Meaning of CLOSE in English

CLOSE

I. ˈklōz verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: Middle English closen, from Old French clos-, stem of clore, from Latin claudere — more at close IV

transitive verb

1.

a. : to move (some part, especially some hinged or sliding part) so as to bar passage through something

close the gate of the plant

keep this valve closed

b.

(1) : to block or shut off (a channel, path, or area) against entry or passage

close a street for snow removal

close a range to settlers

(2) : to stop or deny access to or prohibit use of

close a firing area during target practice

an attempt to close the mails to communist propaganda periodicals

(3) linguistics : to make (a morphological or syntactic construction) incapable of having an additional constituent of a particular kind (as an adjective or a derivational suffix)

the addition of all before these young men closes the construction

the addition of -s to normalize closes the construction

c.

(1) : to block or refuse admission to the inside, interior, or contents of

keep the drawer closed

continued drought caused the governor to close the woods

volumes kept on closed shelves

a seal used in Charlemagne's time to close letters and wills

(2) : to exclude outside blood from (a herd, strain, or breed)

d. : to block out : screen , exclude

close a view

: form a boundary to

a church closes the vista

e. : to make or keep inaccessible, imperceptive, or inscrutable

even a neutral cannot be asked to close his mind or his conscience — F.D.Roosevelt

magazines closed to inexperienced writers

f.

(1) : to suspend or stop the services, sessions, or operations of

snow and high wind closed the airport

close school because of an outbreak of polio

a theater closed for repairs

(2) : to force to discontinue or end a business enterprise

a manufacturer closed by his creditors

(3) : to exclude the public from

health authorities closed the swimming pools

2.

a. archaic : enclose , encompass , contain

leaving the whole establishment to her, closing only himself in invisible bonds — F.M.Ford

b. : to arrange (the strands of a wire rope) spirally around a center

3.

a. : to bring to an end or period : shut off or preclude further continuation of

the Peace of Westphalia … which closed the Thirty Years' War — Stringfellow Barr

he closed his military career with an idealized concept — Jeannette P. Nichols

he closed his business and moved away

b. : to serve as last, final, or ultimate in (a series, sequence, or development)

Madame Defarge going first … Mr. Lorry closing the little procession — Charles Dickens

the … duet which closes the first act — Saturday Review

c. : to conclude discussion or negotiation about : terminate or bring to agreement, decision, or settlement

questions that have been closed for centuries suddenly yawn wide open — G.B.Shaw

close a deal or bargain

close a real estate transfer of title

d. : to render (an account) no longer current

4.

a. : to bring or bind together the parts or edges of

a closed fist

cut the sides and back to fit and close them with a slide fastener

after amputation close the stump for good scar line

in no hurry to close the wound

closing the break in the metal bar by welding

b. : to fill up (as a hole or opening) with something serving as a sealer, filler, or stopper

first close the cracks with plaster of paris

close a grave

c. : to fill (a gap) so as to attain full continuity or smooth integration

help them to close their dollar gap

efforts to close the sharp division within the alliance

tax loopholes that should be closed

d. : to complete by way of circling or enveloping or by making circumferentially or circuitously continuous

the centripetal force constraining the planets to move in closed orbits — S.F.Mason

to connect electric conductors so as to close a circuit

e. : to stitch together parts forming the upper of (a shoe)

f. : to reduce to nil

milers fast closing the distance to the tape

the ferry closed the last few feet of water between it and the ship

5. of a ship : to come close to

the minesweeper closed the island under cover of darkness

6. : to convert (granular soap) into a homogeneous pasty form (as by adding water and boiling)

7. : to alter (a stance in golf or baseball batting) so that the left foot is closer to the line of play than the right

intransitive verb

1. : to close itself or become closed:

a. : to contract, fold, swing, or slide so as to leave no opening

a camera shutter adjusted to close after 1/50 second

the jackknife closed on my finger

also : to admit of being closed

this valve won't close

b. : to cease operation

forced the mine to close

: discontinue institutional activities

banks and schools close for the holiday

— often used with down, up

c. : to suspend business or end the business day

this store closes at 5 p.m.

— often used with down, up ; also : to remain closed

barbershops close Mondays

d. : to end a theatrical run or tour

the play closed after two weeks

e. : to cease to be passable for boats because of an ice cover

the river has the appearance of closing for the winter

2.

a. : to come near or approach close

radar showed a plane closing fast

a ship fast closing with the land

b. of a racehorse : to lessen the gap with the lead horse or horses especially near the finish or a race

closing fast in the home stretch

c. : to engage in a struggle at close quarters : grapple

forbidding terrain prevented our closing with the enemy

3.

a. : to join together : meet , unite

the jaws of the vise imperceptibly closing

also : to tighten in a grasping or crushing motion

a hand closed on my collar

sullen anger closed down on the community

b. : to become filled in

find themselves in a tight place when the gaps begin to close — W.R.Inge

also : diminish

the distance between us rapidly closed

c. : to draw together, join, or gather so as to cover, conceal, or confine something

clouds soon close over the sun

just as the sea closed over the sinking ship

d. : to form or approach in a tight or diminishing circle

his comrades closed around him protectively

e. : to tighten fingers or jaws in a grasping motion — used often with on

seeing a rope dangling I closed on it

the clamshell bucket closed on a load of dirt

the idea faded befor I could close on it

f. dancing : to draw the free foot up to and into contact with the supporting foot

4. : to enter into or complete an agreement : make a contract

before I can close with a new employer

5.

a. : to come to an end or period : cease from further continuation

his diplomatic career closed with this incident

the services closed with a short prayer

b. : to bring one's discourse or a debate to a conclusion

I close with this warning

the senior debater of each team is to close

c. : to make an announcement or play in certain card games that ends some phase of the game ; especially : to turn the trump card face down in a game of sixty-six in order to stop the draw from the stock and compel players to follow suit

6. civil engineering : to give a closed figure when plotted

this survey of the tract fails to close

— see error of closure

7.

a. : to become priced in the last recorded sale of the trading day in an exchange

to compensate for stock opened at 126, closed at 128

hogs closed strong

b. : to show an overall price average at the end of a trading period

the market managed to close slightly lower

Synonyms:

end , conclude , finish , terminate , complete : all of these words, along with close , are near in meaning and often interchangeable. close may suggest that the matter in question is no longer open to further continuation

the case is now closed and needs no further discussion

these discoveries closed his career in the church

end may more strongly connote finality; likely to contrast with begin, it may imply a certain progress, sequence, or development

difficulties in determining when the medieval period ends

the book ends on a happier note

conclude may be more formal in suggestion

the meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the hostess

finish may suggest full execution or resolution of the last steps or stages of a continued action or process

the War of the Confederacy over but not finished — Elizabeth M. Roberts

at three o'clock his business was finished and he was ready to return — Sherwood Anderson

terminate may suggest a definite term or limit involved, an attaining definitively to that term, with or without completing or fulfilling

the old arrangement with the company, now terminated

the interim appointments having terminated

complete may indicate an ending marked by fulfilling, perfecting, leaving nothing undone

he did not complete the picture until three years later

Words of this series are often close synonyms, and any one of this set may be substituted for close in a sentence like “singing the Alma Mater closes the services”.

- close its doors

- close one's eyes to

- close ranks

- close the books

- close the door

II. noun

( -s )

Etymology: Middle English clos, from closen to close — more at close I

1.

a. : a coming or bringing of something to a conclusion or end

the things that a busy life and its premature close left him no time to give — D.M.Davin

at the close of hostilities

b. : a conclusion or end in time or existence : cessation

as the decade drew to a close

bring the chapter to a close

after the close of the war

c. : a final stage, outcome, or finish

conduct the negotiations to a satisfactory close

d. : the concluding passage (as of a speech or play)

e. : complimentary close

2. : the conclusion of a musical strain or period : cadence

3. archaic : a bringing together : meeting , joining

attested by the holy close of lips — Shakespeare

4. archaic : a hostile encounter

unwounded from the dreadful close — Sir Walter Scott

5. : the closing price on a stock or a commodity or the closing prices on an exchange or over-the-counter market

6. dancing : the movement of a free foot towards and into contact with the supporting foot, with or without transfer of weight

III. ˈklōs sometimes -ōz noun

( -s )

Etymology: Middle English clos, from Old French clos, from Latin clausum enclosure, from neuter of clausus, past participle of claudere

1. : enclosure:

a. dialect Britain : an enclosed field especially near a farmhouse : farmyard

b. Britain : the precinct of a cathedral or abbey ; especially : an enclosed space close to a cathedral bordered by the archdeanery, deanery, and residences (as of the canons)

c. Britain : a walled enclosure (as a paddock or school playground)

d. Britain : an open space (as a quadrangle) that is partially or wholly closed in by a group of dwellings

2. chiefly Britain

a. : a narrow passage or entry leading from a street to a court and the houses within or to the common stairway of tenements

b. : a road closed at one end

3.

a. : a parcel of land in which a person has an interest involving at least a right of present possession whether enclosed or not, an ideal boundary being there in legal fiction

b. : the interest itself entitling the owner to an action of trespass for breach of the close

IV. ˈklōs adjective

( -er/-est )

Etymology: Middle English clos, from Middle French clos, from Latin clausus, past participle of claudere to close; akin to Greek kleid-, kleis key, bolt, kleiein to close, Old Irish clō nail, Old Slavic ključiti to close, Middle Low German slūten to close, Old High German sliozan, Old Frisian slūta

1.

a. : having no openings : closed

a close hatch

drove off in a close carriage

b. heraldry

(1) : with wings folded to the body — used of a bird

(2) : with the visor down — used of a helmet

2. archaic : closed in or around by or as if by walls or hills

close streets of the old city

3.

a. : confined or confining strictly : narrowly restricting or restricted

a close prisoner

close quarters

five days of close arrest

so close was her hold upon his arm that he feared to detach himself lest he should hurt her — Charles Dickens

to escape from a close , systematic, cultivated life into an open and relatively barbarous existence — Lewis Mumford

b.

(1) of a vowel : high I 1a(6)

(2) : formed with the tongue in a higher position than for another vowel — used of one of two vowels constituting a pair because similar in articulation or identical in orthography

Italian has a close and an open e

(3) of lip rounding : extreme

c. : restricted (as in membership, prerogatives, admission to competition) to a privileged class

a close scholarship

d. : closed 3g

the close season for hunting deer

e. of a chess game : characterized by a restricted development of pieces behind the pawns

4.

a. : out of the way of observation : secluded , secret

the bandits kept close during the day

b. : marked by a disposition to secrecy, taciturnity, or extreme discreetness about divulging information

she could tell us something if she would … but she was as close as wax — A. Conan Doyle

5. : maintained or achieved by virtue of unrelaxing scrutiny, acute discernment, and exacting minuteness : strict , rigorous

keeping a close watch on expenditures

close control over the credit structure

keeping records in close accord with facts

nothing short of a close critical analysis will do

a prisoner in close custody

6. : causing a sensation of being slightly smothered or stifled : sultry , stuffy

it seemed from the dreadfully close atmosphere that no window had been opened in it for weeks past — Anthony Trollope

I lolled on the couch and breathed its close smell of cloth in hot weather — Edmund Wilson

7. : reluctant to part with money or possessions : stingy or cautious about expenditures

a close buyer and a good marketer — W.A.White

8. : marked by an arrangement leaving little space between items or units

close texture

close grain in wood

a. : having individuals pressed, arranged, or arrayed quite near each other

in so close and murderous a conflict the valor of no single individual could decide the day — J.L.Motley

flying in close formation

b. : having characters written or inscribed with a minimum of space between

she was handicapped by her almost illegible close handwriting

c. of type : set with minimum spacing between words or lines

d. of a library classification : having relatively small subdivisions — compare broad

e. of an animal's coat : sleek and smooth with the hairs more or less parallel and close to the body : not loose or fluffy

a close -coated dog is better for working briery uplands

9.

a. : fitting quite tightly or exactly with very little looseness, play, or ease

a close gown

a bathing suit skintight and close

b. : very short or near to the ground, skin, or other surface

the fall mowing of the grass was too close

the barber gave him a close shave

c. : accurately matching or blending without interval or gap : precise

a concession that brought him into close harmony with his colleagues

unable to escape the force of close reasoning

d. of a tolerance : minute

10. : marked by being near, by nearness of any sort, or by adjacency, proximity, approach, or approximation in space

as close together as bungalows in a suburban town — American Guide Series: California

St. Louis is closer to Chicago than it is to Detroit

an … ibis, strikingly colorful at close range — American Guide Series: Florida

or in time

these dates come close to the Christmas holidays

or in kind

a strong intense smell close to that of burning garbage — Norman Mailer

Spanish is close to French and Italian

or in feeling

Whittier was close in spirit to the Rhode Island Quakers — American Guide Series: Rhode Island

farmers in overalls … proclaim again how close to the soil is Minneapolis — American Guide Series: Minnesota

or in effect

crude and vulgar are close synonyms

the banker has got to be close to the property he is financing — Encyc. Americana

or in degree

a speed close to that of sound

a salary close to the president's

or in action

his reply left her close to tears

or in relationship

first cousins are close relatives

11.

a. : marked by, given to, or enjoying strong liking or regard, mutual ready confidence, general accord, or constant association

you loved your mother and your sister, all the close circle that was bound to you by blood and habit — Mary Austin

too close to Theodore Roosevelt ever to receive the confidence of Woodrow Wilson — F.L.Paxson

b. : marked by or given to compatibility or conformity of interests, aims, pursuits, preferences, or by cordiality, accord, cooperation, or alliance

the close ties that bind them together

close relations between Norway and Sweden

12.

a. : marked by careful or searching attention to details and their relationships or by consideration of or familiarity with details

many of the 18th century policemen of usage were not close students of the language — Charlton Laird

a close study

close knowledge of French

close questioning about his activities

a close observer of weather conditions

b. : marked by fidelity in details especially to an original

a close copy of an old master

a close analogy between their customs and ours

c. : marked by terse economical expression of details

his exact, close , sober classical style — Edmund Wilson

13.

a. : decided by a narrow margin or a slight edge : long undecided because almost evenly balanced : marked by or showing opposed tendencies nearly even

a close baseball game ending with a score of 10-9

the base runner was safe at second on a close play

the close election of 1916

Minnesota was close , with twelve votes whose disposition must await final count — F.L.Paxson

a close race won by a nose

b. : taking a favorable turn only by a very small margin (as just barely in time or missing disaster by a hair)

looking at the vanishing train, he breathed “that was close ”

c. : having given the winning candidate only a slight majority (as less than 60 percent) in a two-party vote

a congressman from a close district

dividing the seats in the legislature into sure and close seats

14. English law : closed , sealed — used especially of writs or letters directed to particular persons for particular purposes and therefore not left open; opposed to patent

15. finance : difficult to obtain

money is close

16. : closed 1j

17.

a. of punctuation : characterized by liberal use of punctuation marks, especially commas

b. of the punctuation of a letter : characterized by the use of a comma at the end of each line of the heading and inside address except the last and after the complimentary close and of a period at the end of the last line of the heading and the inside address and after the signature — opposed to open

Synonyms:

dense , compact , thick : indicating a tight massing together with little intervening empty space, these words may be interchangeable in many contexts. close typically suggests a pressing together of things separable or often separated

close stitching

close formations

between the close moss violet-inwoven — P.B.Shelley

a close impervious soil — American Guide Series: North Carolina

In literary criticism it may indicate effective compression into few words

a relief to turn back to the austere, close language of Everyman, the simplicity of the mysteries — T.S.Eliot

dense describes an aggregation of particles or component units set very near each other and making penetration or perception difficult

the dense trees of the avenue rendered the road dark as a tunnel — Thomas Hardy

surrounded by a throng so dense that I could scarcely breathe — C.B.Nordhoff & J.N.Hall

Proust's book is a gigantic dense mesh of complicated relations — Edmund Wilson

compact may suggest a consolidation within a circumscribed area or space making for order, firmness, efficiency, or strength

the village has ceased to be a compact unit and it is no longer easy to find its center — Times Literary Supplement

below the ordinary height … he was all compact and under his swart, tattooed skin the muscles worked like steel rods — Herman Melville

thick may suggest a concentrated abundance

chestnuts near, that hung in masses thick — Alfred Tennyson

what the dry weather doesn't spoil, the tobacco worms will. They were thick as hops — Ellen Glasgow

sometimes the isle was thick with savages … sometimes full of dangerous animals — R.L.Stevenson

Synonym: see in addition familiar , silent , stingy .

- close to home

V. adverb

( -er/-est )

Etymology: Middle English clos, from clos, adjective

1.

a. : in proximity of space or time

in fog stick close to the white guideline

strangers draw close and ask each other two questions — E.W.Smith

its nucleons draw closer to one another — G.W.Gray b.1866

close to my cheek

close under the roof

building a school close by

overlooking the tasks lying close at hand

it is only close up that the impact of his power-charged personality makes itself felt — R.C.Doty

having their babies closer together

— often used in combination

close -set

b. : in proximity of approach

anxious to come closer to the truth of life

as for solving the problem, we haven't come close

2. archaic : secretly , covertly

His Royal Highness must lie very close here till tomorrow evening — John Buchan

3. : in a close state : tightly

there is not a door, nor a window, that shuts close — Tobias Smollett

4. : in a close manner

on looking closer, it struck me that Hamlet often does one thing instead of another — Karl Polanyi

5. : in close likeness or conformity

sticking close to the classic models

6. : in close or intimate association

the cause that touches me closest

there is something in the heart of street dogs that draws them close to men — William Saroyan

it is up to the illustrator to get as close as he can to the spirit of the text — Mervyn Peake

- close to the wind

VI. transitive verb

: to terminate access to (a computer file)

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.