Meaning of FUNDAMENTAL in English



a basic/fundamental concept

The children are taught the basic concepts of mathematics.

a basic/fundamental principle (= a very important principle to which other ideas are added )

Applicants should show that they understand the basic principles of marketing.

a basic/fundamental/underlying assumption

There is a basic assumption in international law that a state will protect its citizens.

a fundamental distinction (= a basic one )

There is a fundamental distinction between authors and readers.

a fundamental issue (= a basic and important issue )

Decisions still need to be made about some fundamental issues.

a fundamental misunderstanding (= a misunderstanding of the main point of something )

a fundamental misunderstanding of Freud’s theories

a fundamental objection

A fundamental objection is that the church should not be part of the government.

a fundamental problem (= relating to the most basic and important parts of something )

The government has done little to solve the fundamental problems of poverty and crime.

a fundamental question

Their experiences have highlighted fundamental questions of human rights.

a fundamental review (= that examines the most basic and important parts of something )

There have been calls for a fundamental review of our voting system.

a fundamental shift (= a complete change )

A fundamental shift in attitudes was underway.

a fundamental/basic right

The law recognises a man’s fundamental right to defend his home and his property.

an essential/fundamental difference (= a very basic one )

The fundamental differences between the two sides slowly emerged.

central/basic/fundamental etc tenet

one of the basic tenets of democracy

central/fundamental importance

The central importance of interest rates is widely recognized.

fundamental flaw

There is a fundamental flaw in Walton’s argument.

fundamental reform (= changes to the most basic and important parts of something )

He wants fundamental reform of the EU's agricultural policy.


Reducing waste requires a fundamental change in attitude.

the fundamental/underlying cause (= the root cause )

The underlying cause of insomnia is often anxiety.




Such a differentiation could be as fundamental as life's ability to reproduce.

The principle of religious freedom was established as fundamental from the beginning of this nation.

The recognition of good staff interpersonal relationships as fundamental to all management processes and important as a model for pupils 7.

A single bold stroke can not resolve political difficulties as fundamental as those Mondale faced and Dole now confronts.

The need to strive for such aims can only be thought of as fundamental and humanitarian.

Not money, and not technology unless it was as fundamental as safety pins.

It is the tension between gene and individual body as fundamental agent of life.

The modifications introduced should not be regarded as fundamental .


It is through changing them in a more fundamental way that the drugs cause addiction.

The latter and more fundamental type of evolution is essentially individual.

A disposition to incremental change can deflect one from considering or even comprehending wider and more fundamental problems.

There is also a more fundamental problem.

A more fundamental example concerns our brains, which are made of nerve cells which do not divide when we are adult.

But even if they are overcome, other more fundamental difficulties will remain.

No, the problem is more fundamental .

The Royal Commission on Legal Services took a more fundamental view with regard to financial conditions, which has not been accepted.


As such it must rank as one of the most fundamental scientific advances of the century.

Not united metaphorically, or even just in partnership, but on the most fundamental physical levels.

It depends on the fact that standard effects are events which in the most fundamental sense can be explained.

The most fundamental value that distinguishes classes differs for different class theorists.

On all but the most fundamental issues, the party line became much less forthright and clear-cut.

That is the most fundamental why question of all, and the one with which the next chapter begins.

Perhaps the most fundamental critique is that provided by theorists emphasizing the global structure of economic and political power.

The most fundamental power of oversight held by some legislatures is their capacity to overturn the government.


Why is the digital environment so fundamental to multimedia?

Learning is so fundamental that we seldom stop to analyze exactly what takes place.

This is so fundamental a point that I will develop this in some detail.

The distinction between males and females is held to be so fundamental as to be unworthy of comment.

No issue is so fundamental both to the searcher and to the believer as the question of truth.

Intellectualisation: Anger is so fundamental to the disease that it goes with the person rather than with specific events.

We can do a lot after planting, but in no way so fundamental as doing the job properly beforehand.

The spatial dialogues so fundamental in Braque's art touched Picasso's but were of subsidiary concern to him.



Piaget identifies two fundamental aspects or modes of adaptation: accommodation and assimilation.

This context is essential to the understanding of humanism, one of the fundamental aspects of Western thought.

This was a fundamental aspect of the nature of trusteeship.

However, there is a more fundamental aspect to this concern.

Several fundamental aspects of statistics and a few explanations on integral calculus nomenclature are added with three Appendices.

Regulationist theories also consider industrial change as the key or fundamental aspect of structural change.

The refusal did include policy reasons, but the fundamental aspect was those other problems which were given very considerable investigation.

Further, a fundamental aspect of the context is the young child's construal of the adult's words and actions.


Second point: is the constructivist's fundamental assumption not justified if knowledge is our subject of study rather than successful behaviour?

But there is a danger that the current reforms will leave untouched fundamental assumptions about the lives and needs of service users.

However, subsequent excavations at Maiden Castle, Arikamedu and Charsadda have inevitably caused many of his fundamental assumptions to be refuted.

Is it perhaps time to re-examine some of the fundamental assumptions underlying that policy?

The fundamental assumption was that Time will always discover and avenge any act of injustice.

Although Friedmann found only one, there are in fact three different kinds of models that obey Friedmann's two fundamental assumptions .

This approach must first identify and question three fundamental assumptions on which most conservation thinking currently rests.


The courts were generally reluctant to construe an exclusion clause as covering cases of breach of fundamental term or fundamental breach.

A fundamental breach is one which the courts would consider more serious than an ordinary breach.

The third stage, the trial, makes a fundamental breach with the past.

It therefore appears that an exclusion clause can apply, even to cases of fundamental breach and breach of fundamental term.

Secondly, the courts developed the doctrine of fundamental breach of contract.

The request for her to stay away from work for two months out of 12 was not sufficient to amount to a fundamental breach .

These cases are examples of fundamental breach .


It had failed to remove any of the fundamental causes behind the revolutionary challenge.

These analyses examined both the immediate and the more fundamental causes for urban disturbances.

The fundamental cause of higher volatility, however, is that dividend income is in decline.


The main weakness of these republican reforms was that they threatened fundamental change but didn't fully implement it.

But periods of fundamental change make them even harder.

Many short-lived groups appeared with formulae for fundamental change .

Both houses must approve by two-thirds margins, and 38 state legislatures must ratify such fundamental changes .

In recent years, the Government has introduced legislation which has brought fundamental changes to local government.

The Sunday Night Supper reflected a fundamental change in social Washington since the beginning of the war.

In these moments of fundamental change political practice makes all the constitutional running.

Getting a large fraction of companies involved, however, will require a fundamental change in business attitudes.


Having established the phasor relationship between the fundamental components of phase voltage and current, the pull-out torque can be found directly.

The analysis can be simplified by concentrating on the d.c. and fundamental components of voltage and current.

They are a major and fundamental component of the system of the unconscious, as distinct from the conscious and preconscious systems.

This switched supply introduces a non-linearity, which can be eliminated by considering only the fundamental components of voltage and current.


Accounting bases are methods of applying fundamental concepts to deal with the increasing variety of business transactions.

Because WordPerfect is different than most commonplace word-processing programs, it is important that you understand the fundamental concepts discussed here.

Its exploration involves the development and use of some fundamental concepts .

In fact there is no established generalization about our concepts , or our fundamental concepts, on which it can be based.

It is a fundamental concept that can be traced back to earliest times.

The paper explains the fundamental concepts of information technology and outlines the important trends.


That fundamental conflict between consumption and conservation has both sides of the molecular forestry debate waving environmental banners.

Since these two purposes are in fundamental conflict , one will, inevitably, dominate.

He argued that a fundamental conflict was taking place during the period of social modernisation.

It is often the focal point for fundamental conflicts .

Gandhi, of course, was wrong in supposing there to be any fundamental conflict in Irwin between the viceroy and the man.

This creates a fundamental conflict of interest between social groups since one gains at the expense of another.


There is, however, a fundamental difference .

This is a fundamental difference between Sunni and Shita.

And here lies a fundamental difference of opinion - how should a National Park operate?

But there was a fundamental difference .

Although both look curved there exists a fundamental difference between them.

This fundamental difference with the position of earlier radicals required theoretical analysis in two areas.

It is rather that there is a fundamental difference in the distribution of syntactic features between the two modes.

Climate change is making a fundamental difference .


Some of these are in fundamental disagreement with the assumption on which the rational-planning or objectives models rest.

This debate is deep and serious, for it reflects fundamental disagreements about the very nature of society and politics.


Without these fundamental distinctions the economic privileges of the profession are suspect.

Even at this early stage in their careers, fundamental distinctions in approach were emerging.

That seems to me to be the fundamental distinction , and should be fully preserved.

Clearly there is a considerable overlap between top-down and bottom-up plans, but the fundamental distinction needs making.

But such a conception is to overlook a fundamental distinction about the two activities.


The story of Britain's fighter development was more complex and was slowed by one fundamental error of scientific judgment.

Tax studies purporting to show that most capital gains tax is paid by higher-income individuals reflect a fundamental error .

He made the most fundamental error possible in tournament golf, signing a card containing a wrong score.

Those changes relate to fundamental errors and adjustments resulting from changes in accounting policies.

The critics are making a fundamental error in labelling this the start of a two-tier system.

Increasing tare without restricting routes a fundamental error .


I think you may have a fundamental flaw in your thought processes.

It attacks the fundamental flaws and loopholes in the campaign finance regulatory system adopted in the wake of the Watergate scandal.

However, those exemptions and discounts merely reinforce the fundamental flaw at the centre of the council tax.

Some people see this as a fundamental flaw in the whole theory of the blind watchmaker.

But there were two fundamental flaws in the Covenant.

Partnership is one of the fundamental flaws of football.


Remember, one of the fundamental freedoms is the right of free association.

Human rights and fundamental freedoms are still flouted, intolerance persists and discrimination against minorities is practised.

How will governments justify the violation of such fundamental freedoms ?


Stoichiometry is of fundamental importance in modern chemistry.

Those and related questions are of fundamental importance .

Here are three of fundamental importance . 1.

Given consumer tastes, product prices are of fundamental importance in determining consumer expenditure patterns.

The investigators believe that the answers to these questions are of fundamental importance for all of economics.

Yet he must make a tentative judgment on inadequate evidence, for such a matter is of fundamental importance .

Basil used to tease us about movement and chuckle at our claims for its fundamental importance in the education of young children.

However, in two other respects, Waddington draws our attention to points which are of fundamental importance .


Between the two of them there was a fundamental issue at stake.

Thus, the fundamental issue of violence is not one of actions but one of the condition of the heart.

I suggest that, important as such analysis is, there are more fundamental issues which have to be tackled first.

The two sides remain far apart on those fundamental issues .

Much more fundamental issues are raised.

The fundamental issue is, is marriage something we honor and respect?

Its objective is to address fundamental issues of hybrid models of cognition.

Many of the most fascinating and fundamental issues in the political world have normative components.


Suppose there is not even consensus that the Constitution is fundamental law .

Most physicists would claim that the fundamental laws operative at the scale of a human brain are indeed all perfectly well known.

The concept of free will belongs to a different arena from that of fundamental laws of science.

He again stressed that any change in the fundamental law should come from the people through the departmental assemblies.

Paradigms will also include standard ways of applying the fundamental laws to a variety of types of situation.

It is a fundamental law of economics in a world of scarce resources and could not be otherwise.

One has to keep the investigation of the fundamental laws of science and the study of human behavior in separate compartments.

One can not use the fundamental laws to deduce human behavior, for the reasons I have explained.


This process affects information professionals, such as librarians and archivists, at a fundamental level .

At this fundamental level of resource there can not be any easy interchange without changing an old or creating a new religion.

When analysed at this more fundamental level , the database will also give clear guidelines about overall corporate image.

At an even more fundamental level , it is a new way of seeing the work world.

There is also another and much more fundamental level of critique and debate.

In the course of designing work, the tasks to be performed would be broken down to their most fundamental level .

The most fundamental level of diversity generation is that of mutation, crossing over, recombination, and related genetic operations.


Here again there was a fundamental mistake .

I believe that would be a fundamental mistake .

He rarely made fundamental mistakes and never, she suspected, about a man's scientific ability.

Prepurchase Preparation A fundamental mistake is commonly made in the basic assumptions of ecommerce business models being designed for the Internet.

I obviously made some fundamental mistakes within the first few days of my move.

His fundamental mistake was not only to buy all his planes, but to buy them only on borrowed money.


The fundamental point in the appeal, however, does not depend on that issue.

This is an absolutely fundamental point .

The skill of research is in accessing fundamental points quickly and substantiating them with hard data.

The term economic hides the fundamental point that economic change is at the same time social change.

You may find yourself in dispute with management on what seems to you to be a fundamental point of principle.

Too often, fundamental points are not raised until the reports are complete.

Three fundamental points must be made about his ideological make-up.

At it each speaker emphasised this fundamental point .


Make this point firmly, because the idea of anxiety-reduction with repeated exposure is one of the fundamental principles of the course.

Netanyahu, on the other hand, has been struggling with the fundamental principles of accords he has long opposed.

I believe that it is a fundamental principle that people should have access to independent legal advice.

The women use their personal philosophy and experiences to illustrate fundamental principles of financial planning.

Let me state a couple of fundamental principles that we hold dear.

This result is inconsistent with the fundamental principles of our constitutional system.

The same is not true of the following feature of the model, which embodies a fundamental principle of biology.

Using these frames of reference, lawyers advocate particular legal doctrines and mould the fundamental principles of the law of obligations.


Objections on the grounds of time often disguise a more fundamental problem which concerns teaching in general and not just the objectives model.

However, there are fundamental problems with the method of authority as a way of knowing.

What is a fundamental problem in Lukács's account is how an effective analysis can be achieved.

Based on this experience they came to an understanding of a fundamental problem of flight: control.

One of the fundamental problems of social organization is how to coordinate the economic activities of large numbers of individuals and businesses.

There are, however, two other fundamental problems which can not be so easily resolved.

Sure, Eastern had many fundamental problems to overcome.


At this juncture, two crucially fundamental questions now emerge.

A fundamental question is: How valid are these similarities that Leibniz perceived?

This last point raises a fundamental question about the nature and function of standing rules.

Although the spectacle had macabre entertainment value, a fundamental question got buried in the slime: Did Carey finagle the books?

To start the process of formulating goals you need to ask yourself some fundamental questions about your own motivation.

The most fundamental question is, do the two sets, namely natural monopolies and perfectly contestable industries, in fact intersect?

There remains the fundamental question of why women had their hair cut off.


However there is, in my opinion, a more fundamental reason why the section has no application in the present case.

But there are more fundamental reasons why unity with either Rome or the Orthodox is still a long way off.

The fundamental reason is that too many of these kids are growing up in chaotic circumstances and are left to raise themselves.

I take exception to that and regard it as inadequate, for two fundamental reasons .

Indeed, the fundamental reason for the controversy is that the Draft Directives do not actually impose identical conduct of business rules.

There are two fundamental reasons for the difficulty.

This is perhaps the fundamental reason for Edward's political failure.


Now is certainly the time for fundamental reform .

Liberal Democrats know that this can not be achieved without fundamental reform .

The government had retreated: radical Thatcherism backed off from fundamental reform of the system.

We will create a Supreme Court to entrench and defend these fundamental reforms to the relationship between the citizen and the state.

The marchers demanded a full investigation of the scandal and a fundamental reform of the country's political system.

Will it continue to rise, without fundamental reform ?


The right to determine what shall be done with one's own body is a fundamental right in our society.

But no fundamental right is involved here.

In May, 1982, a similar case also challenged parents' fundamental rights .

But there are certain fundamental rights which this right of regulation can not infringe.

So I am sceptical when it is said that ordinary people are not interested in fundamental rights .

But the left should also be at the forefront of those campaigning for a comprehensive charter of fundamental rights .

Roe decided that a woman had a fundamental right to an abortion.


The skill with which Coenwulf conserved Offa's imperium, however, can obscure some fundamental shifts of emphasis.

Over the years, there have been fundamental shifts in policy and strategy as attitudes toward the rural poor wax and wane.

The fundamental shift towards allowing outside concessions to take new exploration areas, represents good long-term opportunities for the Wood Group.

The fundamental shift in their self-concepts was well under way.

The fundamental shift is from provider to enabler.

Whatever the organizational changes few people in Bonn expect any fundamental shifts in science policy.

A fundamental shift in the emerging essence of the fishnet organization is the recasting of problems as dilemmas.


A fundamental tenet of Adler's theory is that human actions are motivated by feelings of inferiority of some kind.

He had questioned a fundamental tenet of her life, that young women are more attractive than older women.

The fundamental tenet of Democritus' physics is that all that exists is matter.


It is a way for parliamentary authority to express itself within an agreed framework of fundamental values and norms.

The most fundamental value that distinguishes classes differs for different class theorists.

The peer group gives out clear signals to its members both about style and about fundamental values and perspectives.

The class approach Does the same fundamental value separate virtually all people in a society into a few distinct strata?

But it is also a framework of fundamental values .

Such diversities or divisions of people have no real fundamental value .

Despite such strategies, the systematic inequalities in fundamental values generate continuing conflict between classes in the society.

The arcane language of parliamentary procedures always seemed to come more easily to Dole than straight forward talk on fundamental values .


It is through changing them in a more fundamental way that the drugs cause addiction.

I knew in a deep and fundamental way that I did not deserve elevation or success.

However, he and I differ in a fundamental way .

When subplots or scenes of local color are introduced, they relate to the main plot in a fundamental way .

Ahmed: I don't think that the Union actually changed in any fundamental way .

Angela, too, fails her children in fundamental ways .

One of the fundamental ways of changing attitudes is through information.

I wish to focus attention, instead, on movements that challenged modernity in a far more fundamental way .


the fundamentals (of sth)

As you become more comfortable with the fundamentals , the complicated bits become easier.

But the fundamentals of low inflation and low growth failed to assuage the bond market yesterday.

Following the introductory chapter, the fundamentals of the law of contract are discussed and related to computer technology.

Granted, the fundamentals that ultimately determine stock-market value are favorable; there is no reason for bearish growls.

In Chapter 14 I sketch out the fundamentals of a structuralist theory of truth.

Since the fundamentals are almost never equivalent, a world of fixed exchange rates requires periodic exchange rate adjustments.

These recipes are simply a starting point and provide the fundamentals .

Virtually everywhere, the fundamentals are sound: the number of older people is growing and they are spending more on leisure.


Raising your child to tell the difference between right and wrong is one of the fundamental tasks of parenthood.

the fundamental beliefs of Christianity

Water is fundamental to survival.


Are there fundamental elements of human nature that can not be significantly altered by socialization and institutions?

Eikmeyer's fundamental insight is that co-operation and non-co-operation are not simply polar opposites along a scale.

If this treatment changes the fundamental disease process, a prolonged period of remission might be expected in these patients.

It is different from any Byzantine architecture in east or west but owes much of its fundamental character to the Byzantine style.

Meanwhile the population is changing in fundamental ways.

Tax studies purporting to show that most capital gains tax is paid by higher-income individuals reflect a fundamental error.

This suggested that the fundamental problem of many working class families was one of scarce resources.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.