Meaning of CHIA-MU-SSU in English

Pinyin Jiamusi, city in northeastern Heilungkiang sheng (province), northeastern China. Chia-mu-ssu is situated on the lower reaches of the Sungari River and has good natural communications by river upstream to such towns as Harbin (Ha-erh-pin) and I-lan, as well as with the Amur and Ussuri rivers during the summer months. Until the 18th century this region, which has fertile agricultural land, was largely unsettled because of the harsh climate and short growing season. When Chinese and Manchu settlers began to move into the area, Chia-mu-ssu developed as a small trading post under the name Tung-hsing-chen. In 1910 it became the seat of a county administration, under the name Hua-ch'uan; but after several floods the county seat was moved to Hao-li (Ho-kang), about 30 miles (50 km) to the north. Subsequently, Chia-mu-ssu continued to grow as a commercial centre and became a county-level municipality. A road system was constructed, providing year-round transport. After the Japanese occupation of Manchuria began in 1931-32, Chia-mu-ssu became an administrative centre of the puppet Manchukuo government and the capital of San-chiang province. It also became a major military base. Many settlers came into the area, not only from China but also from Korea and Japan. In 1937-38 it was connected by rail to Sui-hua and Harbin, as well as to Mu-tan- chiang. After 1949 the rapid development of Heilungkiang province continued, and Chia-mu-ssu grew still further as the transport and communications centre of the region. It also developed into an industrial city, manufacturing agricultural equipment, mining machinery, fertilizers, plastics, and chemicals. Since 1956 it has been a major producer of wood pulp and newsprint, having one of the biggest paper mills in China. It also has food-processing plants, some of which refine sugar from locally grown beets. Pop. (1988 est.) 449,000.

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