Computers and Information Systems Industry Developments. It was a troubled year for Apple Computer, Inc. Already weakened by declining computer sales, Apple was in turmoil in July when Chairman and CEO Gilbert F. Amelio resigned from the company after some 18 months on the job, during which Apple lost nearly $1.5 billion. Apple's board of directors reportedly was displeased by falling sales of Apple's Macintosh computers. By the first quarter of 1997, Apple's share of the U.S. personal computer (PC) market had fallen sharply to 3.3% as customers continued to favour PCs that ran Microsoft Corp.'s Windows operating system (OS). Though Amelio, who had been welcomed as a corporate turnaround specialist, was unsuccessful, the roots of Apple's troubles ran deep. They were said to include lack of technical innovation, product-handling mistakes, and management upheaval, plus thousands of layoffs. The year also marked the return of Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, an articulate but temperamental leader who had been pressured to resign as chairman in 1985. Beginning as an unpaid Amelio adviser in December 1996 after his firm, NeXT Software, Inc., was acquired by Apple for more than $400 million, Jobs stepped up his participation in Apple's management as the company tried to find a way back from the brink. In August he announced that Microsoft, a longtime rival of Apple, would buy $150 million in nonvoting Apple stock. Although the Mac OS competed with Windows, it was believed that Microsoft, which sold a substantial amount of applications software to the Macintosh market, had much to gain by helping its competitor remain in business. In September Jobs became interim CEO. During the same month, most of the Apple board of directors resigned, and Apple agreed to buy Power Computing Corp., a Macintosh clone manufacturer, for $100 million, in effect halting the corporate strategy of allowing others to produce clone copies of the Macintosh under license. Microsoft had no financial problems but ran into difficulty with the federal government. In October it was accused by the U.S. Justice Department of violating the 1995 court order barring it from anticompetitive licensing activities. The Justice Department asked a federal court to impose a $1 million-a-day fine on the software industry leader for requiring PC manufacturers to use Microsoft's World Wide Web browser, Internet Explorer, on their machines when they installed Microsoft's Windows 95 OS. As evidence, the Justice Department said Compaq Computer Corp. claimed that it was threatened with the loss of its license to use Windows 95 if it removed Internet Explorer from some of its PCs. Microsoft said antitrust regulators were mistaken and that it would defend its position; it called the disagreement with Compaq an ordinary dispute over licensing terms. The Microsoft-Justice Department battle had the potential to have a major impact on the marketing contest between Microsoft and Netscape Communications Corp., both of which were trying to make their own browser the most widely used on the Internet. Justice Department attorneys said they were trying to prevent Microsoft, which had a virtual monopoly in personal computer operating systems, from using that power to take control of the Internet browser market. At issue was the Justice Department's interpretation of a 1995 consent decree with Microsoft that had settled another antitrust dispute. Microsoft said that far from violating the agreement, it was merely making technological improvements to its existing Windows 95 product by adding browser software to it. Another industry leader, Intel Corp. under Chairman and CEO Andrew Grove (see BIOGRAPHIES), also drew the interest of federal government regulators. Intel, the world's leading manufacturer of microprocessor chips for PCs, learned in September that it was being investigated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in connection with its business practices in the PC market. The FTC said it wanted to determine if Intel had tried to monopolize or otherwise restrict price competition in its role as supplier of about 85% of the microprocessors used in PCs. Intel also was the subject of an antitrust investigation by the FTC from 1991 to 1993 that did not result in any action against the company. In a surprising move, Digital Equipment Corp. sued Intel in May, alleging that Intel's Pentium microprocessor chips violated as many as 10 Digital patents. Intel denied that it used Digital technology in the Pentium chip, but the suit, which sought unspecified damages, had the potential to cost Intel billions of dollars as well as cripple its ability to use the Pentium technology. The suit also had the potential to disrupt the entire PC industry by forcing Intel to redesign its Pentium chips. The dispute involved Digital's Alpha microprocessor. Digital claimed that Intel had access to proprietary information about the chip in 1990, when it was evaluating whether to license the Alpha technology from Digital. Intel responded by suing Digital for the return of information about Intel's next-generation Pentium chips. Since many Digital computers depended on Intel chips, Intel's apparent intent was to hurt Digital's computer-development efforts and put Digital at a competitive disadvantage in the PC market. In August Intel filed a counterclaim that alleged Digital had violated 14 Intel patents. Intel claimed that the technologies the patents represented were widely used throughout Digital's product line. In the end the legal storm passed almost as fast as it began. In October Intel said it would buy Digital's Alpha chip development and manufacturing operations for $700 million as part of an agreement to end their legal wrangling. Digital would keep its Alpha design teams to work on future versions of the chip. The deal also included a series of patent cross-licensing agreements for which Intel would pay Digital an undisclosed sum. Both companies said their lawsuits against each other would be kept on hold, pending government approval of the agreement. A battle over software standards also escalated into a major lawsuit. Sun Microsystems sued Microsoft in October in a battle for control of Java language software standards. Sun's suit claimed that Microsoft's Internet Explorer 4.0 software contained a variant of Sun's Java programming language that differed from the standard version. Sun accused Microsoft of infringing on Sun's Java trademark, false advertising, breach of contract, unfair competition, and interference. Microsoft denied Sun's allegations and countersued, seeking a dismissal of the Sun suit and asking the court to uphold Microsoft's right to claim that its products were ''Java compatible.'' There were indications of at least one impending class-action lawsuit against several computer makers for allegedly continuing to sell PCs that could not cope with the "year 2000 problem." This problem, also called the "Millennium Bug," had arisen because old computer systems designed to use a two-digit date to represent the year (e.g., 97 to represent 1997) could fail on Jan. 1, 2000, when faced with the two-digit date 00; they would read this as 1900. Consolidation continued in the fast-changing computing market. In February 3Com Corp. made the surprise announcement that it would merge with U.S. Robotics Corp., a leading manufacturer of high-speed modems, in a $6.6 billion exchange of stock. The intent was to build one of the largest companies in the rapidly growing field of computer networking. Japanese computer maker NEC Corp. announced in December that it was increasing its stake in Packard Bell NEC, Inc., from 20% to 49%. In April Microsoft acquired WebTV Networks, which sold units that allowed people to connect to the Internet directly through their television sets, for $425 million. The software company said it wanted to "dramatically accelerate the merger of the Internet and television." In a similar move, Sun Microsystems in July said it would acquire Diba, a maker of Internet set-top boxes that could compete with Microsoft, but terms of that deal were not disclosed. As part of Sun, Diba was to work with consumer electronics companies to provide Internet-ready TVs, set-top boxes, satellite reception boxes, and "smart" telephones. Compaq's purchase of Tandem Computers for $4 billion in stock was completed in August. Compaq was a major manufacturer of PCs and PC server computers, and Tandem pioneered highly reliable machines called fault-tolerant computer systems. In September America Online Inc. (AOL) agreed to buy its biggest competitor, the CompuServe Inc. on-line service. While CompuServe would continue as a separate operation, it would be operated by AOL, which would then have a combined customer list of more than 11 million subscribers. In a complex deal a third company, telecommunications firm WorldCom, was to buy CompuServe from H&R Block for $1.2 billion in stock and then exchange CompuServe's Interactive Services division for $175 million and AOL's ANS Communications. In the end, WorldCom was to become AOL's largest network service provider. Technology Developments. New high-speed Internet access technologies for consumers began to appear during the year, including satellite downlinks, cable modems (which transmit signals over cable TV systems), and a group of telephone industry technologies known collectively as digital subscriber line (DSL). Satellite downloads, for example, promised speeds that would be up to 14 times faster than conventional 28,800 bits per second telephone modems. One version of DSL, called asymmetric digital subscriber line, was said to offer speeds of up to six million bits per second over standard telephone lines. At year's end, however, these technologies were in very limited use. Although digital versatile (or video) disc (DVD) became available to consumers in mid-1997 as a VCR-replacement technology for viewing films, its computer cousin, called DVD-ROM, was in only limited use as a CD-ROM drive replacement for personal computers. A DVD-ROM disc, which could hold about 4.7 billion bytes of information, or about seven times more than a CD-ROM, would enable software companies to offer more complex programs on a single disc. Industry analysts said DVD-ROM drives were held back owing to lack of software, issues of compatibility with the Windows 95 OS, and delays needed to put additional copyright-protection mechanisms in the drives to satisfy Hollywood that DVD-ROM drives would not be used to copy commercially released DVD movies. DVD-ROM was expected to become widely available in PCs in 1998. IBM said in May that it had developed the highest-capacity hard disk drive for portable PCs, one capable of storing up to five billion bytes of data. That surpassed the previous top capacity of about three billion bytes, although hard drives with one billion to two billion bytes were more common. Intel and Hewlett-Packard were said to be developing a next-generation microprocessor code-named Merced that could radically change the PC industry because of its design and capabilities. Merced, which was believed to be scheduled for introduction in two years, would use a different set of computer instructions than the line of PC chips Intel had been selling since 1979. Some analysts believed Merced would have a speed of nearly 1,000 MHz, which would more than double the peak performance of the fastest chips in 1997. It also would be a 64-bit microprocessor and therefore able to process data faster than today's 32-bit chips. The federal government also joined in the development of new technology by moving forward with the Clinton administration's $100 million plan to build a next-generation version of the Internet that would be faster, more reliable, and more secure than one in use in 1997. The government's plan was essential to more than 100 universities throughout the U.S. that were trying to develop new voice, video, and data uses of the Internet that required higher transmission speeds than the present system provided. The planned next-generation Internet would offer the universities, national laboratories, and research institutions 100- to 1,000-times-faster speeds. Smart cards--credit or other financial cards containing computer memory chips--got a boost in 1997 after a long period of languishing. Industry groups agreed on standards for the cards, and Visa International and Bank of America announced a pilot program under which a small number of people would make purchases over the Internet by using monetary value stored on smart cards. Contributors Adams, Andy. Editor and Publisher, Sumo World. Author of Sumo; Sumo World Record Book. SPORTS AND GAMES: Judo; Wrestling: Sumo Ajello, Robin Paul. Associate Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cambodia Alder, Phillip. Syndicated Bridge Columnist. Author of Get Smarter at Bridge. SPORTS AND GAMES: Contract Bridge Alexander, Steve. Freelance. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS Allaby, Michael. Writer and Lecturer. Author of Basic Environmental Science; Facing the Future. THE ENVIRONMENT: Environmental Issues; International Environmental Activities Allan, J.A. Professor of Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Author of Water and Peace in the Middle East. WORLD AFFAIRS: Libya Andrades, Jorge Adrin. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Polo Andrejevich, Milan. U.S.-based Writer and Consultant WORLD AFFAIRS: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Yugoslavia Archibald, John J. Retired Feature Writer, St. Louis (Mo.) Post-Dispatch; Adjunct Professor, Washington University, St. Louis. Member of the American Bowling Congress Hall of Fame. SPORTS AND GAMES: Bowling: U.S. Tenpins Arnold, Guy. Freelance Writer. Author of South Africa: Crossing the Rubicon; Modern Nigeria; and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Botswana; Burundi; Cape Verde; Chad; Comoros; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Gambia, The; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Maldives; Mauritius; Nigeria; Rwanda; So Tom and Prncipe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Swaziland Arnold, Mavis. Freelance Journalist, Dublin. WORLD AFFAIRS: Ireland Arrington, Leonard J. Formerly Church Historian, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Coauthor of The Mormon Experience and others. RELIGION: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Aurora, Vincent. Preceptor of French Literature, Columbia University, New York City. LITERATURE: French: France Baber, Bonnie. Senior Editor, Footwear News magazine. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Apparel: Footwear Backe, Everett E. Senior Scientist and Professor, Institute of Textile Technology. Author of Cotton Ginners Handbook. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Cotton; Wool Bahry, Louay. Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Washington, D.C. Author of The Baghdad Bahn. WORLD AFFAIRS: Bahrain; Iraq Bailey, George. Author of Galileo's Children; Germans. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Magazines: Sidebar; WORLD AFFAIRS: Germany Bakker, Martinus A. Professor of Germanic Languages, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Mich. Editor of Studies in Netherlandic Culture and Literature. LITERATURE: Netherlandic Balaban, Avraham. Professor of Modern Hebrew Literature, University of Florida. Author of A Different Wave of Hebrew Fiction: Postmodernist Israel. LITERATURE: Jewish: Hebrew Balmforth, Dennis. Visiting Professor Emeritus, Institute of Textile Technology. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Introduction; Man-made Fibres Barrett, David B. Research Professor of Missiometrics, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Va. Author of World Christian Encyclopedia; Schism and Renewal in Africa. RELIGION: Tables (in part) Barrett, John C.A. Headmaster, the Leys School; Secretary, British Committee, World Methodist Council. Author of Family Worship in Theory and Practice. RELIGION: Methodist Churches Bass, Howard. Journalist and Author; formerly Editor, Winter Sports; Ice Hockey Correspondent, Daily Telegraph; Skiing and Skating Correspondent, Daily Mail. Author of 19 books on winter sports. SPORTS AND GAMES: Ice Hockey: International; Ice Skating; Skiing Bauer, Steven. Professor of English, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Author of Daylight Savings, winner of the Peregrine Smith Poetry Prize. LITERATURE: Introduction Beckwith, David C. Director of Government Relations, Electronic Data Systems, Inc., Washington, D.C. WORLD AFFAIRS: United States: State and Local Affairs Belaski, Ann M. Multimedia Content Editor, McDougal Littel. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Bell, Tom. Classifier, Encyclopdia Britannica OBITUARIES (in part) Berfield, Susan. Senior Writer, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Indonesia Bickelhaupt, David L. Professor Emeritus, Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Insurance Binczewski, George J. Principal Technical Adviser, S.C. Systems, Moraga, Calif. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Light Metals Bird, Thomas E. Co-director of the Jewish Studies Program and the Center for Jewish Studies, Queens College, City University of New York. LITERATURE: Jewish: Yiddish Blackmore, Heather. Editorial Assistant, Encyclopdia Britannica BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Boddy, William C. Founder and Editor, Motor Sport, London. Author of Aero-Engined Racing Cars, etc., and MBE. SPORTS AND GAMES: Automobile Racing: Grand Prix Racing Bodeker, Gerard C. Member, Health Services Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, Eng. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Special Report: Alternative Medicine (in part) Boden, Edward. Publications Adviser, British Veterinary Association. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Veterinary Medicine Boggan, Tim. Historian, U.S.A. Table Tennis Association (USATT). Author of Winning Table Tennis. SPORTS AND GAMES: Table Tennis Bonds, John B. Adjunct Professor, The Citadel. SPORTS AND GAMES: Sailing Booth, John Nicholls. Lecturer and Writer. Author of The Quest for Preaching Power; Psychic Paradoxes; and others. RELIGION: Unitarian (Universalist) Churches Boswall, Jeffery. Freelance Lecturer on Wildlife Television. LIFE SCIENCES: Ornithology Box, Ben. Editor, Footprint Handbooks. WORLD AFFAIRS: Costa Rica; Honduras; Panama; Uruguay Boye, Roger. Formerly Coin Columnist, Chicago Tribune. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Numismatics Bradsher, Henry S. Foreign Affairs Writer. WORLD AFFAIRS: Philippines Brazee, Rutlage J. Geophysical Consultant. EARTH SCIENCES: Geophysics Brecher, Kenneth. Professor of Astronomy and Physics, Boston University. MATHEMATICS AND EARTH SCIENCES: Astronomy Brockmann, Stephen. Assistant Professor of German Studies, Carnegie Mellon University LITERATURE: German Brokopp, John G. Specialist in publicity, public relations, and writing about equestrian racing. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Thoroughbred Racing: United States Brown, Bess. Human Dimensions Specialist, OSCE Liaison Office for Central Asia. Author of Authoritarianism in the New States of Central Asia. WORLD AFFAIRS: Kazakstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan Brundtland, Gro Harlem. Physician and Former Prime Minister of Norway. COMMENTARY: Shifting Attitudes in a Changing World Buchan, David. Correspondent, Financial Times, Paris. WORLD AFFAIRS: France; SPOTLIGHT: France's New African Policy Burks, Ardath W. Professor Emeritus of Asian Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. Author of Japan: A Postindustrial Power. WORLD AFFAIRS: Japan Burns, Erik. Bureau Chief, AP-Dow Jones News Services, Lisbon. WORLD AFFAIRS: Portugal Butler, Frank. Formerly Sports Editor, News of the World. Author of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: A Story of Boxing. SPORTS AND GAMES: Boxing Cafferty, Bernard. Associate Editor, British Chess Magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Chess Cameron, Sarah. Freelance Writer and Editor, Footprint Handbooks. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cuba; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Nicaragua Campbell, Paul J. Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Mathematics Campbell, Robert. Architect and Architecture Critic. Author of Cityscapes of Boston; Coauthor of American Architecture of the 1980s. ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING: Architecture Carter, Robert W. Journalist, London. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Show Jumping and Dressage; Steeplechasing; Thoroughbred Racing: International Chappell, Duncan. Deputy President, Federal Administrative Appeals Tribunal, Sydney, Australia. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Crime; Law Enforcement Chapple, Abby. Writer and Consultant, Consumer Communications, Largent, W.Va. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Home Furnishings: Furniture Cheadle, Bruce. Reporter, The Canadian Press. SPORTS AND GAMES: Curling Cheuse, Alan. Writing Faculty, English Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.; Book Commentator, National Public Radio. Author of The Light Possessed and others. LITERATURE: English: United States Choong Tet Sieu. Associate Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Malaysia Cioroslan, Dragomir. National Coach for U.S.A. Weightlifting, Inc. SPORTS AND GAMES: Weight Lifting Clark, David D. Managing Editor, World Literature Today. LITERATURE: English: Other Literature in English Clarke, Douglas L. Captain, U.S. Navy (ret.); Military Analyst. Author of The Missing Man: Politics and the MIA. MILITARY AFFAIRS Clarke, R.O. Lecturer and Consultant on Industrial Relations, London. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Labour-Management Relations Cogle, T.C.J. Consultant, Electrical Review. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Electrical Colvin, David. Managing Editor, The Middle East Journal. WORLD AFFAIRS: Oman; Qatar Corzine, Robert. Energy Correspondent, Financial Times. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Alternative Energy; Natural Gas; Petroleum Cosgrave, Bronwyn. Health and Beauty Editor, U.K. Cosmopolitan. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); FASHIONS; OBITUARIES (in part) Coveney, Michael. Theatre Critic, The Daily Mail. Author of The World According to Mike Leigh and others. PERFORMING ARTS: Theatre: Great Britain and Ireland Craine, Anthony G. Associate Editor, Inside Sports magazine. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); SPORTS AND GAMES: Baseball: Sidebar; Introduction Crampton, Richard J. Professor of East European History and Fellow of St. Edmund Hall, University of Oxford, Oxford, Eng. Author of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Bulgaria Crowell, George T. Senior Writer, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of Crowley, Edward. Editor, Baltic Magazine Supplements; Director, Technical Writing Services. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Shipbuilding; TRANSPORTATION: Shipping and Ports Cunningham, Susan M. Economic and Political Analyst; Freelance Writer. Author of Latin America Since 1945. WORLD AFFAIRS: Argentina; Brazil; Mexico Curwen, Peter J. Professor of Business, Sheffield (Eng.) Business School. Author of The U.K. Publishing Industry and others. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Book Publishing (international) Deam, John B. Retired Technical Director, AMT--The Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Va. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Machinery and Machine Tools Deanin, Rudolph D. Professor, Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts at Lowell. Author of Plastics Additives. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Plastics Deeb, Marius K. Professor, SAIS, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D.C. Author of Political Parties and Democracy in Egypt. WORLD AFFAIRS: Egypt de la Barre, Kenneth. Director, the Bridge Group. WORLD AFFAIRS: Arctic Regions Denselow, Robin. Rock Music Critic, The Guardian; Current Affairs Reporter, BBC Television. Author of When the Music's Over: The Politics of Pop. PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Popular (international) de Puy, Norman R. Minister, American Baptist Churches; Editor and Publisher, Cabbages and Kings newsletter. RELIGION: Baptist Churches Dicks, Geoffrey R. U.K. Economist, NatWest Markets. Author of Sources of World Financial and Banking Information. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Introduction Dixon, Bernard. Science Writer; Consultant; Editor, Medical Science Research. Author of Power Unseen: How Microbes Rule the World and others. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Medicine (international); Mental Health Doll, Susan. Freelance Writer, Instructor of Film History, School of the Art Institute of Chicago and Oakton Community College. Author of Best of Elvis and others. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Home Furnishings: Housewares; OBITUARIES (in part) Dooling, Dave. Freelance Aerospace Writer, D2 Associates. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Space Exploration Dowd, Siobhan. Columnist, Literary Review (London); Glimmer Train (U.S.). Author of This Prison Where I Live. LITERATURE: English: United Kingdom Eadington, William R. Professor of Economics, Director, Institute for Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Special Report: Gambling Earp, John H. Director, Halcrow Fox and Associates. TRANSPORTATION: Introduction; Freight and Pipelines; Intercity Rail; Roads and Traffic; Urban Mass Transit Edmondson, Lesley. Freelance Writer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Ehringer, Gavin Forbes. Rodeo Columnist, Western Horseman. SPORTS AND GAMES: Rodeo Ellis, Roger. Editor, Mining Journal, London. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Mining: Sidebar Eron, Carol L. Director, Editorial Concepts. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Ceramics (in part) Fagan, Brian. Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Author of Time Detectives. ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY: Archaeology: Western Hemisphere Farr, D.M.L. Professor Emeritus of History, Carleton University, Ottawa. WORLD AFFAIRS: Canada Fendell, Robert J. Board Member, Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance. Columnist, Sport Scene Florida. Author of Encyclopedia of Motor Racing Greats and others. SPORTS AND GAMES: Automobile Racing: U.S. Auto Racing Finch, Andrew. Assistant Director, Government and Public Affairs, American Association of Museums. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Museums (United States) Fischer, Adelheid. Associate Editor, Yearbook of Science and the Future, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Fisher, Sharon. Central European Specialist, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Czech Republic; Slovakia Flagg, Gordon. Managing Editor, American Libraries. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Libraries (United States) Flanders, Douglas L. Development Officer, The United Church Observer. RELIGION: The United Church of Canada Fletcher, Charmaine. Media and Press Officer, the Salvation Army. RELIGION: Salvation Army Flink, Steve. Senior Correspondent, Tennis Week magazine; formerly Editor, World Tennis magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Tennis Flores, Ramona Monette S. Professor, University of the Philippines; Editorial Consultant, Masks and Voices; Editor-in-Chief, Pahinungd Annual Journal. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Radio (international); Television (international) Fogle, Douglas. Curatorial Assistant, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Paintings and Sculpture Follett, Christopher. Denmark Correspondent, The Times; Danish Correspondent, Radio Sweden; Newscaster, Radio Denmark, affiliated to Reuters News Agency, Copenhagen. Author of Fodspor paa Cypern. WORLD AFFAIRS: Denmark Forrest, Brett. Reporter, Men's Journal SPORTS AND GAMES: Special Report: Alternative Sports Foster, David William. Chair, Regents' Professor of Spanish, Humanities, and Women's Studies, Arizona State University. Author of Violence in Argentine Literature and others. LITERATURE: Spanish: Latin America Frank, Stephen E. Staff Reporter, The Wall Street Journal. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Banking: United States Freeman, Laurie. Freelance Writer and Editor. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Advertising Fridovich, Irwin. James B. Duke Professor of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. LIFE SCIENCES: Molecular Biology (in part) Fridovich-Keil, Judith L. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga. LIFE SCIENCES: Molecular Biology (in part); WORLD AFFAIRS: Japan: Sidebar Friedrich, Mary Jane. Life Sciences Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Friskin, Sydney E. Hockey Correspondent, The Times. SPORTS AND GAMES: Billiard Games: Snooker; Field Hockey Fuller, Elizabeth. Editor, Newsline, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, Prague. WORLD AFFAIRS: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia Gaddum, Anthony H. Chairman, H.T. Gaddum and Co.; Vice President, International Silk Association. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Silk Ganado, Albert. Lawyer. Coauthor of A Study in Depth of 143 Maps Representing the Great Siege of Malta of 1565 and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Malta Garrod, Mark. Golf Correspondent, PA Sport, U.K. Contributor to Golf World and Amateur Golf magazines. Secretary of the Association of Golf Writers. SPORTS AND GAMES: Golf Gaughan, Thomas. Associate Director of Libraries, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Libraries (international) Gibbons, Anne R. Freelance Writer. LIFE SCIENCES: Entomology Gibbons, J. Whitfield. Professor of Ecology, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia. Author of Keeping All the Pieces and others. LIFE SCIENCES: Zoology Gill, Martin J. Information and Computer Expert, F.A.O. EASTFISH. AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SUPPLIES: Fisheries Girnius, Saulius A. State Consultant, Republic of Lithuania Government WORLD AFFAIRS: Lithuania Gobbie, Donn. Director of Publicity and Media Relations, U.S. Badminton Association. SPORTS AND GAMES: Badminton Goldsmith, Arthur. Freelance Writer. Author of The Camera and Its Images. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Photography; BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Photography Gottlieb, Jean S. Freelance Editor; Bibliographer. Author of A Checklist of the Newberry Library's Printed Books in Science, Medicine, Technology, and the Pseudosciences, ca. 1460-1750. BIBLIOGRAPHY Greeman, Adrian Lee. Editor, Civil Engineer International. ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING: Bridges Green, Anthony L. Copy Supervisor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Green, Theresa. Information Officer. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Glass Greskovic, Robert. Dance Reviewer, A&E Entertainment Almanac; Freelance Writer. PERFORMING ARTS: Dance: North America Griffiths, A.R.G. Associate Professor in History, Flinders University of South Australia. Author of Contemporary Australia; Beautiful Lies. WORLD AFFAIRS: Australia; Nauru; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Spotlight: Racial Integration in Australia and New Zealand Grumet, Robert S. Anthropologist, New Hope, Pa. Author of Historic Contact and others. ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY: Anthropology: Cultural Gutek, Gerald Lee. Professor, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Loyola University, Chicago. Author of A History of the Western Educational Experience and others. EDUCATION (U.S.); EDUCATION: Sidebar Guthridge, Guy G. Manager, Polar Information Program, U.S. National Science Foundation. WORLD AFFAIRS: Antarctica Halman, Talat S. Distinguished Visiting Professor, Bilkent University, Ankara. Author of Poetry of Ancient Anatolia and Near East. LITERATURE: Turkish Hamilton, Andrea. Staff Correspondent, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Singapore Hammer, William R. Professor and Chair, Department of Geology, Augustana College, Rock Island, Ill. Author of contributions to Dinofest II International Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia; Antarctic Paleobiology. LIFE SCIENCES: Paleontology Hannen, Mark. Competitions Officer, English Basket Ball Association. SPORTS AND GAMES: Basketball: International Harakas, Stanley S. Emeritus Archbishop Iakovos Professor of Orthodox Theology, Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology. Author of Health and Medicine in the Eastern Orthodox Tradition and others. RELIGION: Oriental Orthodox Church; The Orthodox Church Haub, Carl V. Demographer, Population Reference Bureau. Author of Population Change in the Former Soviet Union and others. POPULATION TRENDS: Demography Hawkland, William D. Chancellor Emeritus of Law and Boyd Professor, Louisiana State University. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Court Decisions Healy, Tim. General Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Brunei; Dependent States: East Asia Heim, Chris. Music Director and Freelance Writer, WBEZ Radio, Chicago. PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Special Report: Listening to the Music of the World Heinzl, John. Business Reporter, Toronto Globe and Mail. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Retailing Helgadottir, Birna. Senior Reporter, The European. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: Europe's Crumbling Social Network Hendershott, Myrl C. Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. EARTH SCIENCES: Oceanography Hennelly, James. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Labour-Management Relations: Sidebar; OBITUARIES (in part) Henschel, Milton. President, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. RELIGION: Jehovah's Witnesses Hering, Howard. Administrative Manager, Frederick Wildman and Sons. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Beverages: Wine Higgs, Kimball. Assistant Vice President, Sotheby's Book Department. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Antiquarian Books Hobbs, Greg. Chief Writer, Australian Football League. Author of books on Australian Football. SPORTS AND GAMES: Football: Australian Hoeksema, Klaas J. Staff Member, Institute for Polytechnics, Amsterdam. WORLD AFFAIRS: Netherlands, The; Suriname Hoffman, Dean A. Executive Editor, Hoof Beats magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Harness Racing Hoke, John. Publisher, Amateur Wrestling News. SPORTS AND GAMES: Wrestling Hollar, Sherman. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); disasters Homel, David. Author of Rat Palms and others. LITERATURE: French: Canada Hope, Thomas W. Chairman/CEO, Hope Reports, Inc. Author of America's Top 100 Contract Producers. PERFORMING ARTS: Motion Pictures: Nontheatrical Films Hunnings, Neville March. Editor, Encyclopedia of European Union Law--Constitutional Texts. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (international) IEIS. International Economic Information Services. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: World Economy; Stock Exchanges (international) Ingham, Kenneth. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Bristol, Eng. Author of Politics in Modern Africa: The Uneven Tribal Dimension and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Angola; Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Zaire); Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Sudan, The; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe Ingram, Derek. Consultant Editor, Gemini News Service. Author of Commonwealth for a Colour-Blind World; The Imperfect Commonwealth. WORLD AFFAIRS: Commonwealth of Nations Ionescu, Dan. Journalist, Radio Free Europe, Romanian/Moldovan Desk. Former Senior Research Analyst with Open Media Research Institute, Prague. WORLD AFFAIRS: Moldova; Romania Jackson, Peter S. Wyse. Secretary-General, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, U.K. THE ENVIRONMENT: Botanical Gardens Jamail, Milton. Lecturer, Department of Government, University of Texas at Austin. SPORTS AND GAMES: Baseball: Latin America Jessell, Harry A. Executive Editor, Broadcasting & Cable. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Radio: (U.S., in part); Radio: Amateur Radio (in part); Television (U.S., in part) Joff, George. Journalist and Writer on North African and Middle Eastern Affairs. Deputy Director, RIIA, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia Johnson, Todd M. Senior Researcher, World Evangelization Research Center. Coauthor of World Christian Encyclopedia. RELIGION: Tables (in part) Johnsson, William G. Editor, Adventist Review. Author of Behold His Glory and others. RELIGION: Seventh-day Adventist Church Jones, David G.C. Honorary Lecturer in Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton, Eng. Author of Atomic Physics. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Physics Jones, W. Glyn. Professor Emeritus of Scandinavian Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Eng. Author of Colloquial Danish and others. LITERATURE: Danish Jotischky, Helma. Head of Business Intelligence, Paint Research Association. Author of The Americas and others. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Paints and Varnishes Kang, Taehi. Associate Professor of Art Theory, The Korean National University of Arts, Seoul. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad. Associate Professor of Persian Languages and Literature, University of Washington. LITERATURE: Persian Kelleher, John A. Journalist, New Zealand. Formerly Editor, Dominion and Dominion Sunday Times (Wellington). WORLD AFFAIRS: New Zealand Keller, Edmond J. Professor, Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles. WORLD AFFAIRS: Eritrea; Ethiopia Kelling, George H. Historian, Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center. Author of Countdown to Rebellion: British Policy in Cyprus 1939-1955. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cyprus Kellner, Peter. Political Commentator, BBC Television; Columnist, The Observer, London. Author of The Civil Servants: An Inquiry into Britain's Ruling Class and others. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); WORLD AFFAIRS: United Kingdom; Sidebar Knapp, Rebecca. Managing Editor, Art & Antiques. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Introduction Knowles, Gerald. Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, Eng. Author of A Cultural History of the English Language. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: English Language Imperialism Knox, Richard A. Specialist Energy Writer, Technical Press Services. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Nuclear Koberstein, Wayne. Editor, Pharmaceutical Executive magazine. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Pharmaceuticals Koelsch, James R. Freelance Journalist, Discrete Parts Manufacturing Industry. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Metalworking Kovel, Ralph and Terry. Authors; Publishers. Authors of Kovels' Antiques & Collectibles Price List 1996. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Collectibles Kowalski, Lawrence. Copy Supervisor, Encyclopdia Britannica. OBITUARIES (in part) Krause, Stefan. Historian and Balkan Specialist, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Greece; Macedonia Kroll, Thomas E. Lecturer, Roosevelt University and Northwestern University, Chicago; President, Thomas Kroll Associates. Author of Introduction to Data Processing; C Language Programming. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Microelectronics; Telecommunications Kuiper, Kathleen. Associate Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. Editor, Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Kuptsch, Christiane. Research Officer, ISSA. SOCIAL PROTECTION (international) Lamb, Kevin M. Special Projects Writer, Dayton (Ohio) Daily News. Author of Quarterbacks, Nickelbacks & Other Loose Change. SPORTS AND GAMES: Football: Canadian, U.S. Lamb, Robert E. Executive Director, American Philatelic Society. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Philately Langeneckert, Sandra. Copy Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Laqueur, Walter. Chairman, International Research Council, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. Author of Europe in Our Time and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Introduction Latham, Arthur. Freelance Writer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Lavalle, H.-Claude. Director of Graduate Studies, Pulp and Paper Research Centre, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivires. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Wood Products: Paper and Pulp Lawler, Nancy Ellen. Professor Emeritus, Oakton Community College, Des Plaines, Ill. Author of Soldiers of Misfortune and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Cte d'Ivoire; Gabon; Guinea; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Senegal; Togo Lawson, Fred H. James Irvine Professor of Government, Mills College, Oakland, Calif. WORLD AFFAIRS: Syria Lawson, Richard L. General, USAF (retired). President and Chief Executive Officer, National Mining Association. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Coal Lee, Jungbock. Professor, Department of Political Science, Seoul National University. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Legassick, Martin. Professor, History Department, University of Western Cape, Bellville, S.Af. WORLD AFFAIRS: South Africa Lehman, Richard L. Professor, College of Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. Author of Handbook on Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Ma

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.