Meaning of SSU-MA KUANG in English

born 1019, Hsia, Hunan, China died 1086, Pien Lian, Hunan Pinyin Sima Guang scholar, statesman, and poet who compiled the monumental Tzu-chih t'ung-chien (Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government), a general chronicle of Chinese history from 403 BC to AD 959, considered one of the finest single historical works in Chinese. Known for his moral uprightness, he was learned in several disciplines and prominent in government. Ssu-ma Kuang studied the Confucian Classics and, after passing his civil-service examinations, rose rapidly to high office. Between 1069 and 1085 he led the faction opposing the radical reforms of the innovator Wang An-shih. Conservative in his interpretation of the Confucian Classics, Ssu-ma argued for the cause of good government through moral leadership rather than by assertive measures and through the improved functioning of tested institutions rather than by drastic changes. Shortly before his death he finally succeeded in dislodging Wang's faction from the government and became the leading minister in a government that attempted to repeal most of Wang's reforms. Until recent times most historians tended to view Ssu-ma favourably and Wang from an opposite viewpoint, but recent historical work has shown that Ssu-ma's program of antireform measures was not greatly successful. With chosen associates, Ssu-ma compiled the Tzu-chih t'ung-chien in emulation of the Ch'un-ch'iu (Spring and Autumn , a chronicle believed to have been edited by Confucius). Ssu-ma criticized men and institutions from the standpoint of Confucian moral principles. He devoted most of his attention to political events, but the work also covered such diverse subjects as rites, music, astronomy, geography, and economy. In spite of Ssu-ma's moral perspective, his chronicle showed evidence of rigorous critical standards. He even compiled a separate work, the Kao-i (Scrutiny), which dealt with the discrepancies in his numerous sources and gave his reasons for preferring certain authorities. Although the Communist government of China has attacked Confucianism, it nevertheless has high regard for Ssu-ma's scholarship. He was also an excellent poet and is the hero of modern Chinese children's books, which portray him as the child who saved a playmate from drowning by breaking the water tank into which his friend had fallen. Additional reading W.G. Beasley and E.G. Pulleyblank (eds.), Historians of China and Japan (1961); C.S. Gardner, Chinese Traditional Historiography (1961); J.T.C. Liu, Reform in Sung China (1959).

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