Meaning of LAW in English

LAW

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a court of law

You may be asked to give evidence before a court of law.

a history/chemistry/law etc degree

I decided to do a Maths degree.

a law/accounting/advertising etc firm

She was offered a job with a law firm.

a law/medical/chemistry etc student

Approximately 40% of law students are women.

against the law (= illegal )

The use of certain drugs is against the law .

an act becomes law

In the 40 years since the Abortion Act became law there have been repeated attempts to amend or repeal it.

antitrust laws

new tougher antitrust laws

blue law

brush with the law

His first brush with the law came when he was 16.

canon law

case law

civil law

common law

company law

court of law

criminal law

I’m more interested in criminal law than civil law.

criminal law

There was not enough evidence to bring a prosecution under criminal law.

enforce a law

He wants the police to enforce the law and arrest the men.

ex post facto law

fall foul of the law

He is worried that his teenage kids will fall foul of the law .

impose/declare martial law

The government may declare martial law in response to the latest violence in the region.

in accordance with...law

Article 47 may only be used in accordance with international law .

law court

law enforcement agent

law enforcement

law enforcement

law enforcement

law enforcement agencies

law firm

law of supply and demand

the law of supply and demand

law school

laws/rules dictate sth

Federal laws dictate how land can be used.

libel laws

restrictions on press freedom, such as libel laws

licensing laws

martial law

The government may declare martial law in response to the latest violence in the region.

martial law...lifted (= ended )

In May, martial law was lifted in most areas.

Murphy's law

obey the law/rules

She’s the sort of person who always obeys the rules.

Parkinson’s law

pass a law/bill/act

The first Transport Act was passed in 1907.

private law

prosecute sb under a law/Act etc

The company is to be prosecuted under the Health and Safety Act.

Roman law

Sod’s law

It’s Sod’s law that the car breaks down when you need it most.

statute law

study law/business/history etc (= study a subject at a school or university )

Anna is studying French literature.

the laws/forces of nature

The inhabitants of the island fight a constant battle against the forces of nature.

the long arm of the law

He won’t escape the long arm of the law .

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

civil

At civil law , in fact, he has no right in personam either.

Federal officials began to violate the civil rights laws in addition to refusing to enforce them.

The civil law position is less problematical.

Furthermore, Days noted that technicalities in the criminal civil rights laws made conviction difficult.

There is a basic distinction in the laws of this country between the criminal and the civil law.

The council is finishing work on a civil service law .

Since nodding can be described only as a formless act, clearly the civil law had no interest in it.

Normal practice in civil law countries is very different.

criminal

This violates such deep-seated feelings of justice that it has proved to be unacceptable under any criminal law jurisdiction.

None of the committee members in these crucial years specialized in criminal law or family law.

Juxtaposing criminal law and legal theory offers a number of intellectual enquiries.

In criminal law , heat of passion refers to a violent and uncontrollable rage.

It was argued in Chapter 2 that the criminal law ought to spread its net wider where the potential harm is greater.

In this chapter I want to examine what is known about criminal justice and law enforcement as they affect women.

Further, the current mode and role of criminal law teaching has consequences for legal education in general.

federal

Campaigners say his case reveals the unhealthy power that big busi ness holds over the federal law makers.

A federal law spells out the penalties for missing the deadline to cut air pollution.

We are now circulating petitions calling for a federal law to ban handguns.

The federal government will give California a $ 3. 7 billion block grant for welfare under the new federal law .

The attorney general responded that an indictment under federal law could be invoked only when a federally protected right was violated.

This is obviously a case that should not have been tried under federal law in the first place.

It also alleges violations of state and federal antitrust laws and public nuisance laws.

The Administration argues that federal law and prison policy conform to this approach for the most part.

international

This was to ensure by international law that children everywhere would be covered for all their needs.

The United States sees intellectual property rights as sacred, said Thomas Klitgaard, an attorney specializing in international law .

The range and quality of Jenks's contribution placed him among the foremost writers on international law of his generation.

Diplomats say that immunity should not be used to avoid culpability, but it has had a meaningful place in international law .

What is needed is an acceptance of our responsibilities under international law .

It must pursue policies in both its judicial and executive branches that uphold an international rule of law .

Yet international law , not some quirk of humanity, requires that under certain circumstances it must be done.

Such a situation is one which allows other countries to put aside international law and act according to their own judgments.

local

These firms know what the local law is, and could filter some Internet content as demanded by it.

The school security specialists also want local law enforcement officials and school administrators to improve their cooperation to stem the violence.

In general local law societies disagreed with the question, although they found it difficult to reach a consensus on the issue.

The rulings were created and administered by the local law society which represents all interested professional parties.

The laws vary from country to country; overseas readers should check local laws.

There was considerable support for the latter suggestion from private practitioners in all types of firm and from local law societies.

In the main, local law societies answered the question negatively, or simply stated that it was a matter for the lender.

But local law society activities can go beyond serving the interests of their members and other lawyers.

martial

Qiao Shi, the intelligence chief who had abstained in the martial law vote earlier, endorsed an immediate army crackdown.

Troops were deployed in Kwangju at midnight on May 17, just as Chun was declaring nationwide martial law .

In mid-1990, martial law was formally lifted but the security clamp down remains currently in force.

You and your men will be under martial law henceforth.

Bhutto's relations with the Army deteriorated after her refusal to impose martial law in Sind under Article 245 of the Constitution.

Subsequently, Stoneham declared martial law , brought in all available troops, and suppressed the disorder.

It was the biggest demonstration since the lifting of martial law in 1988, and was estimated by police to number 10,000.

A slim majority of 52 percent said martial law harmed the country, while 43 percent said dictatorship brought benefits.

natural

However, the natural law governing committees soon took hold and progress was glacially slow.

Law was no longer conceived of as an eternal set of principles expressed in custom and derived from natural law .

What inversion of values makes us to look upon such aberrations as though they were a reflection of natural laws ?

Smith propounded natural laws behind the new reality.

Musical form is no exception to this natural law .

Once these causes are discovered we no longer have a miracle, but natural law ...

It is also conceivable that there are still natural laws which are still to be discovered and named.

The physicist's problem is the problem of ultimate origins and ultimate natural laws .

new

It seems to be that there will be two consequences of the new law .

A new state law says they have to figure out a way to recycle it.

In that year a new law was passed to make divorce easier and simpler.

The federal government will give California a $ 3. 7 billion block grant for welfare under the new federal law .

Friends of the Earth is urging local authorities to use the new laws as a means of prosecuting polluting dump sites.

The effect of the new law on high-rise and condominium dwellers is less clear, pending federal action expected later this year.

Nor has it dealt with the question of a new citizenship law , though the Solingen atrocity has revived debate about this.

Under a new federal immigration law , non-citizens who vote are ineligible for naturalization and can be deported.

private

More important for most purposes of private law than citizenship is domicile.

There is no private law firm where the defeated candidates can retire.

The essence of a private law employment relationship is a mutual obligation to engage in an economic exchange of labour in return for remuneration.

Instead we have to give it to a private law firm known for its political clout.

The first, the Digest, was the classical Roman private law of the jurists.

Rather we should begin by asking why we have a distinction between public and private law .

The question of whether, as a matter of private law , individual solicitors were entitled to a pay-out, was irrelevant.

public

The trouble is that the public backs the law but not the means to make it work.

It was established by a public law signed by the President in August 1987.

Functionalism in public law views this apparatus of government as serving to promote a distinct set of purposes.

All persons engaged in public administration serve in a special legal relationship whereby the public law institution is the employer.

Its state legislators refused to adopt public accommodations laws for their counties.

These are essentially public law functions.

The basic objective of these writers was to project an image of public law .

roman

There were some striking continuities in terms of the survival of Roman law and custom and language.

Formulary procedure was the classical procedure of Roman law .

Most of the wordings initially used for trusts in Roman law are words that could be described as precatory.

The discovery that Roman law had anticipated the position in modern equity is of great interest.

The Roman law system is historically the most important and influential of all the historic legal systems.

In comparison, Roman law had shown itself flexible and responsive to the interests of creditors.

The first, the Digest, was the classical Roman private law of the jurists.

■ NOUN

case

The roots of the law of confidence lie in equity and it is almost entirely case law.

Because the Internet is new, there is little relevant case law in this area.

My own views as to the proper limits of jurisdictional control will be spelt out after a consideration of the case law .

I said the case law could change and we would get nothing.

This has less support in the case law than the previous two tests.

After a consideration of the theories, the case law from both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries will be examined.

Relevant well-established civil court case law is based on the general provisions of the Civil Code relating to the conclusion of contracts.

Would it seek merely to codify the existing case law or to reform on the existing case law?

company

The reason can perhaps be found in the fact that company law as an academic discipline boasts no long and distinguished pedigree.

Until recently company law , with its relative freedom from stringent regulations, reflected this national belief.

Yet company law doctrine has failed to acknowledge this.

This point can perhaps also be illustrated by some of the recent legislative reforms of company law .

Rather, the focus on shareholder interests results from a private conception of the company and company law .

It is therefore not unlikely that before long Parliament may abolish the ultravires rule in company law altogether.

court

The law courts are venal and can take decades to decide a case.

Demonstrators taking part in a sit-in in front of the law courts were beaten up by police.

The law courts are also having a field day.

It was in this period too that a club's control over a player was first challenged in the law courts .

People preferred the more formalized and anonymous procedures of the law courts .

It has law courts , government offices and a university.

After successive delays, aided by the law courts , the new deadline for payment is Thursday.

The law courts , with their outside staircase, are also impressive.

enforcement

Neither case was an edifying example of law enforcement .

But as more information emerged, law enforcement officials began dampening speculation that the incident was connected to the abortion controversy.

The Home Office said that it had received representations from law enforcement agencies.

It sent a message to law enforcement officers: Open season on immigrants.

Breaking the cycle Soon, Gwinn was explaining the San Diego strategy to law enforcement officials in other states.

In response, President Fillmore issued a proclamation asking citizens to cease interfering with law enforcement officers.

Accornero, a 24-year law enforcement veteran, was appointed chief in 1994.

firm

In retrospect, this represented both an opportunity and threat to law firms .

Sacks, a Boston intellectual-property law firm .

The historic deal, hammered out with the 60 law firms representing the Castano case, is intriguing.

Hillary Clinton was questioned about the mysterious appearance of her law firm billing records.

Federated spokeswoman Carol Sanger Tuesday confirmed that the company has retained a law firm but declined to say for what purpose.

Burling, law firm , Washington, $ 33, 200.

immigration

These immigration laws established two important principles of future immigration policy.

The federal government has sole responsibility to enforce immigration laws , including the prevention of illegal entries into the United States.

It is the racism written into, and demanded by, Britain's immigration laws .

Even some misdemeanor offenses, if they draw maximum one-year sentences, can now be deemed aggravated felonies under federal immigration law .

For the first time, the order will put companies that violate immigration law at risk of losing their federal contracts.

Although she was for tough immigration laws , she was fundamentally concerned about the civil rights of immigrants and citizens...

The basis for the rejection was the section of the immigration laws barring people affiliated with the Communist Party.

And he has been negotiating with the Congress over the budget and our immigration laws .

school

Though he entered law school , Kelly was teaching dance a few months later.

He was then only twenty-one, a callow aristocrat fresh from law school .

Procaccia, the law school dean, believes the intent of the compensation bill is to save money.

He was a young lawyer, just out of law school .

He says he does a little bit of everything here, and always has in his law school jobs.

Sharif was educated at a college and law school in his home town.

Indeed, they are going to law school , too.

state

Mr Hibberd refused, citing state laws that allow a journalist to protect a source.

What if state law requires a daily flag salute?

Some state laws specifically provide that tenured teachers can be dismissed for economic reasons.

In both types of cases, there were technical violations of state law .

Texas state law does not allow for the substitution of an independent candidate once he has won a spot on the ballot.

The use of such meat by-products as heart meat, tongue meat, and tripe is permitted unless prohibited by state law .

The saguaro is a protected plant under state law .

California law allows residents to carry the spray, and city officials said state law would take precedence.

student

And Green had developed a passion for a university law student he met at work in Salford, Greater Manchester.

Well, consider an instant poll of a class of first-year law students , asked Tuesday who they wanted for their dean.

In Iasi, a provincial city in the north-east of the country, more than 70 lawyers and law students attended.

And then I became the observer of law students in and out of our home.

Six years before, she had shocked her family and class by marrying a destitute Berkeley law student .

And the law students themselves created a fellowship fund to support recent graduates for one year following graduation in a public-interest organization.

tax

We support whenever we can the interests of museums, both with respect to the tax laws and otherwise.

The tax laws prohibit you from trying to recover from your employees taxes that you were required to pay on their behalf.

Officials are already concerned he does not spend enough time there to qualify for the 12 percent tax laws .

Actually, 1995 was the lowest year for California tax law changes that I can remember.

The 12 also chipped away at one of the other stumbling blocks, the need to harmonise tax laws across the Community.

Federal tax law bars use of such funds to further a political agenda.

The tax law provides for a deduction of the fair market value of the work of art.

They help take the guesswork out of tax law by translating convoluted jargon into plain-folks language.

■ VERB

allow

After 1854 appeals to the Supreme Court on matters of law were allowed .

In 1856 the laws were changed to allow two engravers full Academic titles, and another two those of Associates.

Texas state law does not allow for the substitution of an independent candidate once he has won a spot on the ballot.

We see how algebraic laws allow us to give a precise and succinct description of each operator.

The law will allow 750, 000 accounts to be set up.

The law allows enormous scope for interpretation and those who interpret are not friends of ours.

In most states, recently passed laws now allow citizens to carry concealed handguns.

become

Some significant social policy measures have become law in this way.

What had been a matter of church policy is about to become law .

In Britain the Equal Pay Act became law in 1970.

Elsewhere they dragged their feet until it became clear that the laws were unenforceable.

On average 10-12 Private Members' Bills become law each session.

I become independent of physical laws of food, of shelter, of life.

If the bill became law , manufacturers using chemicals obtained from local species would have to pay a royalty to the state.

A bill to let workers carry health insurance coverage from one employer to another should be a sure bet to become law .

break

But he claimed they were well aware they were breaking the law and were prepared to face the consequences.

A good union officer must give the sense that if he had to do it, he might break the law .

You won't have broken the law if you do not follow it.

Nobody considers the tax money needed to keep a young man in jail when he drops out and breaks the law .

Anyone who tries to stop them will be breaking the law .

I guessed that you were breaking the law in some way.

Even breaking the law , it was fairly humane.

change

It does not seek to change physical laws , only to delay them.

The judges ruled that it was the job of Parliament, not the courts, to change the law .

When they change the law Spike and I will marry immediately.

An affronted Legislature has changed the law so that Texas governments can no longer sue those seeking records.

If the federal government is to change the law , it will need to act quickly, while the outrage lasts.

So the judges, once again by their own fiat, simply changed the law .

This probably changes the existing law , making the offence more difficult to prove.

For health insurers in California, the rules distinctly changed with a state law that took effect in July.

declare

He'd heard rumours that the military were planning to declare martial law .

Madison, the Supreme Court has declared 141 federal laws unconstitutional, an average of less than one law every year.

Emergency regulations empowered the government to declare virtual martial law at will.

Troops were deployed in Kwangju at midnight on May 17, just as Chun was declaring nationwide martial law .

To restore order, the government declared martial law .

When a federal district court first heard the case, it declared the federal law unconstitutional.

Subsequently, Stoneham declared martial law , brought in all available troops, and suppressed the disorder.

When the Supreme Court declares a state law unconstitutional, similar statutes in other states are not automatically voided.

enforce

We are legally allowed to fight when protecting ourselves, our family, or when enforcing the law itself.

The federal government has sole responsibility to enforce immigration laws , including the prevention of illegal entries into the United States.

Gratuitous promises can not be enforced at law .

He simply notified the attorney general of a threat to the public peace and asked him to enforce federal law .

Greenpeace claim that the Authority is failing in its statutory duty to gather the necessary evidence to enforce the law .

Responsibility can be enforced by strong laws .

It implies that the police fully enforces every law against the citizen.

First, the Universe appears perfectly symmetrical in the ways it enforces its laws .

impose

You can impose any laws and traditions you care to invent.

This structure can neither impose law upon its members nor force one of them to adopt a policy with which it disagrees.

Bhutto's relations with the Army deteriorated after her refusal to impose martial law in Sind under Article 245 of the Constitution.

Unlike past military rulers, General Musharraf has neither imposed martial law nor suppressed fundamental rights.

The duty of care is imposed by law but the standard is a matter of medical practice.

The king says he will impose martial law if anything similar happens again.

obey

Of course consent to obey the law is not a necessary condition of such an attitude.

Our citizens want to obey the law .

Citizens have an obligation to obey law by virtue of the fact that it is made in accordance with established procedures.

I guess it depends on whether you obey traffic laws or not.

Is there a primafacie obligation to obey the law which transcends the limits of the state's authority?

They will always obey the law .

Bodies are substantial, exist in space, obey mechanical laws .

The question of whether this administration is willing to obey the law is too simplistic, we are told.

pass

It was very good to pass a special law for that.

In most states, recently passed laws now allow citizens to carry concealed handguns.

In due course, the government's response was to pass a law and appoint an Alkali Inspector named Angus Smith.

As a result of increased public interest, more than a dozen states have passed laws that prohibit insurers from genetic discrimination.

He made the decisions, he passed the laws .

I see well. meaning legislators across the land passing laws against themselves as if the victim will always be some one else.

The fear is that if they are published, Parliament will pass a law against smearing politicians.

Catholics passed laws against intermarriage between people of the two faiths.

require

Balancing is required by the law of conservation of matter.

The government is required by law to provide education for all minors, regardless of their circumstances.

Prevention requires laws to be clear, simple and universally supported.

They contend that the commissioner is required by law to enforce the anti-redlining regulation, regardless of personal preference.

His first appearance, an arraignment to enter a plea of guilty or not-guilty, is required by law .

The building is about 60m by 10m, and inside are the lobster tanks that are required by law .

The bags are required by law to inflate in a fraction of a second, fueled by hot gases.

sign

Governor William Donald Schaefer signed the bill into law within hours of its enactment by the House.

Havel signed the law on Oct. 17, but said that he would be seeking amendments to it.

But the two chambers must agree on a final version before Clinton can sign it into law .

President Clinton has promised to sign it into law .

Mike Leavitt has signed into law a bill banning public schools from granting recognition or access to gay or lesbian student groups.

President Clinton signed telecommunications reform into law last month.

President Clinton signed a law last year that requires states to make information on sexually violent criminals available to the public.

violate

In addition, Tesoro said it filed a counterclaim alleging that the shareholders' group has violated securities laws .

Federal officials began to violate the civil rights laws in addition to refusing to enforce them.

A federal court ruled this month that Napster helped users to violate music copyright laws .

Y., consented to permanent injunctions barring them from violating securities laws .

But court records show how poachers violated wildlife laws without fear of punishment in his courtroom.

He was charged with violating national security laws because of his membership in the Secret Association for Independence.

People Open, thriving enterprises do not exclude people in ways that violate fair-hiring laws .

No financial penalties were imposed, but the men were ordered not to violate securities laws in the future.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

be subject to a rule/law/penalty/tax etc

get on the wrong side of the law

lay down the law

If Bob starts laying down the law, just tell him to shut up.

Parents need to lay down the law regarding how much TV their children watch.

By eleven o'clock I was standing in front of Patterson's desk laying down the law.

It is unfortunate that Mrs Gardner's thoroughness did not extend to laying down the law about insurance.

MacFarland said I would do well in his class and laid down the law about doing well in the others.

Ron, too, was laying down the law.

She would lay down the laws.

Steadily I disappointed Paquita, who believed it was my job to lay down the law with Clarisa.

They made a move for the piano, but we laid down the law and soon redirected their energy to sightseeing.

Well, there was nothing for it, I had to lay down the law in no uncertain terms.

natural justice/law

At present rules of a legislative nature are not generally subject to natural justice. 2.

But Aristotle did not conceive of natural laws based on mathematical principles.

If he perceives that there is a likelihood of bias, the rules of natural justice have been broken. 2.

It may have failed in the course of the inquiry to comply with the requirements of natural justice.

Lord Denning restricted the full application of the rules of natural justice on the ground of national security.

Some commentators take a different view, seeing a broader significance in the shift from natural justice to fairness.

The injunction is important in public law in the context of the rules of natural justice.

They have always presented a problem for the application of natural justice.

on the wrong/right side of the law

De Niro plays a lawyer, on the right side of the law.

possession is nine-tenths of the law

sign a bill/legislation/agreement into law

storefront church/law office/school etc

In Sanchersville, she opened a storefront law office perforating the heart of the ghetto.

the letter of the law

The builders may have adhered to the letter of the law, but not its spirit.

A month afterwards the teams will be sent out to discover whether retailers are sticking to the letter of the law.

By sticking to the letter of the law, the spirit of the law may be lost.

Some one who did not feel obliged to follow the letter of the law, or the instructions of the judge.

Sticking to the letter of the law v. sticking to its spirit.

The agent counsels them obliquely against waste, repeats the letter of the law, and smiles.

The heart of all this is going beyond the letter of the law with your clients.

the rule of law

However, we are not that much nearer to a world order dominated by a fair application of the rule of law.

In putting this case we should first recollect the third pillar in Dicey's concept of the rule of law.

No one can read the Pentateuch and conclude that justice is just concerned with private property and the rule of law.

This extradition is a victory for all who believe in the rule of law.

Violent picketing also threatened the rule of law.

We have to follow the rule of law.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Andrew is studying law at Harvard University.

Both specific and general laws on child prostitution exist.

By law , an advertiser can't use a person's name for commercial purposes without permission.

FIFA is the organization that runs world football and decides whether any of the laws should be changed.

I didn't realize I was breaking the law .

In 1873 French law was imposed in Vietnam.

It's against the law to be drunk in public.

Japan has very strict laws against guns and drugs.

Refugees are accorded special protection under international law

She practices law in New York.

The law defines drunkenness as a certain percentage of alcohol in the blood.

the law of gravity

the laws of cricket

The current gun laws vary from state to state.

the economic law of supply and demand

The soldiers were brought in to restore law and order after the riots.

This law makes it illegal to smoke in public places.

tough new laws on immigration

Under the new law , anyone who assists in a suicide faces 10 years in prison.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.