Meaning of 'ABBAS II in English


also called 'abbas Hilmi Pasha born July 14, 1874, Alexandria, Egypt died Dec. 20, 1944, Geneva, Switz. last khedive (viceroy) of Egypt, from 1892 to 1914, when British hegemony was established. His opposition to British power in Egypt made him prominent in the nationalist movement. At the beginning of his reign, 'Abbas attempted to rule independently of Lord Cromer, the British agent and consul general in Egypt. Encouraged by popular discontent with the increasing British influence over Egypt and by the enthusiastic support of the nationalists, he appointed a prime minister who was well-known for his opposition to the British. When in 1894 he criticized the military efficiency of the British troops, Lord Cromer took steps to curb the viceroy's independence of action. After 1894, although 'Abbas no longer headed the nationalist movement, he provided financial assistance to the pan-Islamic and anti-British daily newspaper Al-Mu'ayyad. When in 1906 the nationalists demanded constitutional government for Egypt, however, 'Abbas, now reconciled with the British, rejected their demands. The following year he agreed to the formation of the National Party, headed by Mustafa Kamil, to counter the Ummah Party of the moderate nationalists, which was supported by the British. With the appointment of Lord Kitchener as consul general (1912-14), the leaders of the National Party were exiled or imprisoned, and 'Abbas' authority was curtailed. At the beginning of World War I 'Abbas issued an appeal to the Egyptians and the Sudanese to support the Central Powers and to fight the British. On Dec. 18, 1914, Britain declared Egypt its protectorate and deposed 'Abbas the following day. His uncle Husayn Kamil (reigned 1914-17) replaced him and assumed the title of sultan. In 1922, when Egypt was declared independent, 'Abbas lost all rights to the throne. He passed the rest of his life in exile, mainly in Switzerland.

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