Meaning of OCEAN SPRINGS in English

OCEAN SPRINGS

resort city, Jackson county, southeastern Mississippi, U.S., on Biloxi Bay across from Biloxi. It developed around the site of Old Biloxi, where Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, established, in 1699 for France, Fort Maurepas, the first permanent European settlement in the lower Mississippi River valley. Its name was changed to Lynchburg (1853), and in 1854 its present name was coined by Dr. George W. Austin, who established a sanitarium to utilize its spring waters. It was a fishing village until the 1880s, when it became a popular Gulf Coast resort for cotton planters. The Gulf Islands National Seashore is now headquartered there. The huge Ruskin Oak on the Many Oaks Estate was named after John Ruskin, the English writer and artist, who is said to have visited the spot in 1885. Inc. town, 1892; city, 1947. Pop. (1990) 14,658. Waves of the sea There are many types of ocean waves. Waves differ from each other in size and in terms of the forces that drive them. Waves represent an oscillatory motion of seawater at regular time intervals or periods. Some may be running, or progressive, waves in which the crests propagate, while others are stationary, or standing, waves. Two of the more common types of waves, gravity waves and tides, are considered here. For gravity waves, the stabilizing forcei.e., the force that attempts to restore the crests and troughs of the waves to the average sea levelis the Earth's gravity. The distance between the crests, or wavelength, of gravity waves range from a few centimetres to many kilometres. Tiny waves at the ocean surface with a wavelength of less than 1.7 centimetres are called capillary waves. Their restoring force is the surface tension of seawater. Capillary waves are direct products of the wind stress exerted on the sea surface and tend to feed wind energy into gravity waves, which characteristically have longer wavelengths. Figure 5: Types of surface waves and their relative energy levels. Tides are essentially gravity waves that have long periods of oscillation. They may be called forced waves, because they have fixed, prescribed periods that are strictly determined by astronomical forces induced by the relative movements of the Moon, Earth, and Sun. Sometimes the term tidal wave is used incorrectly to include such phenomena as surges, which are called storm tides, or destructive waves known as tsunamis that are induced by undersea earthquakes. In the following discussion, the use of the words tide and tidal is restricted to tides of astronomical origin and the forces and phenomena associated with them. Figure 5 shows the different types of surface waves and their relative amounts of energy. Surface gravity waves Of the nontidal kinds of running surface waves, three types may be distinguished: wind waves and swell, wind surges, and sea waves of seismic origin (tsunamis).

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