Meaning of CAPITAL in English

I. noun


a capital city (= where the government of a country or state is )

Cuba's capital city is Havana.

a capital crime American English (= a crime such as murder, for which the criminal can be killed )

a capital offence (= one for which death is the punishment )

Drug smuggling was made a capital offense in 1987.

block capitals

Complete the form in block capitals.

capital assets

capital expenditure (= money that a company spends on buildings, machinery etc )

Capital expenditure on IT equipment will come from a different budget.

capital gains tax

capital gains

capital goods

capital investment (= investment in machines, equipment etc )

A huge capital investment will have to be made to maintain the buildings.

capital levy

capital punishment (= death as a punishment for a crime )

The are trying to abolish capital punishment except in cases of terrorism.

capital punishment

financial/economic/capital etc gain

They are seeking to realize the maximum financial gain.

fixed capital

seed capital

venture capital

working capital




More recently, multinationals and foreign capital , with all their implications, have made vertical upward mobility difficult.

Attracting the banks are the resurgent economy and reforms that have opened up industries to foreign capital .

But debtor economies were bled to minimise those losses, and they were restructured to suit foreign capital .

Yet the campaign for foreign capital has foundered, except in the mining sector.

How do you attract very large quantities of foreign capital ?

The extent of economic globalisation is illustrated by the recent enormous growth in trade and foreign capital flows.

In future, enterprises using foreign capital would be allowed foreign currency accounts in the State Bank or a foreign bank.

We are trying to drag them here soas to get direct investment and to get foreign capital without incurring foreign debt.


At any instant, people also have different amounts of human capital and financial wealth.

How would a parental dividend affect the economic balance between investment in human capital versus investment in tangible capital?

It was also this same period - primarily the 1960s - that witnessed the academic upsurge in the human capital theory.

What is missing from the various reform proposals is any recognition of the importance of investing in human capital as well.

More broadly, it is the educated, skilled and healthy individual who is the human capital .

Each industry has the same rate of return on human or physical capital .

Hence the Chicago human capital school comes closest to diffusing economic inequality as an issue.


Apart from discouraging investment abroad this also effectively reduced companies' access to international capital markets.

Today, with highly mobile international capital , large deficits can be sustained for much longer.

Yeltsin's alliance between the oligarchs and international capital is ending.

Any company or bank conducting business outside of its domestic currency zone must have access to international capital .

Moreover, in their view, this inequality is not random, but is structured by the needs of international capital .

Hence there are actors other than the state, and their precise role in international society depends on the interests of international capital .

This demand on the international capital markets raises interest rates, aggravating the problems of debt and credit crunch.

Of course, with the development of international monopoly capital and multinational companies, additional sources of power have been brought into play.


Some farms do, however, need to undertake large capital schemes to satisfy the regulations.

For example, the industrial giants who dominate the chemical industry have large capital investments in petrochemicals.

The choir arcade piers are grouped with large carved foliated capitals .

This payment structure is particularly suited to projects which generate a large capital sum on completion.

This kind of flotation to raise large capital sums has already been seen in cases such as Bairstow Eves and Connells.

Thus only a relatively small change in interest rates is necessary to cause a relatively large capital flow.

At the same time the surviving companies will grow larger and capital will be concentrated into fewer hands.


These rights may be waived by the shareholders at a general meeting so that the new capital may be raised by means of a placing.

This conforms the state with a new federal capital gains law.

The open-year problem also deters new capital , for it threatens to saddle newcomers too with unquantifiable losses from the past.

Many other venture capital firms besides InterWest are raising new rounds of capital.

Modifying current equipment enables them to minimise new capital outlay while the product is being launched and its success evaluated.

Each new capital seemed to be eager to slightly outbid the previous one.

Milan: Operators reacted with frustration to a spate of new capital increase operations announced late last week.

Stowe, a New York venture capital company.


Yet the Bolsheviks made no political capital out of the recent past.

Nor has he expended much political capital to get anti-abortion measures through the Texas Legislature.

They will be examined in more detail when we quit regional life and approach the political capital .

In Congress, the same jockeying for political capital , of which Johnson and Romney were accused, was evident.

He did not spend any political capital on that.

The gun manufacturers do the responsible thing, children are protected and Clinton earns political capital .


The second step in recreating a market economy is to restore private ownership of capital .

The ability to leverage private capital has also come to be increasingly expressed in defense of sorely needed downtown redevelopment activity.

Within six months we will review the roads programme and mobilise private capital for large-scale public transport investment.

The main characteristics of capitalism are private ownership of capital and freedom of enterprise.

Servicing private capital in this way is usually a matter of job redistribution rather than job creation.

At the same time, their capacity to leverage private capital in support of these developments has varied considerably.

UDCs are designed to create the conditions and confidence necessary to attract private capital .

In my view there was only one hope, and that was to build the tunnel using private venture capital .


His son trucks the tangerines and apples to the provincial capital , and even down into Henan province.

Each month the district officer spent a whole day writing a full report to the political secretary in the provincial capital .

Coventry was a provincial capital , one of the half-dozen largest provincial cities and the fourth richest.

Meanwhile, a curfew was imposed in Pristina, the provincial capital .

In 1949, for example, the provincial capital of Urumqi had few Han.

The river Aver continues westward past the provincial capital at Averheim and finally flows into the Reik at Nuln.

This thriving group included some of the old provincial capitals such as Bristol, Newcastle and Norwich.


The literature on social capital may afford a clue to the likely complexity.

If so, divorce may in some degree be the consequence, not the cause, of lower social capital .

His work on social capital and civic engagement has been heavily drawn upon by Francis Fukuyama and others.

However, monopoly corporations and unions tend to resist the appropriation of surplus created by social capital but appropriated privately.

Some government policies have almost certainly had the effect of destroying social capital .

Could this be the primary reason for the decline of social capital over the last generation?

The contrast is straight forward: newspaper reading is associated with high social capital , television viewing with low social capital.


It wants the cash to repay debt and for capital expenditures and for working capital.

These included, for example, management of working capital , product differentiation and cost management.

He is currently preparing a plan to unlock more working capital by the New Year.

Most significant was an increase in working capital and an increase in labour inputs consequent on the technological changes introduced.

With savings of £20,000 you could expect to finance a franchise with a start-up cost and working capital of £60,000.

Sufficient working capital must be available to meet the slings and arrows of outrageous misfortune!

Net proceeds will be used to repay short and long-term debt, refinance long term debt and for working capital .



Individual circumstances differ but corporate ownership of major capital assets may provide worthwhile advantages.

Subtract value of previous capital asset , £60,000.

Of course, in a predominantly agrarian economy land constituted by far the most important capital asset .


He prefers to borrow rather than raise outside equity capital and thus dilute control.

These companies have very high demands for equity capital to finance their growth and generally pay no dividends or very low dividends.

Companies already listed on the Stock Exchange have two basic methods of raising additional equity capital: 1.

Taken together, they may be applied jointly to produce a better estimate of the cost of equity capital .

Its required return on equity capital is 15 percent.

Additionally, as will be seen in Chapter 13, the cost of debt is lower than the cost of equity capital .

The equity comparison operates by comparing the equity capital issued as consideration by the purchaser to that previously in issue.

This measurement is generally accepted as the cost of the retained earnings portion of equity capital .


Pumping much of the enhanced capital expenditure into new prison building often has the effect of draining the prison of vital resources.

Recurrent federal expenditure was budgeted at N12,883 million and federal capital expenditure at N9,240 million.

Current expenditure was estimated at Bel$153,900,000 and total capital expenditure at Bel$107,000,000.

The size of local authority capital expenditure for selected years is shown in Table 6.1.

Once the constraints on local authority capital expenditure began to bite it cooperated with private housing development on inner-area sites.

At the same time, we cut back on proposed capital expenditure and made plans to repay borrowings.

As the Minister should know, those schools are very much in need of large-scale capital expenditure .

These were launched a year ago and implemented for all new capital expenditure projects from September 1992.


Similarly, a fall in the rate of interest means a potential capital gain for investors.

Clinton has urges a narrower capital gains cut that would benefit homeowners.

A lower dividend yield can be compensated for with higher capital gains and viceversa.

The businessman will pay $ 56, 000 in capital gains tax, leaving him with a negative after-tax return on investment.

With zeros you can predict very accurately what your capital gains will be and when they will occur.

In a very real sense, payment of dividends represents a choice between future capital gains and current cash payments.

As most of the privatisation issues are sold at a discount, there is usually a substantial capital gain to be made.

At the end of the year, the second hypothetical investor must liquidate 40 % of his capital gains .


The group is closing the St Austell plant despite recent capital investment and numerous employment initiatives.

Decayed and declining industries had to be shut down, and vast capital investment directed to the new sectors.

They were shown results of the substantial capital investment programme.

We have known for a long time that there is no one right way to analyze a proposed capital investment .

Heavy capital investment led to a record £23.4 billion financial deficit last year.

University capital investment in 1992-93 - money provided by the taxpayer - will amount to £216 million.

Conversely, the higher the rate of interest, the greater the additional cost to industry of financing new capital investment .

The contrary view is that a huge capital investment will have to be made soon to maintain buildings and provide equipment.


This was partly because the increasing integration of world capital markets has made it easier to finance current-account deficits.

With the development of a world capital market , everyone essentially borrows in New York, London, or Tokyo.

At the same time there was no organised capital market and so interest rates might be high.

Funds for economic development were provided by means of sterling bond issues in the London capital market .

This highlights the key role played by the perfect capital market assumption.

In pre-1914 days, there was a gold standard, and a single world capital market centred on London.

We're talking Euro-yen capital market activities.


Types of takeover offer General offer A general offer is an offer for the entire issued equity share capital of a company.

The transfer is made to avoid a reduction in share capital and, accordingly, to protect creditors.

Equity Capital is available in amounts from £100,000 and normally consists of a mix of preference share capital and ordinary equity.

The funds could be provided by you as a shareholder either as a loan or as further share capital .

With the share price peaking in July at 200 crowns, the company's share capital was worth 13 billion crowns.

It requests that an authority for market purchases should not normally exceed 10 percent of the company's issued ordinary share capital .

A company may expand by increasing the share capital and the number of directors.

The rest of their liabilities are raised through deposits from the general public, share capital and deferred taxation.


All these have been supposedly cynically instituted by the state capital complex.

Evan may not know his state capitals , but he is very interested in issues of social justice and equity.

They cast a shadow over his meeting yesterday in the state capital , Chandigarh.

Monday, during a high-speed chase through the streets of the Baja California state capital .

Eleven centres were selected near to teachers' colleges or state capitals and in each six experimental schools identified.

This is the state capital , after all.

But the quake was powerful enough to injure more than 250 people in Seattle Olympia, the state capital .

Several of the dead sheep were carried off to the state capital of Villahermosa 30 miles away for examination.


In terms of size, independent funds are the largest, with over 75 percent of total venture capital funds invested.

A venture capital fund usually lends money but also demands the right to buy a big slice of the firm.

The Independent, launched in October 1986 with venture capital , seeks to be independent of political party dogma.

The inveterate entrepreneur and a trio of venture capital firms in January invested $ 5 million in Healthscape Inc.

In particular, money managers will be asked to show greater willingness to support venture capital projects and start-up enterprises.

Many other venture capital firms besides InterWest are raising new rounds of capital.

Governments are operating professional sports teams and running venture capital funds.



But such taxes would also increase the cost of capital for those countries which could least afford it.

If the country is to have increasing capital and product, profits must be good.

Whether by some form of contract or by increasing local capital , firms can continue expanding their economic involvement.

Riots were increasing over the capital , and communications had been broken with the other two major cities of Nicaea.

Since 1979 we have increased capital spending on average by 4.3 percent. per year.

A company may expand by increasing the share capital and the number of directors.

But it also plans to increase its worldwide capital spending in 1993 to £6.6 billion, from £5.2 billion last year.

Further options may increase the capital by up to 15 percent over a ten-year period.


In any country the rich can invest and reinvest their capital , producing greater and greater profits.

Owners are granted this power in exchange for investing capital or assuming responsibility.

The Mercantile invests for long-term capital growth with emphasis on emerging companies worldwide.

What is missing from the various reform proposals is any recognition of the importance of investing in human capital as well.

But in the last three years, the city has invested the capital to see that it happens.

Shareholders invest their capital in the firm, whilst employees invest their human capital.


It requests that an authority for market purchases should not normally exceed 10 percent of the company's issued ordinary share capital .


And if capital gains turned to losses, investors would stop providing capital.

Savings provide individuals with economic security and provide capital for growth.

The aim is to provide security of capital with an attractive and rising level of income.

Their ability to provide such capital may however be limited, and therefore high profits will be sought.

They do not wish to provide further working capital by means of borrowing or it may be imprudent to do so.

As the mines became deeper companies found themselves unable to provide the necessary capital for winding and pumping equipment.

The secondary market helps new issues get under way in the primary market and therefore provides capital for growing companies.

The company was originally styled Information Workbench and Sippl provided the seed capital .


The number of deals will grow as the finance ministry eases restrictions on raising capital offshore.

Step Two was supposed to keep the government from being able to raise money in the capital markets to maintain current operations.

His grandfather Henry believed that people helped companies raise capital by buying their stock.

Also, of course, a trust is at liberty to raise new capital by an issue of additional ordinary or debenture shares.

Convinced that the idea was worth emulating in other villages, Yunus went to a local bank to raise the needed capital .

Being public limited companies, the investment trusts can raise debt capital and gear their portfolios.

Many other venture capital firms besides InterWest are raising new rounds of capital.


Albany is the capital of New York State.

Our return on capital has more than doubled since 1980.

Please fill in your name and address in capitals.

Raley started a grocery business in the 1930s with $1000 in capital .

Rome is one of the world's most beautiful capitals.

Sacramento is the state capital of California.

Since the stockmarket crash, companies have been trying to raise capital by selling new stock.

The plan is expected to create vast amounts of investment capital .

The tour includes a trip to Budapest, Hungary's capital city.

There is a shortage of capital for building new aircraft.

What's the capital of Canada?


Consumer goods occupy a much more contradictory place in the circulation and realisation of capital than do fixed assets.

On Oct. 10 between 30 and 100 people were reported hurt during a pro-Ershad rally in the capital , Dhaka.

Preference shares, particularly redeemable preference shares, are sometimes considered to be more akin to loan stock than share capital .

The food associated with economic capital is characterized by rich sauces and desserts, and rare and luxurious items such as truffles.

The nation state, particularly in the third world and the erstwhile Eastern bloc, is the agent of global capital .

The popes regarded the city as the capital of their duchy.

Typically too, nationalized industry balance sheets show capital as amounts owed to the central government.

When evaluating capital budgeting decisions, it is this marginal cost that should be used as the appropriate cost of capital.

II. adjective




It is not a capital account operator, dealing with the more complex business of how to finance that debt.

The capital account is always the mirror image of the current account.

Dealing with capital account problems requires analytical and organisational skills which are very different from policing an overdraft.

No change is made in the capital account .

Since the company owns the cash, it is an asset and therefore a capital account .

The capital account remained below £140 and a surplus of £32 9s. 9d. was shown on the year.

The capital account records purchases and sales of assets such as stocks, bonds, land, etc.

Note that the lower interest rate causes a capital account deficit on the balance of payments as people buy foreign assets.


What this might be, other than the preservation of capital accumulation , is never properly explained.

The method of capital accumulation is the extraction of surplus value.

The peasant economy provides a reserve of cheap labour for capitalism and so contributes to capital accumulation .

This discussion is informed by Marxist efforts to explain articulating modes of production in terms of the changing requirements of capital accumulation .

An ubiquitous feature of post-colonialism is the dominance of the state in the process of capital accumulation .

They are the preservation of order, the promotion of capital accumulation and the manufacture of legitimation.

It argued that work is continually de-skilled and degraded through the interaction of technical change and international patterns of capital accumulation .

Conditions would become more conducive to entrepreneurial initiative, capital accumulation , the division of labour, technological innovation, and industrialization.


The Bank has not given a formal ruling on this method of presentation from a capital adequacy perspective.

Under Czech banking law, all banks must meet a capital adequacy ratio of 8 percent.

From these figures it monitored key ratios which indicated the capital adequacy , liquidity and degree of risk for each firm.

But concern mounted that the fall in the stock market may start to undermine banks' capital adequacy ratios.

In particular it monitors each firm's conduct and capital adequacy .


The increase in capital allowances is very welcome.

This is because of the limited partnerships' tax losses while drilling, and the availability of capital allowances .

This ensures that the sum of capital allowances is equal to the real depreciation incurred.

These were partly offset by grants and capital allowances totalling £9.2 million.

One hundred percent. capital allowances could lead to investment decisions being made entirely for tax reasons.

Further increases in capital allowances for small and medium enterprises would also be very welcome.


The capital asset of the farms had little importance for most yet in some areas the value must have been substantial.

Any asset with an expected useful life of more than one year is normally considered a capital asset.

Housing represents most of the capital assets of local government.

Depreciation accounting is simply a technique used to allocate the cost of a capital asset over its expected useful life.

She would also be acquiring a capital asset .

The details of capital asset pricing theory are well beyond the scope of this book.

However, the firm can elect to have its capital assets collected in a pool.

A capital lease must be recorded on the balance sheet as a capital asset with an associated liability.


Lloyd's has seen its capital base contract sharply as Names have deserted the market in droves after disastrous losses.

If the receipt is distributed to shareholders as dividends then the capital base of the business has been eroded.

Discount houses have borrowing facilities at the Bank, with limits related to the capital base of each discount house.

In the absence of any verification, interim profits will not be included in the capital base .

The crucial determinants there are profitability, cash flow and capital base .

Both need to maintain their capital base in monetary terms.

Ferranti then hopes to decide on a course of action and in particular on how to restructure its capital base .


We built more hospitals and moved decisively away from the terrible stop-go years of the 1970s when capital budgets were slashed.

As previously announced, a capital budget of $ 350 million has been established for the year 2000.

After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individual department budgets into operating and capital budget summaries.

The federal government, however, does not have a capital budget .


This implies that capital charges will go right down to the departmental level in the budgetary control system.

Quite simply the basic case for capital charges has not been made.

Secondly, the capital charges are to include depreciation and an interest element.

The capital stock should be increased if the marginal social benefit exceeds the long-run marginal cost inclusive of the capital charge .

Secondly, we need to add the capital charges .

Banks therefore increased lending to emerging market borrowers that carried a lower regulatory capital charge but generated higher profits.


Rome, in short, lived on its past simply by being a capital city .

Both here and back in the capital city he would be surrounded by family and people who loved him.

Athens is a capital city too, you know.

This had been how the war entered the capital city .

All medical facilities have been heavily concentrated in the capital city .

The visitors were lodged in the Tower Hotel, located on a mountain overlooking the capital city .

This site is next to our great national cathedral - the very heart of the capital city .


But other centres have also seen the advantages of liberalism; and the end of capital controls has made finance more competitive.

New technologies make obsolete many of the regulations, such as capital controls , that had previously existed.

As, moreover, deficiencies have appeared in the capital control mechanisms, so refinements have been introduced.

When money can be moved instantly on a personal computer, the whole idea of capital controls melts away.

What is true for capital controls is true for most financial regulations.


But formidable capital cost stood in the way of such improvements, and irrigation remained no more than a theoretical possibility.

The capital cost of our equipment was £17029.00.

Fund-raisers set out to raise $ 1 million for capital costs plus $ 600, 000 for a collection endowment.

There were considerable savings both on the capital cost of power stations and on their operating costs.

The capital costs are high on account of the specialised nature of the machines required for the production line.


The capital costs are high on account of the specialised nature of the machines required for the production line.

A second and equally important impact of the time factor in making oil-backout investments is inflationary rises in capital costs .

These forecasts should consider the effects of each option on the revenue as well as on the capital costs of the completed project.

Fund-raisers set out to raise $ 1 million for capital costs plus $ 600, 000 for a collection endowment.


It is capital crime , and a black disgrace to the races of civilized mankind.


TranSys will fund the £200m borrowing requirement and spend £150m on capital equipment over the next five years.

In the process, buildings and capital equipment and departments like finance and payroll vanish from the books.

By this means capital equipment employed in manufacturing is owned by the services sector.

Money put into pay packages of top executives is not money spent on new capital equipment .

Expenditure on marketing, research and development and capital equipment , saw a £378,000 interest charge replace a £733,000 credit.

The proprietor owns or obtains the materials and capital equipment used in the operation of the business and personally supervises its operation.

Industrial Hire Purchase - the same as hire-purchase for personal customers but for items of capital equipment . 4.

Its return on capital has more than doubled since 1980, and investment in capital equipment in this country has revived somewhat.


Legal controls have been supplemented by financial controls, especially over capital expenditure .

Account should also be taken of relief which may be available for capital expenditure on assets.

Also, both operating expenditure and the operating consequences of capital expenditure appear together in the funds.

Similar developments are in hand in respect of capital expenditure .

If any operating division wishes to incur capital expenditure , it submits an appraisal form to the Finance Director.

The 1980 Act also considerably tightened central controls upon capital expenditure .

Central Government's control of capital expenditure .


It wants the cash to repay debt and for capital expenditures and for working capital.

You have to learn to estimate capital expenditures , cash flow, and receivables.

Praxair spent a record $ 802 million in 1995 on capital expenditures and acquisitions.

Physicians Resource said it will use proceeds for acquisitions, working capital , capital expenditures and letters of credit.

But these improvements demanded massive retooling and capital expenditures , and were not universally applicable.


Added to this, capital flows are important vectors of technical change.

Even the size of capital flows roughly matched the number of people who were moving.

It ignores capital flows which, in the short-term, can be used to service existing debt.

In both instances a massive disruption to trade and capital flows took place.

Generally, economic factors such as unemployment rates, trade and capital flows , seem to be the main determinants of labour mobility.

This uncertainty argument in favour of fixed exchange rates is based upon the apparent instability of capital flows .


Investment in coastal shipping yet again reveals how local the process of capital formation in transport was.

They were not accounted for in private consumption expenditure, general government expenditure, or domestic capital formation .

This does not mean that the pace of innovation and of capital formation in the eighteenth-century economy were negligible.

This obviously is not an especially efficient way to promote capital formation .

The obvious concern is to facilitate capital formation and to channel it into sectors and areas capable of using it most efficiently.

Moreover, the empirical evidence on the effect of egalitarianism on capital formation is uncertain.

But how is it possible to reconcile a variable rate of capital formation with a fixed stock of capital?

In everyday economic discourse, nothing is more frequently taken as an index of economic growth than the volume of capital formation .


Such an argument relies on the capital gains being unanticipated.

Such techniques are not available to middle-class families with modest savings, or to small business owners holding long-term capital gains .

Whatever some fiscal economists may say, capital gains are not the same as income.

The $ 200, 000 capital gain is illusory, reflecting the change in the overall price level since 1962.

The exchange should result in a capital gain for Axa.

Capital gains tax Here a tax is imposed when individuals part with an asset and make a capital gain on it.

Most of the capital gains reported by these under-$ 50, 000 taxpayers were chicken feed.


Can the market system provide the capital goods upon which technological advance relies?

So will the investment in capital goods and engineering skills needed to modernise outmoded factories.

Fast productivity growth in the sectors producing means of production ensured a rapid reduction in the real cost of capital goods .

But who, specifically, will register votes for capital goods ?

Financials were also among the market's strongest performers, along with capital goods and energy stocks.

Imports of capital goods rose 50. 7 percent and consumer goods almost doubled in 1995, it said.


If a project is going to generate high income, then the capital grant will be smaller, and vice versa.

Part of these totals will include a figure for capital grants made by central government for a specific purpose or project.

Other measures include a special needs capital grant to be aimed at projects provided by voluntary organisations and private sector care providers.


The trusts are: Global Income &038; Growth Portfolio to provide income and capital growth.

Unit Trusts can be aimed at generating income or capital growth .

The fund manager can, therefore, select the mix of bonds which offers the most attractive yield and capital growth potential.

Rising capital growth also helped the retail sector retain its high return of 10.9 percent, again with rentals holding steady.

Some investment managers may compensate by making a slight switch in emphasis towards capital growth investments and away from high yielding equities.

Murray Income, Murray Johnstone's income and capital growth trust, has outperformed its benchmark indices in its first half-year.

Some unit and investment trusts aim to provide capital growth , others income.

It aims to achieve a high level of income for ordinary shareholders as well as providing capital growth .


Jennings said House of Fraser will spend about 25 million pounds on capital improvements during calendar 1996.

Its initial long-range plan, published in 1962, called for $ 400 million in capital improvements from the-state.

This was apparent in the structure of the second-year application, which listed specific capital improvements subarea by subarea.

Three months later, the District Court adopted a plan requiring $ 187, 450, 334 in further capital improvements .

The money saved can be spent on capital improvements or perhaps to expand the catering operation, said Allen.

He used these organizations to finance projects outside of the normal general obligation bond method for capital improvements .


As we noted earlier, these capital inflows have financed the current account deficits.


Legally, such capital instruments are debt and should therefore be disclosed within liabilities.

The accounting policies in respect of capital instruments should be stated.

It does not address accounting for investments in capital instruments issued by other entities. 18.

If a capital instrument contains an obligation to transfer economic benefits the entire instrument should be accounted for as a liability.

The result of this approach is that most capital instruments are reported as liabilities.


That is part of Northern regional health authority's largest-ever capital investment , and it has been brought about by the Government.

For refiners, it required a big capital investment in new equipment.

Up the coast, capital investments have paid off for the ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles.

The state networks received more capital investment .

The ideal situation would be to recover the capital investment and the production costs and still make a reasonable profit.

This chapter concentrates on the latter two, i.e. fixed capital investment and inventory investment.

Financial decisions about health plans or capital investments or raises are all properly the purview of the entrepreneur.


These consist of a capital letter followed by numbers.

There were seven lines of type at the very top, all in capital letters , done on a computer.

She labelled them neatly, writing the addresses in ball point pen and capital letters .

Some one wrote in all capital letters that unqualified disabled workers were slacking off and getting special privileges.

The teacher had helped them with the capital letter to begin the sentence and the full stop at the end.

A text for students devoted seven pages to the use of a capital letter to indicate a proper noun.


This will not usually be a concern where a newly formed company acquires Target containing capital losses , as on a buy-out.

A portfolio of more volatile securities is more likely to generate capital losses than a portfolio composed of less volatile securities.

It includes assets which could be converted with relative ease and without capital loss into spending on goods and services.

He can claim either his capital loss or his loss of profit.


Loan demand was noticeably weak, with companies benefiting from increased Government spending and increased use of the capital market .

This means at least partial independence of the capital market for funds.

In recent years there has been an enormous increase in the range and complexity of capital market instruments.

Most trades in the Czech capital markets take place directly at the center.

Access to capital markets has been quickly re-established. 6.

The same logic-albeit with different means-should be applied to the international capital markets .

Investors have complained about a lack of regulation over the Czech capital markets and poor disclosure rules for company information.


The word from Lilongwe now is that Chihana will be charged with sedition, a capital offence .

Loss of privileges in peacetime; in war, a capital offence .


Innovation had to take place cheaply, since central government could not fund much in the way of capital projects .

The report would then be submitted in spring for inclusion on a list of capital projects .

A capital project can involve an additional 100 men.

It then develops ten-year plans for both operational and capital projects , with specific goals and costs.

The main business we are in is project management and engineering of capital projects for the process industries.

Most of the conventional capital projects were still in process at the pre-execution stage.

A great deal of the spending went on capital projects .

But the increasing availability of federal funds for conventional capital projects was clearly to the advantage of the departments.


On the question whether on merits it would be desirable to abolish capital punishment Ministers were divided.

Outside the prison, demonstrators on both sides of the capital punishment issue cheered, cried and prayed.

But capital punishment is not for me in that category: it is not self-evidently harmful, not self-evidently unjust.

The back-to-back executions would quicken the pace of capital punishment in Maryland.

Beccaria's reputation for humanity comes from the famous sections that oppose the use of torture and of capital punishment .

But it does not matter where issues of capital punishment and deterrence are concerned.

In 1965, Britain abolished capital punishment .

The immorality of capital punishment does not lie in the sympathy level of a particular convicted murderer.


Local authorities will be permitted to spend all their capital receipts realised from 13 November to the end of 1993.

There is obviously an argument here, as with capital receipts , for the grant to be returned to the spending programme.

Local authorities are also constrained in the proportion of capital receipts they may use to support capital expenditure.

Councils can spend a quarter of their capital receipts from council house sales however they want.

That attitude exposes the fact that Labour's posture on capital receipts is totally fraudulent.

An excess of receipts over payments can not be called income because receipts might include capital receipts.

If the Labour party were in power, there would be no capital receipts .

They can also be supplemented by capital receipts and trading profits.


They will lend against most types of property and offer a choice of capital repayment , endowment or pension linked mortgages.

A capital repayment holiday at the start?

Or no capital repayment until the end.

Consequently the Bank satisfies itself that the borrower can meet the interest and capital repayments before making the loan.


Loans between banks also entailed modest capital requirements .

Insurers, Mr Leventhal noted, are interested in selling because of stiff new regulatory capital requirements on their real-estate holdings.

Our focus is on the convergence of business acumen, strategy, technology directions, and capital requirements .

There are higher capital requirements for traders to cover losses.

This allows the landowner to realise cash by selling machinery and cuts the working capital requirement without having to profit share.

The sales to total assets ratio in particular is often used to compare the structure and capital requirements of different industries.


However, as we have seen, central government has always had power to control capital spending and still does.

Mr Evans said that capital spending had been cut back from original plans to offset the squeeze on profitability.

Profits have fallen for three consecutive quarters and capital spending has fallen in response.

The Manual was essentially concerned with prescribing the classification of revenue spending and capital spending, implicitly on the cash basis.

Labour's record on capital spending was lamentable.

Mr. Hinchliffe How much of that capital spending was funded from the closure and sale of established hospitals during those periods?


Of these overall rates, growth of capital stocks accounted for 0.73 percent and 0.43 percent respectively.

The capital stock should be increased if the marginal social benefit exceeds the long-run marginal cost inclusive of the capital charge.

The significant difference is that our interpretation of the capital-output ratio includes variable capital, not merely fixed capital stock .

Initially, the rapid run-down of agriculture allowed employment to rise in line with the capital stock .

This was a higher contribution to economic growth than that made by capital stocks .

The capital stock , unlike the labour force, will always be fully employed.

Official figures for manufacturing show a capital stock that increased gently but persistently throughout the 1970s and 1980s.


The capital structure of Newco in the context of institutional investment and bank borrowings has been considered in 4.7 above.

The average cost of capital is primarily of interest in capital structure management.

Changes in firm valuation were found to be consistent with the tax-based models of capital structure .

Msjor areas of emphasis include profitability, liquidity, operating efficiency, and capital structure .

The capital structure is simple, with only ordinary shares in issue.

We can see from these arguments and from Fig.8.4 that the capital structure theory has distinct implications for the price of equity.


The taxpayer received not only a capital sum when the companies were sold but now also receives a substantial annual dividend.

However, if he is able to continue work as a clerk, no capital sum under item 4 is payable.

On 15 July 1987, the Woolwich issued a writ to recover the capital sum and interest thereon.

Such accommodation can often be let on a long lease or sold to raise a capital sum .

The Crown then repaid the capital sum with interest from 31 July 1987 but refused to pay interest for earlier periods.

It was held that the repayments were capital sums and the settlor was correctly assessed to surtax.

Sometimes they offer up to two years' rent free; in other instances a capital sum changes hands.

What level of capital sum could be paid out of this fund to the two target groups?


We intend to lighten the burden of capital taxes and reform the taxation of savings.

Analyse the incidence of a capital tax in a model where there are two classes of individuals with different savings propensities.

The government levies a capital tax with the proceeds being used to subsidize wages, so that and.


After this date, and until 18 March 1986, a form of death duty called capital transfer tax applied.

In the 1983 budget, gifts to charities were exempted from capital transfer tax.

While it survived, it served a useful function in obtaining agreement on some economic questions such as currency convertibility and capital transfers .

And are death duties or capital transfer tax relevant?

An inheritance tax has replaced the capital transfer tax.

In 1974 the Labour government introduced capital transfer tax which taxed certain gifts given by people who were alive.

In 1981 the Conservative government abolished capital transfer tax and replaced it with inheritance tax.


High Income Portfolio to give a high and rising income while maintaining capital value .

For instance, landowners who find their land scheduled for housebuilding may enjoy an immediate increase in capital value .

On the other hand, the capital value seems very high.

The Council tax is based on the capital value of each property, on the assumption that it contains two adult members.

But capital values are inherently more volatile than income.

When income stream is not coming through and capital values are falling then you are going to get problems.

Palatine shareholders are being offered a significant increase in capital value and income, plus a substantial premium over net asset value.

When paid from the same age the difference in capital value is 10 percent.


The company's logo is a large capital "B."

The recycling industry is making huge capital investments in equipment.


During the year the bank actually had 12. 18 billion pesetas in capital gains from its fixed-income portfolio.

However, cuts in capital investment and fuel supply problems have reduced capacity growth to something around 3% per year.

In the latter case it will be necessary to work closely with the local authority in carrying out a capital project.

Payroll taxes are levied only on wages and salaries-not profits, interest, dividends, or capital gains.

Some investment managers may compensate by making a slight switch in emphasis towards capital growth investments and away from high yielding equities.

The fund manager can, therefore, select the mix of bonds which offers the most attractive yield and capital growth potential.

We intend to lighten the burden of capital taxes and reform the taxation of savings.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.