.

She was known to be very tough and a very hard worker .

He was a good, hard worker .

He made Mrs Timms look uninterested in her store, the Reliance Market, and she was a hard worker .

The personnel officer read out the relevant paragraph: Muriel is a hard worker and does well when working on her own.

Children who understand the importance of work tend to imitate their parents and become hard workers themselves.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

(hard/hot/close) on sb's heels

(hard/hot/close) on the heels of sth

Critique followed hot on the heels of this pioneering work.

On the heels of this came Mr J. to tell us that young Mrs P. had had her thighbone crushed.

Then it seemed that the consummation would follow soon on the heels of its inauguration.

With another couple of laps he might have finished close on the heels of the two Dunlops.

a difficult/hard/good etc one

But what is temperament, and how do we define what is a good one ?

I knew there was no sense in trying to do a better one .

Maybe it was a crackpot theory, but it was a good one .

Nevertheless, it was always clear that Schmidt's third term in office would prove a difficult one .

Payno was gleeful, for his idea was a good one .

The belief that hierarchical organizational structure makes for good business is a difficult one to give up.

The Berlin Philharmonic as it exists today may be a happier orchestra, but it is in no way a better one .

Then I became a lead project manager and, I have to say, I was a good one .

a hard/tough etc act to follow

Clearly Amelia was a hard act to follow.

Colm Toibin's piece will be a hard act to follow but I suspect you are up to it.

I know that she will be a tough act to follow.

It was a hard act to follow, but the poor did what they could to provide respectable funerals for their dead.

John's is, of course, a hard act to follow.

The new model has a tough act to follow.

You've certainly set us a hard act to follow!

a hard/tough nut to crack

Daytime television is a tough nut to crack. New shows have to be good enough to beat the old favorites.

Already highly successful in popular music, dance and commercial television, blacks have found the movies a tougher nut to crack.

Beverley was a tougher nut to crack.

West Ham will be a tough nut to crack especially with big Lee in good form at the moment.

a hard/tough row to hoe

Improving schools with little funding is a tough row to hoe.

They have a hard row to hoe.

a hard/tough sell

as hard/tough as nails

Willie O'Connor is as hard as nails and Liam Simpson takes no prisoners.

bad/difficult/hard etc enough

Even a Patel, probably a Bhatt if I looked hard enough .

It's bad enough trying to fly with unequal line lengths; having an asymmetric kite can be most frustrating!

She identified the problem not as trying too hard to live up to a domestic ideal but as not trying hard enough .

Since the cold war ended in 1988, they have worked hard enough to produce some kind of an economic miracle.

That was going to be difficult enough anyway.

The ties with the past difficult enough to sever already.

This would be bad enough if California prisons were full of nothing but Charles Mansons.

bad/hard/tough luck

Can't have that, can we, not on top of all your other hard luck .

He felt that this little piece of bad luck might affect his whole day.

I kept looking into the mirror and hating my bad luck , but there they were.

There were lots of near misses: some great saves from both keepers, and sheer bad luck .

Unfortunately, the gents had bad luck .

You go up there with the wrong attitude and come out with worse luck than you had before.

be (stuck) between a rock and a hard place

be a hard act to follow

Clearly Amelia was a hard act to follow .

Colm Toibin's piece will be a hard act to follow but I suspect you are up to it.

It was a hard act to follow , but the poor did what they could to provide respectable funerals for their dead.

Judith will be a hard act to follow .

be a hard/stern/tough taskmaster

If self-employment is any guide, the dejobbed worker is likely to be a stern taskmaster .

She was a hard taskmaster but a considerably fairer one than la Belle Ethel.

True to his word, he schooled her in horsemanship and was a hard taskmaster .

better/harder/worse etc still

And 245 specialty stock funds that focus on particular industries did better still , averaging a 6. 5 percent gain.

But perhaps the early evening was better still ?

He didn't talk because he was afraid of losing the pole or, worse still , falling in.

I started to hunt for a cheap restaurant or, better still , a snack shop.

I thought that it would soon pass, and it did - for you to work harder still .

Or better still , make a real talent show instead.

Or better still , there was the village school practically next door!

With hindsight, it would have better still to lock in a few more gains.

fall on hard/bad times

At 21 she is set for stardom, but she still finds time for people who have fallen on hard times.

Even by political standards, Gingrich very quickly fell on hard times.

I assumed that if a person fell on hard times some one else in the wider family would rescue them.

Interestingly, though, the bottom 10 includes many household names fallen on hard times.

The Cambridge University Automobile Club had clearly fallen on hard times, too.

The model cities program fell on hard times soon after it began.

With the outbreak of war, the shop fell on harder times.

Worse, because of Jack the father has fallen on hard times and must meet all kinds of debts.

good/hard/quick etc worker

He is supposedly not the hardest worker ever.

He made Mrs Timms look uninterested in her store, the Reliance Market, and she was a hard worker .

He was a good, hard worker .

She was known to be very tough and a very hard worker .

She was such a hard worker and a wonderful cook.

The girl was a good worker who came and went quietly about her business.

it's difficult/hard to believe (that)

Female speaker It's hard to believe it's happened.

It's hard to believe another child could do such a thing.

It's hard to believe just how dire it is.

It's hard to believe Marie's got a husband.

It's hard to believe now but I actually made do with hooks for a while!

It's hard to believe that he started painting in World War Two and is still painting today.

It's hard to believe , but we're fast approaching the dessert hour.

The ideological points are still there but it's hard to believe that totalitarian regimentation could be so tight.

learn (sth) the hard way

I learned the hard way that drugs weren't an answer to my problems.

But, as Server shows us, he learned apathy the hard way.

Early on he learned - the hard way - that it was the passport to success.

He learned this the hard way, when he tried to move his head.

I learned that the hard way, by losing a couple of first drafts of articles I was writing.

I learned this the hard way.

Mainline medicine learned this the hard way when it first started to use anesthetics.

She had learned it the hard way and she never let her guard slip at all.

The Lisa designers also learned this the hard way, and their computer shipped with 1024K, or a megabyte of memory.

make heavy/hard work of sth

She was making hard work of plucking the goose.

You can make hard work of an easy job if you don't know the right way to go.

old habits die hard

But old habits die hard, and Apple has shown a proclivity to chase market share while hand-wringing over shrinking gross margins.

It was probably unnecessary, she thought, but old habits died hard.

Things were going well, but old habits die hard.

old habits/traditions/customs die hard

But old habits die hard, and Apple has shown a proclivity to chase market share while hand-wringing over shrinking gross margins.

It was probably unnecessary, she thought, but old habits died hard.

Perhaps because it's an island old customs die hard here.

Things were going well, but old habits die hard.

This is an area where old customs die hard.

pack a (hard/hefty/strong etc) punch

A wave 10 feet high and 500 feet long can pack a punch of 400,000 pounds per linear foot of its crest.

Anne Packer packed a punch with Baked Beans.

At last - takeaway sandwiches with flavour that packs a punch!

For the first time in a long time, an Eddie Murphy movie packs a punch.

The paper is light; it doesn't pack a punch.

play hard to get

You should call her again - I think she's just playing hard to get.

And they may not just be playing hard to get.

I am not going to suggest that you play hard to get.

If it was Viola, she was obviously playing hard to get.

It had nothing to do with teasing or playing hard to get.

tough/hard nut

Already highly successful in popular music, dance and commercial television, blacks have found the movies a tougher nut to crack.

Back, now, to the hard nuts .

Beverley was a tougher nut to crack.

One glance was all it took to realise this was one hard nut to crack - his features still completely impassive.

Shearer, a tough nut not inclined to whinge, said his ankle was like a pudding.

Tax will be an even tougher nut .

West Ham will be a tough nut to crack especially with big Lee in good form at the moment.

work sb hard

Sometimes I think that they work us too hard in this office.

The bank's managers admit that they work their employees hard, but on the other hand they pay good wages.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a hard mattress

a piece of hard candy

A tiled floor in the kitchen is as hard as stone, and very cold beneath your feet.

As people age, their skin becomes harder and less supple.

Chemistry was one of the hardest classes I've ever taken.

Diamond is probably the hardest substance known to man.

Give the door a hard push.

He's a hard man to work for, but he's fair.

I've cooked the potatoes for half an hour but they still seem a bit hard .

I find it hard to believe that he didn't know the gun was loaded.

I thought the exam was really hard .

I wish this chair wasn't so hard and uncomfortable.

It's hard to see the stage from here.

It's not my fault, John. Don't give me a hard time.

It was hard for me to understand her - her accent was very strong.

It was a long hard walk back to the nearest town.

Keep the cake in a tin, to prevent it from going hard .

Let your mother sit down. She's had a hard day at work.

Mowing the lawn is hard work.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

A hard disk is usually built into the computer and is a slightly different form of storage.

But the Clinton administration is still taking a hard line.

Instead it meant hard work with a capital H for all the fifteen or so staff.

Some hard cheeses are permitted to age.

The slickest feature of all is the fully poweroperated hard top.

Toilet roll, used, in small smelly brown-streaked sheets - both the hard kind and the soft kind.

Yes, exhibitions are hard work!

II. adverb

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ VERB

bite

Lily put her fist in her mouth and bit hard on her fingers.

She twisted her mouth in a cry of sheer ecstasy and bit hard on her lip.

Her teeth bit hard into her lower lip.

The boy smiled faintly, and then bit hard on his lips and gnawed the smile away.

brake

Doyle swerved, running the car on to the right hand verge, and braked hard .

Clayt braked hard , pulled off and cut the engine.

But he might still have been able to stop in time if he'd braked hard enough.

Desperate not to have to overtake, he'd braked hard and had felt the car shimmy dangerously.

He braked hard to a halt outside the Co-op in Newtown, just as Billy and Mary turned the comer.

Streuer had to brake hard , and on purpose he just nudged my backside with the front of his bike.

He braked hard and managed to stop before impact, but the woman fell on to the road in front of his car.

He almost missed the turning off the taxiway to the runway and had to brake hard at the last minute.

breathe

Lachy sat down on the pillow at the head of the bed, breathing hard .

Lincoln jumped up and down, breathing hard .

The horror receded as she came back to reality, breathing hard , glad of her cream duvet and calm hotel surroundings.

He looked, breathing hard still, at Oliver.

He was breathing hard , and Joe thought he was even sweating.

Ezra stepped then stopped, breathing hard .

He stared at her for a second in stunned silence, breathing hard , his eyes dazed.

fight

Belfast was one which fought hard and played great football.

For years we fought hard against the police attitude not to treat this as a crime.

I hoped to keep one of them alive for questioning, but they fought hard .

The president fought hard for the plan, and saw it through Congress by mid-March.

Cnut's men had fought hard , and doubtless expected to be remunerated accordingly.

I fought hard for the right to be right.

She fought hard to get him a part-time playgroup place in the group his older brother attended.

She was fighting hard not to be unpleasant.

hit

But the high interest rate policy and squeeze on retailers hit hard .

I hit hard at the inadequacies in housing in the city.

Firms and institutions which are otherwise financially sound could be hard hit by a protracted run of debt defaults.

Hideo Nomo, who was hit hard in his last start, is scheduled to start again Monday against the Florida Marlins.

Ray Gasson's herd of 250 could have been hard hit .

Among the other vegetables hit hard were cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers and sweet corn.

If a ban is approved, the famous Beaufort hunt will be hard hit .

But then the booze started hitting hard , and I got really scared.

listen

We are listening hard to its recommendations and we take seriously the points that it makes to us.

Maybe an illness, he thought, listening hard .

Now, when Tallis listened hard , she could hear a drum being beaten as a warning.

He listened hard , shook his head.

On the way, Endill listened hard in case the Headmaster was wandering about.

No, the White House has been listening hard to how people think things look, and devising plans to fit.

He pressed his ear against the receiver and listened hard .

look

Though still handsome, he looked hard , ruthless, and twice as dangerous as Isabel remembered.

I looked hard at the target and raised the gun, stared at the target, closed my eyes, and fired.

Consequently she looked hard for work away from Marlott.

Connors looked hard at the gun, but said nothing.

Even a Patel, probably a Bhatt if I looked hard enough.

We have again looked hard at our working practices and cost base and have made substantial changes.

He looked hard at the outline of the body under the rug.

play

Work hard but play hard, too-you deserve to celebrate.

All he wants to do is play hard .

Apparently all 22 players could read, and they all realized that they needn't bother to play hard any more.

Most of all, they have to continue working and playing hard .

The Cougars played hard , but not always smart.

We just have to go out and play hard every night.

This is what she likes to see: good, hard playing , everyone working the floor, tough defense.

Westphal had two rules: be on time and play hard , and the first rule was flexible.

press

The new strike partnership of Saunders and substitute Dwight Yorke failed to make an immediate impression as Ipswich pressed hard .

You will be hard pressed to choose a single main course because so many are mouth-watering.

These expectations were nurtured by the adversarial nature of electoral competition and they pressed hard on to government.

They point to long-term costs that even a thriving enterprise would be hard pressed to minimize or absorb.

The statue was unreasonably heavy, pressing hard against him.

The Dwarfs were hard pressed at first, but eventually saw the Orcs off with the help of their formidable cannons.

He was pressing hard on the button and standing patiently for the door to open.

One is hard pressed even to find them in London.

push

They responded by pushing hard into corporate finance, seeking to use shareholdings as a door-opener.

However, Thompson questioned whether the administration will push hard if resistance stiffens.

Brian was pushed hard against the side of a car parked in the far corner of the bar's car park.

I fell back, like a person pushed hard .

Missing are neighborhood and business associations: two groups that pushed hard during the former administration for a crackdown on nuisance crimes.

Big agricultural businesses, primarily in California, pushed hard for the temporary workers.

Each pushed hard against the other.

put

Commentators were hard put to find words to describe the ceremonial splendor of the final event.

Nevertheless, an ordinary person might be hard put to tell one from the other.

Governments will then be hard put to get it on to their national statute books by mid-1993.

Without this map we'd be hard put to find our way.

Yet had she been asked what that destination was she would have been hard put to it to answer.

Now we were hard put to find a grubby corner of the upper dock in which to berth Venturous.

Many modern offerings are hard put to please the eye quite so much.

stare

They were both staring hard at me.

I felt something akin to the tender hatred one can sense when staring hard at a photograph of oneself.

He stared hard at pictures held out to him, trying to decipher their language.

Red is staring hard at Jody.

She stared hard at the black curly hairs on the neck of the man she'd married nine years before.

As he put on his coat, he stared hard at Nancy, frowning a little.

swallow

Closing her eyes, she swallowed hard , shuddering violently.

I flushed, swallowed hard , struggled to keep from crying, struggled not to be overwhelmed by my fear of falling.

He swallowed hard once or twice.

Occasionally he would grimace and swallow hard , his lips going tight.

She swallowed hard , then stretched out her hand and took it.

Cantor momentarily closed his eyes and swallowed hard .

Unbearably affected, she swallowed hard .

She swallowed hard and pulled faces.

think

I was thinking hard about why Prince pleasured me.

Too worried to eat, I sat there thinking hard about my situation.

Of course I didn't go and see Father Courtney without thinking hard about our relationship.

I sat still, sipping slowly and thinking hard .

I could see they had thought hard about this.

Now the Walker Cup match is over, certain players should think hard before chasing a mirage.

I know it's harrowing for you, but think hard .

She stared at the letter again, thinking hard , despairing.

try

Starting in 1967, we tried hard to whip up interest in the robots among potential customers, but with little success.

At halftime, Oregon is up by twelve points, and Jody is trying hard not to let her emotions show.

The Bishop tried hard to express his grateful thanks.

She tried hard to look composed, but it was more difficult than she could have imagined.

He tried hard not to admire or approve of the heroine, tried to imagine that life was not like that really.

Mr Forsyth said that the tenants' association had tried hard to improve the quality of life for all concerned.

They took great care and were concentrating on a small area, trying hard not to tread on the bones.

Churt tried hard to come back and Paul Jones in the Haslemere goal had to make one particularly fine diving save.

win

Chocolate is a multimillion pound industry, and each hard won market segment is jealously guarded by the giant global manufacturers.

It was a time when the nation sought unity and the democracy so hard won in the Revolution.

These achievements were hard won and preserving them will be a struggle.

work

He remains convinced that it is imperative to work hard on his swing.

The men worked hard in the stockyards, nearby factories, breweries, and construction sites.

Work hard , stay poor; that is the message of money.

He encountered two State Department officials working hard in Athens.

Both Maid Marian and Holy War are very clean engines and little smoke can be seen even when working hard .

Instead, they must work hard throughout the period of change until they have integrated new behaviors into daily routines.

The visual memory is being worked hard here; the child has to carry strings of words, related by meaning.

I worked hard for my education.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

(hard/hot/close) on sb's heels

(hard/hot/close) on the heels of sth

Critique followed hot on the heels of this pioneering work.

On the heels of this came Mr J. to tell us that young Mrs P. had had her thighbone crushed.

Then it seemed that the consummation would follow soon on the heels of its inauguration.

With another couple of laps he might have finished close on the heels of the two Dunlops.

a darn sight better/harder etc

a difficult/hard/good etc one

But what is temperament, and how do we define what is a good one ?

I knew there was no sense in trying to do a better one .

Maybe it was a crackpot theory, but it was a good one .

Nevertheless, it was always clear that Schmidt's third term in office would prove a difficult one .

Payno was gleeful, for his idea was a good one .

The belief that hierarchical organizational structure makes for good business is a difficult one to give up.

The Berlin Philharmonic as it exists today may be a happier orchestra, but it is in no way a better one .

Then I became a lead project manager and, I have to say, I was a good one .

a hard/tough etc act to follow

Clearly Amelia was a hard act to follow.

Colm Toibin's piece will be a hard act to follow but I suspect you are up to it.

I know that she will be a tough act to follow.

It was a hard act to follow, but the poor did what they could to provide respectable funerals for their dead.

John's is, of course, a hard act to follow.

The new model has a tough act to follow.

You've certainly set us a hard act to follow!

a hard/tough nut to crack

Daytime television is a tough nut to crack. New shows have to be good enough to beat the old favorites.

Already highly successful in popular music, dance and commercial television, blacks have found the movies a tougher nut to crack.

Beverley was a tougher nut to crack.

West Ham will be a tough nut to crack especially with big Lee in good form at the moment.

a hard/tough row to hoe

Improving schools with little funding is a tough row to hoe.

They have a hard row to hoe.

a hard/tough sell

as hard/tough as nails

Willie O'Connor is as hard as nails and Liam Simpson takes no prisoners.

bad/difficult/hard etc enough

Even a Patel, probably a Bhatt if I looked hard enough .

It's bad enough trying to fly with unequal line lengths; having an asymmetric kite can be most frustrating!

She identified the problem not as trying too hard to live up to a domestic ideal but as not trying hard enough .

Since the cold war ended in 1988, they have worked hard enough to produce some kind of an economic miracle.

That was going to be difficult enough anyway.

The ties with the past difficult enough to sever already.

This would be bad enough if California prisons were full of nothing but Charles Mansons.

bad/hard/tough luck

Can't have that, can we, not on top of all your other hard luck .

He felt that this little piece of bad luck might affect his whole day.

I kept looking into the mirror and hating my bad luck , but there they were.

There were lots of near misses: some great saves from both keepers, and sheer bad luck .

Unfortunately, the gents had bad luck .

You go up there with the wrong attitude and come out with worse luck than you had before.

be (hard) pushed to do sth

be (stuck) between a rock and a hard place

be a hard act to follow

Clearly Amelia was a hard act to follow .

Colm Toibin's piece will be a hard act to follow but I suspect you are up to it.

It was a hard act to follow , but the poor did what they could to provide respectable funerals for their dead.

Judith will be a hard act to follow .

be a hard/stern/tough taskmaster

If self-employment is any guide, the dejobbed worker is likely to be a stern taskmaster .

She was a hard taskmaster but a considerably fairer one than la Belle Ethel.

True to his word, he schooled her in horsemanship and was a hard taskmaster .

better/harder/worse etc still

And 245 specialty stock funds that focus on particular industries did better still , averaging a 6. 5 percent gain.

But perhaps the early evening was better still ?

He didn't talk because he was afraid of losing the pole or, worse still , falling in.

I started to hunt for a cheap restaurant or, better still , a snack shop.

I thought that it would soon pass, and it did - for you to work harder still .

Or better still , make a real talent show instead.

Or better still , there was the village school practically next door!

With hindsight, it would have better still to lock in a few more gains.

cold (hard) cash

After a year, the igloo-shaped stadium has cost the citizens $ 20 million in very cold cash.

Luckily, the chatter of cold hard cash later persuaded the state to sell the name to the highest bidder.

No cold cash in the Nugent icebox, however, so I moved on.

The other driving force is cold cash and order books.

fall on hard/bad times

At 21 she is set for stardom, but she still finds time for people who have fallen on hard times.

Even by political standards, Gingrich very quickly fell on hard times.

I assumed that if a person fell on hard times some one else in the wider family would rescue them.

Interestingly, though, the bottom 10 includes many household names fallen on hard times.

The Cambridge University Automobile Club had clearly fallen on hard times, too.

The model cities program fell on hard times soon after it began.

With the outbreak of war, the shop fell on harder times.

Worse, because of Jack the father has fallen on hard times and must meet all kinds of debts.

good/hard/quick etc worker

He is supposedly not the hardest worker ever.

He made Mrs Timms look uninterested in her store, the Reliance Market, and she was a hard worker .

He was a good, hard worker .

She was known to be very tough and a very hard worker .

She was such a hard worker and a wonderful cook.

The girl was a good worker who came and went quietly about her business.

it's difficult/hard to believe (that)

Female speaker It's hard to believe it's happened.

It's hard to believe another child could do such a thing.

It's hard to believe just how dire it is.

It's hard to believe Marie's got a husband.

It's hard to believe now but I actually made do with hooks for a while!

It's hard to believe that he started painting in World War Two and is still painting today.

It's hard to believe , but we're fast approaching the dessert hour.

The ideological points are still there but it's hard to believe that totalitarian regimentation could be so tight.

learn (sth) the hard way

I learned the hard way that drugs weren't an answer to my problems.

But, as Server shows us, he learned apathy the hard way.

Early on he learned - the hard way - that it was the passport to success.

He learned this the hard way, when he tried to move his head.

I learned that the hard way, by losing a couple of first drafts of articles I was writing.

I learned this the hard way.

Mainline medicine learned this the hard way when it first started to use anesthetics.

She had learned it the hard way and she never let her guard slip at all.

The Lisa designers also learned this the hard way, and their computer shipped with 1024K, or a megabyte of memory.

make heavy/hard work of sth

She was making hard work of plucking the goose.

You can make hard work of an easy job if you don't know the right way to go.

old habits die hard

But old habits die hard, and Apple has shown a proclivity to chase market share while hand-wringing over shrinking gross margins.

It was probably unnecessary, she thought, but old habits died hard.

Things were going well, but old habits die hard.

old habits/traditions/customs die hard

But old habits die hard, and Apple has shown a proclivity to chase market share while hand-wringing over shrinking gross margins.

It was probably unnecessary, she thought, but old habits died hard.

Perhaps because it's an island old customs die hard here.

Things were going well, but old habits die hard.

This is an area where old customs die hard.

pack a (hard/hefty/strong etc) punch

A wave 10 feet high and 500 feet long can pack a punch of 400,000 pounds per linear foot of its crest.

Anne Packer packed a punch with Baked Beans.

At last - takeaway sandwiches with flavour that packs a punch!

For the first time in a long time, an Eddie Murphy movie packs a punch.

The paper is light; it doesn't pack a punch.

play hard to get

You should call her again - I think she's just playing hard to get.

And they may not just be playing hard to get.

I am not going to suggest that you play hard to get.

If it was Viola, she was obviously playing hard to get.

It had nothing to do with teasing or playing hard to get.

the hard of hearing

tough/hard nut

Already highly successful in popular music, dance and commercial television, blacks have found the movies a tougher nut to crack.

Back, now, to the hard nuts .

Beverley was a tougher nut to crack.

One glance was all it took to realise this was one hard nut to crack - his features still completely impassive.

Shearer, a tough nut not inclined to whinge, said his ankle was like a pudding.

Tax will be an even tougher nut .

West Ham will be a tough nut to crack especially with big Lee in good form at the moment.

work sb hard

Sometimes I think that they work us too hard in this office.

The bank's managers admit that they work their employees hard, but on the other hand they pay good wages.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Elaine had been working hard all morning.

It's raining hard .

She ran all that way and she wasn't even breathing hard .

Tyson hit him hard on the chin.

We try hard to keep our customers happy.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

This seems hard on the hippopotamus.

Unlike Shaw, he had to work, and he worked hard .

Work hard when and where you were required: that's what was in the articles.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.