Meaning of YEAR IN REVIEW 1998: DISASTERS in English

Disasters The loss of life and property from disaster in 1997 included the following: Aviation January 9, Near Detroit. A twin-engine commuter airplane with 29 persons aboard crashed during a snowstorm; there were no survivors. February 1, Tambacounda, Senegal. An airliner carrying 52 persons, most of them French tourists, crashed on takeoff and burned, apparently after an engine malfunctioned; 23 persons died, including the plane's two pilots, one of whom was the son of Pres. Joo Bernardo Vieira of Guinea-Bissau. February 4, Shaar Yishuv, Israel. While ferrying troops to the Israeli security zone in southern Lebanon, two army helicopters collided in heavy fog, killing all 65 soldiers and 8 airmen aboard the two craft; it was the worst military air disaster in Israel's history. March 13, Near Neyshabur, Iran. A military cargo plane crashed in the mountains of northeastern Iran after the pilot had reported technical difficulties; the wreckage was discovered one week later; all 88 persons aboard the craft were killed. March 18, Near Cherkessk, Russia. An explosion aboard an airliner en route to Turkey caused the plane to plunge into a wooded area; 41 passengers and 9 crew members died. March 18, Near Sipitang, Sabah, Malaysia. Two Malaysian air force helicopters flying in adverse weather slammed into a hillside in a remote jungle on the island of Borneo; all 11 servicemen aboard the two craft were killed. April 19, Billiton, Indon. A passenger plane exploded in midair and crashed on a palm plantation; of the 52 persons aboard, at least 15 died. May 8, Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. A Boeing 737 attempted to touch down twice during a heavy rainstorm before slamming onto the runway and bursting into flames; at least 35 persons died, including 2 crew members. May 18, Lajes, Braz. A midair collision between two small planes claimed the lives of all 12 persons aboard the two craft; one woman on the ground, who was hit by falling debris, also died after suffering a heart attack. July 11, Off the coast of southeastern Cuba. About three minutes after taking off from Santiago de Cuba, a Havana-bound airliner plummeted into the Caribbean Sea; all 39 passengers and 5 crew members aboard the plane were killed. July 17, Bandung, Indon. A commuter airplane en route to Jakarta lost power soon after takeoff and crashed near a housing complex; at least 29 persons, including all 5 crew members, perished; 3 persons on the ground were injured. August 6, Near Agana, Guam. A Boeing 747-300 flying through heavy rain plowed into a jungle ravine a few kilometres short of Guam International Airport, apparently after the crew misjudged the location of the runway; a software error had crippled an airport radar system that might have aided the pilot in landing the plane safely; of the 254 persons aboard, 27 survived. August 10, Matsu Island, Taiwan. A small passenger plane with 16 persons aboard slammed into a mountain while preparing to land; there were no survivors. August 30, Nazca, Peru. A collision between two small planes over the Nazca Lines, a group of huge animal figures and geometric forms etched into the ground before the 12th century, claimed the lives of the two pilots and 10 tourists aboard the two craft. September 3, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. An airliner attempting to land in a monsoonal downpour crashed and burned in a rice paddy just short of the single runway at Pochentong International Airport; 65 persons, including 6 crew members, were killed; one young boy survived. September 6, Near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia. A passenger plane crashed in a jungle in Lambir Hills National Park; all 10 persons aboard the craft were killed. September 13, Off the coast of Namibia. A collision between a German military jet and a U.S. Air Force cargo plane claimed the lives of all 33 persons aboard the two craft. September 17, Near Bugojno, Bosnia and Herzegovina. An Mi-8 helicopter carrying members of a United Nations delegation slammed into a fog-covered mountainside about 72 km (45 mi) northwest of Sarajevo; all 12 passengers aboard the craft, including senior German diplomat Gerd Wagner, were killed; the four crew members survived the crash. September 26, Near Medan, Indon. An airliner went down about 32 km (20 mi) from Polonia International Airport in an area clouded with smoke from regional forest fires; according to witnesses, the plane was flying low in a haze when it struck a tree and exploded into pieces in a ravine; all 234 persons aboard were killed; it was Indonesia's worst aviation disaster. October 3, Off the coast of Azerbaijan. A helicopter transporting oil workers to an offshore oil field crashed into the Caspian Sea; 22 persons were killed. October 10, Near Nuevo Berln, Uruguay. A DC-9 en route to Buenos Aires with 75 persons aboard crashed while trying to avoid a heavy rainstorm; there were no survivors. December 6, Near Irkutsk, Russia. A military cargo plane, carrying two fighter jets, smashed into an apartment complex just after takeoff, clipping an orphanage with its wing and demolishing one end of the five-story apartment building; more than 60 persons were killed, including 17 crew members and 6 passengers; it was reported that two of the plane's four engines had failed, possibly owing to poor fuel. December 15, Near Sharjah, U.A.E. A Tajik airliner with 86 persons aboard went down in a desert area when an explosion rocked the plane as it started to land; one person survived. December 17, Near Katerini, Greece. A Ukrainian airliner crashed on a snowy mountainside about 80 km (50 mi) southwest of Salonika, apparently after the pilot became disoriented and believed he had cleared the mountains; all 70 persons aboard the craft were killed. December 19, Near Palembang, Indon. A Boeing 737 en route to Singapore and carrying 104 persons crashed in the Musi River; there were no survivors. December 31, Near San Blas, Panama. A small plane slammed into a mountain while flying in foggy weather; 10 persons were killed. Fires and Explosions February 4, Xichong, Sichuan province, China. An explosion at a storehouse for materials used in making fireworks claimed the lives of 21 persons and injured 26; more than 20 houses were destroyed by the blast. February 23, Baripada, India. A fire that swept through an encampment of thatched-roof huts where scores of Hindu worshippers had gathered killed more than 110 persons and injured at least 165; many of the victims may have died in a stampede as they tried to escape the flames; the cause of the fire was unknown. March 19, Jalalabad, Afg. A powerful explosion at a police department where the Islamic Taliban militia stored weapons and ammunition killed at least 40 persons and injured 150; the blast created a crater 50 m (165 ft) in diameter and 10 m (33 ft) deep; the Taliban insisted that the explosion was accidental and not the result of sabotage. April 15, Mina, Saudi Arabia. A raging fire and an ensuing stampede in a crowded tent compound claimed the lives of at least 300 Muslims who were making the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, and about 1,300 persons were injured; the fire began when a gas cylinder used for cooking exploded. April 26, Cotabato, Phil. A hotel fire that started in a prayer room on the third floor raced through the upper stories of the structure, killing at least 25 persons and injuring 9. April 30, Burrel, Alb. Antigovernment rebels inadvertently set off an explosion at an underground ammunition depot they were attempting to plunder; 27 rebels were killed. May 23, Banjarmasin, Indon. On the final day of a parliamentary election campaign that had been marred by numerous riots, at least 130 persons died in a shopping complex that rioters had looted and then set ablaze; according to police, all of the victims were looters who had been trapped in the complex after the fire began in a ground-floor bank. June 7, Thanjavur, India. A fire at an 11th-century Hindu temple claimed the lives of 41 persons. June 13, New Delhi. An explosion of an electrical transformer started a fire that engulfed a crowded movie theatre, killing 60 persons and injuring more than 200; four theatre managers were subsequently arrested for suspected criminal negligence after survivors reported that their escape had been hampered by locked doors. July 3, Valencia, Spain. A ship caught fire as it was being loaded with fuel; at least 19 shipyard workers died in the blaze. July 9, Craiova, Rom. A bomb exploded while being loaded onto a plane at a military airfield, killing at least 16 military engineers and defense industry workers. July 11, Pattaya, Thai. A hotel fire, which erupted when a gas oven exploded in a first-floor coffee shop, swept through the 17-story building and claimed the lives of 90 persons; many victims died next to exits that were chained shut to keep guests from skipping out on their bills; 64 persons were injured. August 20, Blaye, France. A grain silo exploded and collapsed onto the offices of a storage company, burying 12 persons under tons of grain and concrete; a buildup of dust and static electricity inside the silo was suspected of having caused the blast. September 8, Casablanca, Mor. A fire engulfed a wing of a jail and killed 28 prisoners; an electrical fault may have started the blaze. September 14, Vishakhapatnam, India. Four gas tanks exploded in a petroleum refinery, causing six buildings to collapse and igniting a fire that blazed for several days; an estimated 60,000 persons were forced to flee their homes after electricity was cut and dense smoke blanketed the city; at least 60 persons were killed. September 29, Santiago, Chile. An electrical short circuit started a fire that swept through a home for the mentally impaired; 30 residents of the home were killed, including several who did not recognize the danger and walked back into the burning building after being rescued. October 24, Jiangxi province, China. A fire engulfed a seven-story hotel and claimed the lives of 22 persons. October 31, Milan. Flames ignited by an electrical fault swept through a high-pressure treatment chamber at a hospital, killing 10 patients and a nurse. November 10, Kaduna, Nigeria. At least eight inmates at a police station were burned to death and three persons killed in a stampede caused by a fire in Kaduna's central market. November 26, Maracaibo, Venez. A blaze sparked by a short circuit in a cellblock of a prison claimed the lives of at least 16 persons and injured more than 30. December 8, Jakarta, Indon. Flames engulfed the top floors of an office tower of Bank Indonesia, killing 15 persons; the fire was thought to have been started by a short circuit in the building's air-conditioning system. Marine February 12, Lake Victoria, Kenya. A boat overloaded with passengers capsized during a storm and sank near the island of Sukuru; 34 persons lost their lives; 6 men survived the disaster by clinging to pieces of wood and other debris. Mid-February, Off the coast of Norway. A freighter registered in Cyprus sank after its captain had radioed that the ship was taking on water; all 20 crewmen aboard were killed. February 20, Off the northern coast of Sri Lanka. A boat carrying Tamil refugees to India overturned after leaving the port of Nachchikuddah; 165 persons were presumed drowned. March 13, Congo (Zaire) River, Zaire. A storm hit boats carrying hundreds of Rwandan refugees, mostly Hutu, who were fleeing advancing Tutsi rebels; at least 200 persons drowned. March 15, Irrawaddy River, Myanmar (Burma). A ship with 537 passengers aboard capsized in a sudden storm; 35 persons died. March 28, Off the coast of Brindisi, Italy. A boat carrying between 120 and 130 Albanian refugees sank after colliding with an Italian naval vessel; over 80 refugees were killed; although survivors claimed that the warship purposely rammed their craft to prevent it from landing, the Italian navy denied the charges. July 13, Sumatra, Indonesia. More than 75 persons were killed when an overcrowded boat, carrying about 200 passengers from Tomok who were returning from a cultural festival in Parapat, sank in Lake Toba. July 18, Kosi River, India. A crowded boat capsized in a river swollen by monsoonal rains; at least 35 persons drowned. August 15, Central Philippines. A predawn storm overturned a ferry in the Visayan Sea; 13 persons drowned, and 15 were missing. August 26, Bonny River, Nigeria. Two riverboats transporting passengers and cargo collided during conditions of poor visibility; 100 persons were feared dead. September 8, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti. An overcrowded ferry that was carrying at least 700 passengers, more than twice its capacity, capsized near the port of Montrouis when passengers rushed to one side of the vessel; more than 172 persons drowned. September 26, Strait of Malacca, at Port Dickson, Malaysia. A supertanker collided with a cargo ship in conditions of low visibility possibly created by thick smoke from regional forest fires; 29 crew members from the cargo ship were missing and feared dead. October 10, Eastern India. An overcrowded boat capsized in Bihar, killing at least 15 persons. November 14, Northwestern Uganda. One of two boats carrying teachers and pupils of a primary school capsized off the shore of Lake Albert, where the group had been having a picnic; 18 persons drowned. December 12, Mano River, between Sierra Leone and Liberia. At least 60 civilians fleeing renewed fighting in eastern Sierra Leone were feared drowned after their canoe capsized. December 15, Port-au-Prince Bay. A ferry headed to the Haitian island of La Gonave sank after leaving Port-au-Prince; 18 people were killed, and more than 20 were missing and feared dead. Mining and Tunneling March 4, Henan province, China. A series of explosions in underground shafts that connected three privately run coal mines claimed the lives of 86 miners and injured 12. May 28, Fushun, Liaoning province, China. A gas explosion at a coal mine killed 68 miners. June 23, Northern Iran. Part of a tunnel collapsed in a coal mine after a gas explosion; 18 miners were killed, and 32 were injured. July, Hartbeesfontein, S.Af. A sudden rupture of rock in a gold mine entombed 18 miners. July 26, Guangdong province. Workers were trapped in a coal mine after water rushed into a shaft; 10 miners were feared dead. September 3, Near Tarkwa, Ghana. A landslide killed 12 gold miners who were digging in a pit illegally after the regular workers at the mine had left for the day. September 18, Spitsbergen Island, Svalbard, Nor. A powerful methane explosion claimed the lives of 26 miners in a Russian-operated coal mine. Late September, Central Vietnam. Flooding triggered by Typhoon Fritz collapsed tunnels and caused landslides at two gold mines; some 54 miners were killed. October 17, Northeastern Colombia. A buildup of methane gas was the apparent cause of an explosion at a coal mine; 16 miners lost their lives. November 4, Guizhou province, China. An explosion at a coal mine claimed the lives of 43 miners. November 13, Anhui province, China. A gas explosion ripped through a coal mine in the city of Huainan; 87 miners and 2 rescue workers died. November 27, Anhui province. A gas explosion at a coal mine killed 45 miners; at another mine on the same day, a gas explosion claimed the lives of 28. December 2, Southern Siberia, Russia. A massive methane gas explosion ripped through a deep shaft in a coal mine, killing at least 61 miners. Miscellaneous January 8, Lahore, Pak. Toxic gas leaked from the cylinders of a truck that had broken down in a densely populated neighbourhood; at least 32 persons were killed. January 20, Hyderabad, Pak. At least 32 persons died after drinking a poisonous brew of homemade liquor. May 4, Near Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo. More than 100 Rwandan Hutu refugees suffocated or were crushed to death on a severely overcrowded train; 6,000 refugees had swarmed onto the six-car train to travel to Kisangani, where they were hoping to join a United Nations airlift to Rwanda. June-August, France, Italy, and Switzerland. Heavy snowfall in the Alps followed by unusually hot weather created treacherous conditions for mountain climbers during the summer; at least 92 climbers perished, most in avalanches and rockfalls triggered by melting snow. June-August, Yunnan province, China. At least 76 persons died after eating poisonous mushrooms they had collected. June 12, Enugu, Nigeria. An unfinished three-story building collapsed, killing 20 persons; the cause of the collapse was unknown. July 12, Zhejiang province. A housing complex that had been converted into a textile factory collapsed, killing 36 persons. July 17, Tomsk, Russia. A barracks at a military academy collapsed a few minutes before reveille; 11 cadets were killed and 37 injured; the barracks, a 19th-century monastery that the military had converted, had been badly in need of repairs. August 24, San Pedro Sula, Honduras. A rat chewed through an electrical cable at a state-run hospital and caused a power outage; at least 14 persons on life-support machines, including 4 newborn infants, were killed. August 31, Nsele, Democratic Republic of the Congo. As troops were trying to impose order at a crowded swimming pool where boys were attempting to undress girls, 21 children fell into the pool and drowned. September 4, Ciudad del Este, Paraguay. Strong winds caused part of a sports stadium to collapse while the ruling Colorado Party held a political rally; at least 33 persons were killed, and more than 100 were injured. September 11, Northwestern Estonia. While crossing a strait on foot as part of a training exercise, a platoon of 22 soldiers was swept into deep waters when strong winds arose; 14 soldiers drowned. November 16, Bombay (Mumbai). At least 18 persons, mostly farmers, died after drinking contaminated liquor at a pub. Natural Early January, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. Heavy rains and snowstorms triggered widespread flooding during the last week of December and the first days of January; at least 125,000 persons were forced from their homes, and a state of emergency was declared in more than 90 counties; at least 29 deaths were attributed to the floods. Early January, Europe. An intense cold wave that began in late December claimed the lives of at least 228 persons across the continent; it was the worst freeze in Europe in a decade. January 21, Xinjiang Uygur, China. Two strong earthquakes, one of magnitude 6.4 and another of magnitude 6.3, occurred one minute apart and caused more than 500 buildings to collapse; at least 12 persons died. February 4-5, Northeastern Iran. An earthquake of magnitude 5.4 was followed by another of magnitude 6.1 less than an hour later; an aftershock of magnitude 5.7 further jolted the region the following day; 72 persons were killed, and 200 were injured. February 18, Southern Peru. A massive mud slide caused by heavy rains buried the Andean villages of Cocha and Pumaranra; as many as 300 persons were killed. February 28, Balochistan, Pak. A powerful earthquake of magnitude 7.3 claimed the lives of more than 100 persons and left hundreds homeless. February 28 and March 2, Northwestern Iran. An earthquake of magnitude 6.1 damaged or destroyed 83 villages; another quake, of magnitude 5.2, struck two days later; at least 965 persons died, and more than 2,600 were injured. Late February-early March, Bolivia. The heaviest rains in Bolivia in nearly three decades caused massive flooding in the country's tropical lowlands; the crops of some 100,000 farmers were destroyed, and at least 16 persons were killed. Late February-early March, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Torrential rains triggered extensive flooding along portions of the Ohio River; thousands of residents were forced to leave their homes as floodwaters inundated many small towns; at least 30 persons were killed. Early March, Arkansas. Tornadoes swept across the state, flattening buildings, uprooting trees, and destroying houses and trailer homes; at least 25 persons lost their lives. Early March, Fiji. Cyclone Gavin wreaked havoc on the nation, causing extensive damage and claiming the lives of at least 26 persons, including 10 who were lost at sea when their fishing trawler sank about 72 km (45 mi) southwest of Suva. March 26, Northern Afghanistan. An avalanche roared down onto the Salang Highway, burying at least 100 persons who were walking toward a tunnel to catch a bus. Late March, Saudi Arabia. Strong winds and heavy rains were responsible for killing 21 persons. Late April, Pohnpei Island, Federated States of Micronesia. Landslides brought on by heavy rains and flooding were blamed for the deaths of 13 persons. May 2, Northern Egypt. A sandstorm claimed the lives of 12 persons and injured 50. May 10, Northeastern Iran. An earthquake of magnitude 7.1 accompanied by aftershocks as strong as 5.5 wrecked 200 villages and left some 50,000 residents homeless; at least 1,560 persons died. Mid-May, Guangdong province. Floods caused by torrential rains inundated 177 villages; at least 110 persons were killed, and more than 1,300 were injured. May 19, Southeastern Bangladesh. A cyclone devastated the coastal region, destroying or damaging more than 600,000 homes; at least 100 persons were killed, and nearly 10,000 were injured. May 22, Central India. An earthquake of magnitude 6.1 struck near Jabalpur; at least 30 persons perished. May 27, Central Texas. Several tornadoes ripped through the state from Waco to Austin, ravaging about 400 ha (1,000 ac) of farmland and destroying some 60 homes; 30 persons were killed, 27 in the small town of Jarrell, 64 km (40 mi) north of Austin. Late May, Philippines. Widespread flooding brought on by three days of rain claimed the lives of at least 29 persons. June, Central Chile. Three weeks of incessant rain left at least 18 persons dead and at least 45,000 homeless. June-August, India. Torrential rains during the monsoon season caused floods and landslides throughout the country; at least 945 persons were killed, and crops covering an area of 1,550,000 ha (3,800,000 ac) were damaged. June-December, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Drought and frosts brought on by the El Nio weather phenomenon destroyed crops, contributed to the spread of regional forest fires, and produced a devastating famine; by year's end more than 500 persons in the Indonesian province of Irian Jaya and at least 70 persons in Papua New Guinea had died. June 23, Western Ukraine and western Belarus. Severe storms claimed the lives of 11 persons. Late June, Northern Pakistan. During a thunderstorm lightning struck a huge rock, causing the rock to break and tumble down a slope onto houses in a village; 25 persons were killed. Late June, Montserrat. A major eruption of the Soufrire Hills volcano on June 25 devastated the southern two-thirds of the island and killed at least 19 persons; some 8,000 of Montserrat's 12,000 residents were evacuated, and the island's only airport was forced to close; an eruption of the Chances Peak volcano on June 30 compounded the disaster. Both volcanoes had been active since 1995. Late June-early August, Central Europe. Torrential rains triggered the worst flooding in the region in 200 years; more than 100 persons were killed in western Poland and the northern third of the Czech Republic as the Oder River and smaller rivers overflowed, inundating hundreds of towns and forcing hundreds of thousands of residents to evacuate their homes; floods also hit the lowlands of eastern Germany in late July, causing extensive damage but no deaths. Early July-late August, Myanmar. Heavy rains spawned widespread flooding; at least 13 persons were killed, and thousands were left homeless. July 2, Southern Michigan. Thunderstorms and tornadoes knocked down trees, interrupted electricity, and destroyed 339 homes and businesses; 16 persons lost their lives, and more than 100 were injured. July 9, Eastern Venezuela. A strong earthquake of magnitude 6.9 jolted the coastal region east of Caracas, leaving at least 79 persons dead, more than 500 injured, and some 3,000 homeless. July 10, Izumi, Japan. Torrential rains set off a mud slide that crashed through a concrete barrier 14 m (45 ft) high and destroyed 16 houses; 19 persons were killed. July 13, Southeastern Bangladesh. Massive flooding killed at least 57 persons and left some 250,000 homeless. July 18, Guizhou province. More than 30 persons were killed by a landslide that occurred after days of heavy rain. July 30, Thredbo, Australia. Part of a road collapsed on a steep mountainside above a popular ski resort, setting off a massive landslide that buried two lodges; 18 persons perished; rescuers pulled one survivor from the rubble on August 2. Early August, Southern China. Typhoon Victor battered the provinces of Guangdong and Fujian, destroying 10,000 homes and claiming the lives of 49 persons; millions of residents were affected by the storm and related flooding. August 12, Northern Arizona. A flash flood scoured the narrow Antelope Canyon, sweeping 11 hikers to their death; the wall of water had entered the canyon after a thunderstorm struck near Page. Mid-August, Central Chile. A four-day storm claimed the lives of at least 10 persons and destroyed bridges and roads in the region. August 18-19, Taiwan, eastern China, and the Philippines. Typhoon Winnie swept across the Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea, creating winds of up to 148 km/h (92 mph) and producing heavy rain; at least 37 persons died in Taiwan, where low-lying areas suffered severe flooding; at least 140 persons were killed and tens of thousands of homes were destroyed in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangsu; the typhoon also spawned flooding in the Philippines, where 16 persons died and 60,000 residents were forced to abandon their homes. Late August, Southern Thailand. Storms from the South China Sea and Indian Ocean caused massive flooding; 28 persons were killed. September 11, Andhra Pradesh, India. Lightning killed 19 persons and injured 6. Late September-October, Central Italy. Repeated earthquakes wreaked havoc on the region for weeks, displacing an estimated 38,000 persons; on September 26 two quakes, one of magnitude 5.5 and another of magnitude 5.6, struck nine hours apart, severely damaging the Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi and killing 11 persons. September 27, Southeastern Bangladesh. A cyclone ravaged the coastal region, killing at least 60 persons and injuring hundreds. September 28, Sulawesi, Indon. A magnitude-6 earthquake followed by more than 300 aftershocks claimed the lives of at least 17 persons and destroyed or damaged hundreds of homes. October 8-10, Southern Mexico. Hurricane Pauline devastated the resort city of Acapulco and pummeled numerous villages along the Pacific coast in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero; winds of up to 185 km/h (115 mph) and waves as high as 9 m (30 ft) were reported; 217 persons were killed, and 20,000 were left homeless. October 12, Tongi, Bangladesh. A tornado claimed the lives of at least 25 Muslim worshippers who had gathered on the banks of the Turag River for a prayer ceremony; thousands were injured. Mid-October-late November, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya. Torrential rains and the worst flooding in eastern Africa in more than three decades destroyed crops and prompted fears of widespread famine; more than 2,000 persons were killed, and an estimated 800,000 were displaced. Late October, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Early snowstorms blanketed many areas, closed roads and airports, and caused widespread electrical power outages; at least 16 persons were killed. October 31, Azores, Portugal. Heavy rains that fell on the Azores, roughly 1,600 km (1,000 mi) west of Portugal in the North Atlantic Ocean, triggered mud slides that buried houses in Ribeira Quente on the island of So Miguel; 18 persons were killed, and at least 12 were missing and feared dead. Early November, Cook Islands. Cyclone Martin roared through the Polynesian state, wreaking havoc on the islands of Pukapuka, Manihiki, and Rakahanga; the storm claimed the lives of 9 persons and left 10 missing. Early November, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand. Typhoon Linda pummeled the southern regions of the three countries, flattening thousands of homes and sinking hundreds of fishing boats; nearly two weeks after the storm hit, an official tally of casualties in Vietnam listed 464 persons dead and 3,218 missing; more than 20 persons were killed in Cambodia and Thailand. November, Ecuador. Torrential rains and mud slides caused severe damage throughout the country; 25 persons were killed, and some 10,000 were left homeless. November 23, Eastern Uganda. Landslides and floods triggered by heavy rains claimed the lives of at least 29 persons. December 1, Northern India. A powerful storm struck approximately 35 villages; at least 44 persons died, and 100 were injured. Late December, Ambar, Peru. A strong storm attributed to the El Nio triggered a mud slide that washed three makeshift homes into a river in the Andes Mountains; 13 persons, all members of the same family, were believed dead. Railroad February 3, Radissiyah, Egypt. A cargo train rear-ended a passenger train stopped at the station; 11 persons lost their lives. February 10, Near Ciego de vila, Cuba. A train carrying military conscripts collided with a locomotive, killing 13 persons and injuring 65. March 3, Near Khanewal, Pak. At least 125 persons were killed and 175 injured when a train derailed after an apparent brake failure. March 31, Huarte Arakil, Spain. A speeding passenger train derailed as it entered the station; 22 persons were killed, and 89 were injured. April 29, Hunan province, China. A cross-country passenger train plowed into the rear of a local train; at least 58 persons lost their lives. May 5, Near Szczecin, Pol. A passenger train jumped the tracks and slammed into a stationary freight train; at least 11 persons died. July 27, Faridabad, India. A crowded express train sped past a stop signal and rear-ended a passenger train that was pulling out of the station; at least 12 persons perished. September 8, Near Bordeaux, France. A train struck a fuel truck at a railroad crossing and caused the truck to explode into flames; 12 persons died, including the truck's driver. September 14, Near Champa, Madhya Pradesh, India. A train derailed when its driver applied the emergency brakes after spotting a red flag just 100 m (328 ft) before a bridge; no one had informed the driver that the bridge was under repair; five railroad cars plunged into a river; at least 82 persons were killed, and more than 200 were injured. November 5, Near Kotabumi, Indon. An express train slammed into a bus at an unguarded level crossing, killing at least 26 persons. November 6, Eastern Cuba. A collision between a 12-coach passenger train and a bus at a railroad crossing claimed the lives of 56 persons and seriously injured 6. December 24, Eastern Pakistan. A passenger train slammed into a second train stopped at a station; at least 20 persons were killed. Traffic January 14, Cairo. A speeding bus crashed through a fence and plunged off a bridge into the Nile River; at least 39 persons were killed, and at least 24 were injured. January 19, Punjab, India. A bus transporting a wedding party plummeted into a rain-swollen river after the driver lost control of the vehicle on a sharp curve; 29 persons lost their lives, and 12 were injured. January 19, Near Huancayo, Peru. A bus carrying people to a religious festival hurtled off the side of a cliff and fell about 80 m (265 ft); at least 20 persons were killed. March 10, Guatemala City, Guat. A passenger bus exploded when canisters of paint thinner were accidentally ignited by a cigarette; 11 persons burned to death, and 24 were injured. March 17, Western Azerbaijan. A bus smashed through a safety barrier on a bridge and dropped 15 m (50 ft) into a river; at least 46 persons died. April 21, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thai. A truck went out of control and hit the rear of one bus before crashing into another; at least 16 persons were killed, and more than 80 were injured. July 21, Near Rio de Janeiro. A multiple pileup involving two trucks, two buses, and a car occurred on the busy Via Dutra highway after the driver of the car slammed on his brakes to avoid hitting a truck in front of him; 14 persons lost their lives, and 22 were injured. July 29, Concord, Mich. A pickup truck collided with a dump truck at a rural intersection; 11 persons in the pickup, including 9 children, were killed. July 30, Plymouth, N.C. A sport utility vehicle carrying 10 high-school students tried to pass in a no-passing zone on a rain-slickened road and collided with a tractor trailer; all 10 students perished. Early August, Peru. Three major bus crashes took place in a week; near Trujillo a collision between a bus and a minibus claimed the lives of 23 persons and injured 40; in northern Peru a minibus collision killed 17 persons and injured 40; between Cuzco and Nazca a bus overturned, killing 23 persons and injuring 50. August 8, Erzincan, Tur. A bus attempting to round a curve veered off a road and fell into a ravine; 25 persons were killed, and 17 were injured, 7 seriously. August 27, Near Sargodha, Pak. A head-on collision between two buses during a rain shower claimed the lives of 14 persons and injured 45. September 4, Northwestern Turkey. Two buses collided on the main highway between Ankara and Istanbul, apparently after one of the drivers fell asleep at the wheel; 33 persons were killed, and at least 40 were injured. September 4, Near Dese, Eth. An overcrowded bus plunged 130 m (425 ft) into a ravine; 36 persons lost their lives, and 13 were injured. September 9, Southern California. A pickup truck veered across the centre line on Highway 1 and collided head-on with a crowded van; 11 persons were killed in the fiery crash. September 15, Jakarta. A head-on collision between a bus and a truck on a busy toll road claimed the lives of 36 persons. September 16, Maseer, Egypt. A truck transporting a group of child labourers overturned on a narrow, unpaved road and fell into a canal; 29 children drowned, and more than 50 were injured. September 21, Jammu and Kashmir, India. A bus skidded off a highway and plunged 150 m (490 ft) into a river; 22 persons were killed, and 14 were seriously injured. October 2, Southern France. The driver of a bus lost control of his vehicle, possibly because of a blown-out tire; the bus smashed through the security rails of an overpass and dropped 15 m (50 ft) onto a road below; at least 12 persons died. October 2, Southern India. An overcrowded bus fell from a bridge into a river; at least 43 persons were killed, and 20 were missing. October 3, Northwestern India. A collision between a four-wheel-drive vehicle and a truck claimed the lives of at least 14 persons and injured 6. October 11, Northeastern Zimbabwe. A bus and a truck collided, killing at least 22 persons. October 13, Central Quebec. A tourist bus carrying senior citizens to view the autumn foliage plunged about 20 m (65 ft) into a ravine; 43 persons lost their lives. October 15, Central Bangladesh. A bus fell into a ditch while trying to avoid a collision with another vehicle; 58 persons perished. October 19, Near Freetown, Sierra Leone. At least 67 Sierra Leoneans fleeing air raids by Nigerian warplanes were killed when the truck in which they were traveling somersaulted on a bridge and plunged into a ravine. November 9, Western Bangladesh. The driver of a speeding bus swerved into a river to avoid hitting two buffalo; at least 11 persons died, and 30 were injured. November 16, Near Mendota, Calif. A van collided with a tractor trailer in foggy conditions on a rural highway; 11 persons were killed, 10 of whom were farmworkers. November 18, Near New Delhi. An overcrowded school bus skidded off a bridge and dropped 12 m (40 ft) into the Yamuna River; at least 25 children were killed, and some 60 were injured. November 24, Northern Thailand. A head-on collision between two packed buses killed at least 20 persons and injured more than 30. December 26, Near Huancayo. A bus loaded with passengers careened off a highway in the Andes after striking a large rock and tumbled 150 m (500 ft) into a ravine; 27 persons died, and 36 were injured. Doomsday Cults by Martin E. Marty Waco, Heaven's Gate, Solar Temple, Aum Shinrikyo ("Supreme Truth"), and People's Temple, or Jonestown, are shorthand terms often used to recall places, movements, and events associated with groups known as doomsday cults. Hearing predictions that there are likely to be more such cults as the year 2000 approaches, many who do not belong to them are trying to make sense of these movements, which they find both strange and threatening. The first thing people do when they are puzzled by something complex is turn to the experts, in this case the scholars. The first thing most of those who study cults say is do not use the word cult, or be careful when you do use it, and perhaps keep it in quotation marks. They hold that while the word cult originally was intended to be neutral and innocent, since Jim Jones in 1978 provoked mass suicide among his followers, many have associated cults with killing. That assumption, state the scholars, is unfair to all those who belong to quite peaceful and harmless movements. Yet no one has settled on a satisfactory alternative term, though some speak of NRMs ("new religious movements"). In addition, if people use the word cult carefully, they would do well to attach adjectives to it each time. Sometimes the adjective used is apocalyptic. Because of the Christian shading of the term apocalypse ("involving or portending widespread devastation or ultimate doom"), however, many prefer a word that stretches across the religions and therefore advocate the word doomsday. Doomsday cults have a long history in the United States. Beginning in colonial times, preachers and leaders of many spiritual movements often made the final judgment of a person's life and the subsequent threat of his or her doom central to their proclamations and appeals. Rarely would these leaders proclaim that everyone was doomed. Instead, they would draw on old biblical stories or invent new ones, stories that described how a minority would be saved, while many, maybe most, would be "lost" forever. In order to be saved, followers were instructed that they had to respond to the appeals, change their ways, believe what the leader taught them, and, frequently, form tightly bonded groups so that they could stay at some distance from lures and distractions--including, often, members of their own families. In their closed-in, cultic circles, they would receive the messages of truth, affirm one another, screen out other interpretations of reality, and support each other through ordeals that the group envisioned. In the 19th century two newly developing religions had elements that led them to be regarded, especially by their many rivals and enemies, as something like today's doomsday cults. Most familiar of these movements was the gathering on a hilltop in New York of followers who had been persuaded by William Miller that they should sell all their possessions, gather, and greet Jesus Christ, who was returning, making a "Second Advent" in 1843 or 1844. When Jesus failed to appear, the disappointed regathered in what is today Seventh-day Adventism. Students and followers of Charles Taze Russell foresaw doom at various times, notably 1914. They survive as Jehovah's Witnesses. In neither case did the followers physically come and stay together in communes or other enclaves, however. Unlike those in many present-day cults, they had and have regular jobs, regular lives. The charismatic leader has been central in the groups thought of as doomsday cults in the late-20th-century U.S. This is often a person who draws on ancient scriptures and prophecies and then interprets what the Bible calls "the signs of the times." All around, this leader sees evil and corruption and views them, sometimes even including natural disasters, as tokens of divine wrath and signals of judgment, doom, and the end of the world. Immorality, relativism, the competition between religions, the loss of meaning, wars, and rumours of war--all count as such tokens. But there is a way to avoid doom, say such leaders: join the tightly formed group; keep your distance from others; obey what the leader says, especially as new pro

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