Meaning of BOUNDARY ECOSYSTEM in English

complex of living organisms in areas where one body of water meets another, e.g., estuaries and lagoons, or where a body of water meets the land, e.g., marshes. The latter are often called wetlands. Boundary ecosystems are characterized by the presence of large plants. In the open water of the ocean and large lakes the basic production of living material (primary production) is carried out by microscopic algae (phytoplankton) floating freely in the water. At the bottom there is not enough light to allow growth of large, attached plants. In boundary ecosystems much of the area is shallow enough for light to reach the bottom and permit large plants to grow. Phytoplankton is also present, but the large plants give the boundary systems their special character. Additional reading Donald S. McLusky, The Estuarine Ecosystem, 2nd ed. (1989), is a concise account of the subject at the college level. John W. Day, Jr., et al., Estuarine Ecology (1989), deals with physical aspects, plants, animals, organic detritus, and human impacts, including some information on lagoons. K.H. Mann, Ecology of Coastal Waters: A Systems Approach (1982), discusses estuaries as well as sea grass, marsh grass, mangrove, seaweed, and mudflat communities. S.P. Long and C.F. Mason, Saltmarsh Ecology (1983), treats such topics as the formation, flora, fauna, physiography, and conservation of salt marshes. J.r. Lewis, The Ecology of Rocky Shores (1964), is still a standard work on organisms and their relationship to the environment. Roger N. Brehaut, Ecology of Rocky Shores (1982), is a concise, nontechnical text with suggestions for further reading. A.C. Brown and A. McLachlan, Ecology of Sandy Shores (1990), discusses sandy beaches worldwide. John R. Clark, Coastal Ecosystems: Ecological Considerations for Management of the Coastal Zone (1974), and Coastal Ecosystem Management: A Technical Manual for the Conservation of Coastal Zone Resources (1977, reprinted 1983), discuss the ecology of marine boundary ecosystems and the problems of management. Kenneth H. MannPatrick Dugan (ed.), Wetlands in Danger: A World Conservation Atlas (1993), summarizes all the world's major wetlands and wetland types. William J. Mitsch and James G. Gosselink, Wetlands, 2nd ed. (1993), describes seven major types of wetlands and the principles common to all wetlands. William A. Niering, Wetlands (1985), an illustrated text, details the habitats' features and characteristics. William J. Mitsch (ed.), Global Wetlands: Old World and New (1994), covers topics such as the biogeochemistry, modeling, and ecological engineering of wetlands, as well as wildlife management and river delta management. Regional accounts can be found in Canada Committee on Ecological (Biophysical) Land Classification, National Wetlands Working Group, Wetlands of Canada (1988), including an extensive bibliography; A.J. McComb and P.S. Lake, Australian Wetlands (1990); and Bates Littlehales and William A. Niering, Wetlands of North America (1991), both heavily illustrated with photographs. Edward Maltby, Waterlogged Wealth: Why Waste the World's Wet Places? (1986), describes the functions of wetlands and the degree to which they are threatened around the world. Jon A. Kusler, William J. Mitsch, and Joseph S. Larson, Wetlands, Scientific American, 270(1):6470 (January 1994), summarizes the structure and function of wetlands, emphasizing the importance of a fluctuating water level on ecosystem function. Dennis Whigham, Dagmar Dykyjov, and Slavomil Hejn (eds.), Wetlands of the World: Inventory, Ecology, and Management (1993 ), is a scholarly treatment. Max Finlayson and Michael Moser (eds.), Wetlands (1991), deals with all inland waters of the world from a conservation perspective. William J. Mitsch

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