Meaning of JAKARTA in English

formerly (until 1949) Batavia, or (194972) Djakarta, largest city and capital of Indonesia. Coextensive with the metropolitan district of Jakarta Raya, it has an area of 228 square miles (590 square kilometres) and lies at the mouth of the Ciliwung (Liwung River) on the northwest coast of Java. In 1966 the city was declared to be a special metropolitan district (daerah khusus ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a state or province. The city has long been a major trade and financial centre; it has also become an important industrial city and an important centre for education. formerly (until 1949) Batavia, or (194972) Djakarta largest city and the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. Located at the mouth of the Ciliwung (Liwung River) on the northwestern coast of the island of Java, the city is coextensive with the metropolitan district of Jakarta Raya and in 1966 was designated a special capital region (daerah khusus ibukota), a status approximating that of a state or province. Jakarta, long a major centre for trade and finance, has also developed into an important centre for industry and education. Jakarta occupies a low, flat alluvial plain that is easily flooded during the rainy season. Its tropical climate is characterized by high temperatures and rainfall, together producing oppressive humidity that averages between 75 and 85 percent. Jakarta has undergone tremendous growth and development since Indonesia reached independence in 1949. As the national capital and the chief centre of state planning, the city contains government ministries that are economically significant. It is also a major centre for trade: east of the city, Tanjungpriok, the largest port in Indonesia, handles exports from western Java and imports, many of which are transshipped to other Indonesian islands. Banking and commerce remain concentrated in the city centre, while new housing and industrial development are concentrated on the city's outskirts. Jakarta's manufacturing sector is minor compared to the city's service and trade functions. The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, margarine and soap factories, and breweries. A mixture of Western and Oriental architectural styles is everywhere apparent in Jakarta. The large public squares, such as Medan Merdeka (Freedom Field) and Lapangan Banteng (Place of the Gaur), are British and Dutch in character, whereas the Oriental style is evident in the city's types of houses, the wide, tree-lined streets, and the spacious gardens and house lots. The kampong (village) house, often built from wood or bamboo mats, is found in large concentrations throughout the city. Kampongs are often substandard, and housing in the city is generally overcrowded. Traffic jams occur during morning and evening rush hours, and the betjak (two-passenger tricycle taxi) is still common in local neighbourhoods. Large, modern stores in the main shopping areas contrast with the colourful markets and open-air shops. The Kota (Fort), or Old City, remains the central business district and the financial capital of Indonesia. It also contains several buildings from the colonial period, notably the Old Portuguese Church and the old city hall, now a museum. In the present city centre, north of Medan Merdeka, is the Presidential Palace, also dating from colonial times, and the National Monument, which, at 360 feet (110 m), is one of the highest structures in Jakarta. The nearby Istiqlal Mosque was designed to be the largest in Indonesia. Other major architectural features include the 14-story Indonesia Sheraton (originally the Hotel Indonesia), the city's first high-rise building, and the Senayan Sports Complex. Jakarta's cultural life is greatly enhanced by its many institutions of higher education. The largest and best-known is the Universitas Indonesia. Jakarta is an important centre for newspaper publishing, and the national radio and television networks broadcast programs from the city. Traditional arts, such as wayang dance and dramas, gamelan music, and wayang puppetry, are presented at the annual Jakarta Fair and at the Taman Ismail Marzuki centre. Local transportation is provided by bus and rail services; railways and roads, radiating east, west, and south, connect Jakarta with the productive areas of eastern and central Java and with the major cities. Jakarta has two airports that operate domestic and international flights. Area 228 square miles (590 square km). Pop. (1981 est.) 6,556,000. Additional reading On the history of Jakarta, see F. De Haan, Uit Oud-Batavia (1898); and Djakarta, Kotapradja, Sedjarah pemerintahan kota Djakarta (1958). A contemporary description is given in the guidebook, Djakarta, issued by the Petundjuk Dci (1969). Census and population information may be found in the Jakarta volumes issued by the Biro Pusat Statistik in its Sensus penduduk (Census of Population) reports for the censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1980; and in H.J. Heeren (ed.), The Urbanisation of Djakarta (1955). See also Djakarta: Its Rehabilitation and Development (n.d.), issued by the Badan Perentjana Pembangunan (Development Planning Body) of the City Government; and Pauline D. Milone, Urban Areas in Indonesia (1966). Willem Johan Waworoentoe History The first settlements on the site of Jakarta were established at the mouth of the Ciliwung, perhaps as early as the 5th century AD. The city's official history, however, starts in 1527, when the Sultan of Bantam defeated the Portuguese there and called the place Jayakerta (Sundanese: Glorious Fortress). The Dutch, under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, captured and razed the city in 1619, after which the capital of the Dutch East Indiesa walled township named Bataviawas established on the site. The colonial history of the city can be divided into three major periods. First was that of the Dutch East India Company, when most of the activities of the city centred around the fortress and the company warehouses. At that time the city somewhat resembled a typical Dutch town, complete with canals. The second period began in the early 1800s, when the city was extended to include higher and more healthful areas to the south, which would later become the seat of the new colonial government. A brief interval of British control during the Napoleonic Wars, ending in 1815, interrupted the second period. During the third period, which lasted from about the 1920s to 1941, the city became modernized. The colonial era ended with the entry of Japan into World War II, when Indonesia was occupied by Japanese forces. After the war the city was briefly occupied by the Allies and then was returned to the Dutch. During the Japanese occupation and again after Indonesian nationalists declared independence on August 17, 1945, the city was renamed Djakarta. The Dutch name Batavia remained the internationally recognized name until full Indonesian independence was achieved and Djakarta was officially proclaimed the national capital (and its present name recognized) on December 27, 1949. Jakarta has undergone tremendous growth and development since Indonesia's independence. Despite its problems, the city has become one of the largest metropolises of tropical Asia.

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