Meaning of DIAPHRAGM in English

dome-shaped, muscular and membranous structure that separates the thoracic (chest) and abdominal cavities in mammals; it is the principal muscle of respiration. The muscles of the diaphragm arise from the lower part of the sternum (breastbone), the lower six ribs, and the lumbar (loin) vertebrae of the spine and are attached to a central tendon. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the internal height of the thoracic cavity, thus lowering its internal pressure and causing inspiration of air. Relaxation of the diaphragm and the natural elasticity of lung tissue and the thoracic cage produce expiration. The diaphragm is also important in expulsive actionse.g., coughing, sneezing, vomiting, crying, and expelling feces, urine, and, in parturition, the fetus. The diaphragm is pierced by many structures, notably the esophagus, aorta, and inferior vena cava, and is occasionally subject to herniation (rupture). Spasmodic inspiratory movement of the diaphragm produces the characteristic sound known as hiccupping.

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.