in philosophy, the faculty or process of drawing logical inferences. The term reason is also used in several other, narrower senses. Reason is in opposition to sensation, perception, feeling, desire, as the faculty (the existence of which is denied by empiricists) by which fundamental truths are intuitively apprehended. These fundamental truths are the causes or reasons of all derivative facts. According to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, reason is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts that are provided by the intellect. That reason which gives a priori principles Kant calls pure reason, as distinguished from the practical reason, which is specially concerned with the performance of actions. In formal logic the drawing of inferences (frequently called ratiocination, from Latin ratiocinari, to use the reasoning faculty) is classified from Aristotle on as deductive (from generals to particulars) and inductive (from particulars to generals). In theology, reason, as distinguished from faith, is the human intelligence exercised upon religious truth whether by way of discovery or by way of explanation. The limits within which the reason may be used have been laid down differently in different churches and periods of thought: on the whole, modern Christianity, especially in the Protestant churches, tends to allow to reason a wide field, reserving, however, as the sphere of faith the ultimate (supernatural) truths of theology.
Meaning of REASON in English
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012