Meaning of MATERIAL in English

I. noun


combustible material/gas etc

construction materials

expensive construction materials like cement and steel

course material

Teachers are provided with course material.

curtain fabric/material (= for making curtains )

I need to go to town to buy some curtain fabric.

instructional programmes/materials/techniques etc

a free instructional video.

material hardship (= a serious lack of money or of things that you need in order to live )

Emergency government aid helped to relieve the flood victims' material hardship.

material possessions (= things you own, rather than personal qualities, relationships etc )

Many of them have lost all their material possessions as a result of the civil war.

material resources

Most people lack the material resources to be able to deal with periods of unemployment.

material rewards (= money or possessions that you get )

They think money and material rewards are more important than quality of life.

physical/psychological/material etc well-being

the physical and emotional well-being of the children

plant material

They feed on decaying plant material.

raw material

His time here provided the raw material for his novel.

raw materials

The cost of our raw materials has risen significantly.

reading material

a supply of interesting reading material

synthetic fibres/materials/fabrics

teaching materials

This will help teachers to prepare their own teaching materials.

writing materials (= pens, pencils, paper etc )

Pupils were able to try old writing materials such as slates and steel-nibbed pens.




No novel genetic material will be introduced into the environment.

That enzyme is crucial to the translation of the virus' genetic material and the reproduction of more viruses inside the host.

The genetic material has to divide exactly.

In the intermediate zone between a population boom and a population bust, this superfluous genetic material is pruned out.

For instance, the basic genetic material is similar.

The more violent the oscillations the greater the amount of parasitic genetic material .

Some bacterial populations are asexual: no means of exchanging genetic material exists.

The work was conducted on genetic material retrieved from embryos, not on embryos themselves.


As instructional material it is indirect in that the reader is not necessarily told what to do, as in a routine.

They have helped develop curricula and have contributed instructional materials and advice.

Eventually some instructional material did arrive, but not until October, by which time the whole detachment had qualified.

The professional also learns quickly not to rely solely upon personal qualities and a limited collection of instructional materials .

This gives an indication of the potential impact of this type of instructional material .

The use of simple equipment to produce teacher-made instructional materials for classroom use. 4.

The preview and evaluation of instructional materials through classroom use. 5.

Included in the collection are diagnostic and testing materials , professional materials, and instructional materials to be used directly with learners.


The company is also developing two new materials which it hopes will be strong enough to fill cavities in the back teeth.

In its place was a halo of entirely new material .

By the 1950s and 1960s, delicate equipment for reaching and investigating single nerve cells could be built with new materials .

But they made them of iron, and Justice proposed to make them from the new miracle material , steel.

Ideas about representing the structure of energy and movement were sought through experimentation with new materials and light.

Then we learned to extract raw materials from her biosphere to create our own new synthetic materials.

New products, including liquid crystal display televisions, long-life batteries and new materials offer promise for the future.

Such persons will frequently lead you to new or additional material .


It then swells-for the nuclear material is highly compacted within the sperm-and so becomes a pronucleus.

Pentagon officials say they have already had some success reducing the risk that nuclear materials will fall into the wrong hands.

Each of the two divisions of meiosis produces two daughter cells, each of which contains the same amount of nuclear material .

There have been some real instances of just dumping nuclear material in the oceans.

Since the amount of nuclear material increases as cells grow and divide, new pyrimidines and purines had to come from somewhere.

Obtaining nuclear material is the hardest part of building a bomb; a clever physics graduate student can figure out the rest.

Storage of nuclear materials is in jeopardy, a government official warned recently.


They also, astonishingly, contain abundant organic material .

An independent chronology for these reconstructions is essential and this is provided by radiocarbon-dating of organic material preserved in the sediments.

Uneaten food and other dead organic materials left in the tank are the worst offenders in pollution of the water.

They are separated by a thin layer of a very complex organic material .

The corals feed passively on bits of organic material suspended in the water.

Snow close to the coast is often additionally contaminated by mineral salts and organic material from the sea.

Muck is formed by the decaying of saw grass and other organic material over thousands of years.


My first lesson on Day One; labour is a commodity like any other raw material .

The placenta detaches itself from the uterine wall and, with other material , is forced out after the baby.

All other materials contract when they solidify.

Conclusions: The velvet cloth is a near perfect black, but more expensive and less readily available than the other materials .

For example, research in composites, polymers and other new materials could aid a range of engineering industries.

These and other language-based materials are offered as supplementary materials which will slot into a range of syllabuses.

At the time of manufacture the foil would obviously become mixed with other materials .

Nowadays boards can means pasteboard, cardboard, strawboard or any other stiff material used in hard-covered books.


This would have resulted in more radioactive material being released.

They left radioactive material in Moscow and said they were going to use that kind of weapon....

Officials admit that another 700 firms and institutions are using hazardous radioactive material .

A conventional bomb could scatter radioactive material over a large area.

There is a danger of leakages and the deliberate dumping of radioactive material , with potentially catastrophic results for the environment.

Two other canisters bearing labels for radioactive material were also found, but preliminary tests failed to detect any radioactivity.

So far environmental lobbies have been extremely reluctant to allow radioactive materials to be flown in a chemical rocket.

It was closed and capped in 1977 after an explosion inside it showered the area with radioactive material .


The only defence open to enterprises and manufacturing industry would be a chaotic cut in their demand for these raw materials .

It consumes twice as much energy, water and other raw materials , per unit of production, as most industrialized countries.

No longer is the customer at the end of the line, nor does the supplier only relate to raw materials .

The problem here remains one of the identification of the sources of the raw materials used during the period.

For these industries steel from Motherwell is an important local raw material .

It announced the suspension of all work on the grounds of lack of raw materials .

In addition, all regional buyers inspect and approve all raw material stores personally to ensure they achieve our laid down standards.

The respondent's answers constitute the raw material to be analysed at a later point in time.



After coal, building materials figured importantly among bulk cargoes.

Consequently, the fall in demand for building materials and construction workers will generate downward multiplier effects on other types of investment.

Many building materials such as lime mortars and plasters, Portland cement and asbestos cement develop alkalis.

First half profit before tax fell by 12% to £44.5m at Laporte; eps fell by 6% to 18.8p. Building materials .

They scrounge wiring, plasterboard, wood, all kinds of building materials from local firms and are rebuilding the charred structure.

Most obviously, water is an excellent building material: eminently flexible, but not very compressible.

The ordering of building materials would help greatly the building supplies industry that is at present in the doldrums.


However, a real plant will be constrained by the amount of already existing plant material and its needs.

Each time any plant material was harvested, it was laboriously weighed and recorded by the biospherians.

Orfe are ideal inhabitants for a planted pond, as they only eat small amounts of plant material .

York said that reconstituted tobacco is made by separating water-soluble elements, including nicotine, from the tobacco plant material .

Another similar material is the partly rotted plant material in garden compost heaps.

Most 14C ages are determined from the carbon in dead plant material .

A second explanation is that antibiotic production is rooted in the plant material that is the food source.

Gooey and black, the muck is full of decaying plant material .


It will need to have a ledge to support the reading material and strong clamps to hold pages in place are useful.

By level 8, the reading material is as demanding as it can be.

To list background reading material . 5.

The Lawyers' Library in Appendix 4 gives details of these publications and other useful reading material .

A spontaneous way to effect magnification is to bring reading material close to the eye.

It provides a variety of reading material from newspapers and other authentic sources, which parallel and reinforce each story.

Like the Prince, she requests and gathers together information and reading material on all of the subjects she has taken on.

There is a hunger for reading material , for books of all kinds, educational and recreational.


The research involves the use of primary source materials in national and local archives.

A key element will be the researching of source material still held by different constabularies.

But what is extraordinary about all these intricate reworkings of such disparate source material is the coherence of the final results.

In some cases, quite new kinds of source material will become practical.

At best, his work is defined by what is known to be available as source material .

Unlike structured databases, Viewdata is useful for a great variety of written source materials .

Searches that predominantly involve specific words or phrases known to have been used in the source material .


Teachers in a cluster group might share the work of producing teaching materials or assessment materials.

Earlier publication will make timetabling easier, and reduce the pressure on staff who need to review and develop teaching materials .

One other possibility that is sometimes considered if a camera is available in an institution is local production of teaching materials .

It is easy to get teaching materials wrong, difficult to get them right.

The Department is committed to teaching materials in an engineering context and much of its research reflects this attitude.

The national clearinghouses co-operate to some extent but largely through exchanges of information and teaching material .

The larger format will offer at 3-4 levels a range of self-study language teaching materials .



They had tunnelled down into the plateau, and they had built upwards as far as their materials and construction abilities would allow.

During the three-week run, the sophisticated internal monitoring equipment indicated no buildup of gases either from building materials or biological sources.

These ideas have been built into curricula and materials .

He made his way through a ragpickers' village built with material scavenged from other parts of the city.


Many of these works contain important statistical material , but there exist also many purely statistical digests and collections.

They also, astonishingly, contain abundant organic material .

All of the books containing material related to the theses in the present study are such compilations.

CompuServe recently shut down direct access to certain newsgroups containing indecent photographs and material .

Now if you will refer to your folders, you have extracts containing the relevant material .

Confidential data contain material that is secret but whose existence is not a secret.

If the second edition of a book contains revision material , it is the first revised edition.

The child-use section contains instructional materials in a wide variety of format and subject matter for the children themselves.


These include materials and fuel, work in progress, and stocks of finished products.

Each lesson includes a list of materials needed.

The database of approximately 180 references include audiovisual and print materials held in the school library.

Examples of chemical poisoning include chlorine-based materials released into the atmosphere.

Many pre-school poetry collections include material which presents negative images of older people.

Individuals with similar functions include materials , operations, purchasing, and traffic managers.

Perkins also includes some useful material for experimental physicists such as stopping power and multiple scattering formulae and definition of radiation lengths.

The documents included allegedly misleading sales material and records from individual customers' files.


This produces materials which are as clean as first-use plastics.

User need prevails when such produced materials reduce abstractions to a level of reality and personal meaning to the individual.

Through working together the schools are able to buy in expertise and share the costs of producing high quality materials .

But Raye, with his sweet, Vince-Gill-like tenor, continues to produce strong material .

It uses the best talents available to produce promotional materials to recruit new members.

No one is advocating producing more of this material , as some fear.

Older methods of producing duplicated material can be defective in this regard.

But, what if you really must produce more material ?


It is this process which provides the material of creativity.

A stunning move by Franklin Roosevelt provided dramatic material for the new team.

The research brings together academics from the countries included in the study to provide descriptive material on decentralisation for an edited publication.

It will provide supporting material for the annual review of implementation and, where necessary, clarify or supplement information received.

In the past, waste was not useless, but provided fuel, building materials and industrial materials, as well as rough grazing.

Chord changes were of particular importance, because they provided the raw material for each improvised solo.

In doing this they provide the material for their own cultural development that is self-determining and self-governing.

We love Dan Snyder because he provides us with material .


They should read a selection of material that includes short stories, novels, plays and poems.

Parents need to read these published materials , acknowledging that some teachers will rely more or less on these.

A: It is rare for a child to sustain interest in reading material that is completely beyond him.

He reads and digests material on a vast range of topics and picks the brains of most of the leading authorities.

Most likely this person is inundated with reading material at work and at home.

In reading the material which follows an important point should be borne in mind.

This will give everyone a chance to read the material , make comments, and come prepared for a discussion.


Alongside the Manchester Ship Canal there were open spaces suitable for large modern factories using imported raw materials .

Parents will have control over which rating service or software they use and what material their kids can access.

You could think of using video material occasionally as an input to these activities.

Regionals use a lot of material originated by public relations, sometimes in the form in which it was sent.

Team leader Alan Smith said the nursery was committed to preserving the environment so it did not use peat materials or chemicals.

The challenge in designing and using materials is how to delay the moment of ultimate failure.

A good general purpose tripod using the minimum material for the maximum load is illustrated in Figure 7.

It is for the teachers, drawing on their professional knowledge and expertise, to use the materials appropriate for their pupils.


the material world

Flash heat, volcanism, lightning, wind, and waves all renew the material world .

For Marx the material world is the ultimate reality.

His followers are to trust in the goodness and providence of their heavenly father and abandon their care about the material world .

Such scientists refuse to admit that here they are dealing with another level or scale of being in the material world .

That meant he could project his spirit as he slept, and wander the material world and even the spirit lands.

The child's actions on the material world also provide a stimulus for conceptual development.

The members of the second were practical men who were leaders and men of action in the material world .

These are no doubt spiritual matters, but they have their analogue in the material world .


A layer of insulating material should be placed between the panels and the solid wall.

art material

building materials

Could I have six metres of that curtain material ?

I've been unable to find any reference material on the subject of interracial adoptions.

Menken is collaborating on the new material with Tim Rice.

She was wearing a long black dress made of some silky material .

Some materials are easier to dye than others.

Steel is a stronger material than iron.

T-shirt material

The chairs are made of recycled material .

The company supplies building materials such as bricks and cement.

The stories he collected became material for the biography he is now writing.

There's a basket there with some books and writing materials.

There wasn't enough material to write a whole book.


Appropriate educational material will continue to be co-ordinated, evaluated and distributed to schools as it becomes available.

However, even this material would not be strong enough if the balloon was designed along conventional lines.

In any trial, the prosecution must prove beyond reasonable doubt that the material is obscene.

It is still prudent to re-condition bought materials.

It smelt not only of mud and rotting materials, but also the unmistakable odour of human waste.

No one is advocating producing more of this material , as some fear.

Samples of the material were collected and sent for analysis while crews worked to remove the material.

The rubble of solid chilled material overlying the hot core naturally tends to insulate it, and it does so very efficiently.

II. adjective




Anderson argues strongly that such patterns can be explained only by looking at the material advantages and disadvantages of people living together.

It was a nice bit of play by Deane which gave Speed the opportunity to translate our complete domination into material advantage .

This illustrates the crucial point that practical constraints affect people in differing degrees, depending on their level of material advantage .

I would not dream of seeking any material advantage from our meeting.

Even when due allowance is made for the material advantages of Gloucester's lordship, there is no doubt of his personal attraction.


In general, what the theory of dialectic materialism states is that every society is structured around its material basis of production.

Wage incentives were needed to motivate officials, thus giving bureaucracy an institutional and material basis for power.

What experience gives us is not knowledge itself, but the ideas which form the material basis for knowledge.

I shall also argue that crises have a material basis , which relates to the periodic replacement and expansion of fixed capital.


Titanic pay increases and tax cuts for the wealthy and prosperous are of material benefit to the poor.

First, to be sure, some reap material benefit from inflation.

Broadly speaking, workers obtained certain rights and material benefits .

Also the material benefits of Prussian citizenship had begun to show in improved living standards and educational opportunities.

Cities and towns were, of course, sometimes able to offer material benefits not available to the residents of the countryside.

It could have led to a certain amount of resentment, particularly when the material benefits flowed in for Hannah.


The Soviet Union can never be a party to the Treaty, and material breach gives no rights to non-parties.

If a Protocol party acts in material breach of the Protocol, who has the right of termination or suspension?


Target business to be run in ordinary course up to completion with no material changes in trading performance or net assets.

Such language suggests that the riots were less about forcing material change than about making symbolic gestures.

Again material changes stimulated the new thinking just as much as the perceived inadequacies of existing theory.

Running alongside these personal connections, however, were material changes affecting these societies during the late nineteenth century.

Clearly in such circumstances there appears to be a material change of use.


The contents of the racist pathology and the material circumstances to which it can be made to correspond are thus left untouched.

His material Circumstances determined much of his essential nature.

Do they operate independently of the economic and material circumstances in which individuals are placed?

However, material circumstances on their own do not account fully for changes in co-residence.

Moreover, abortion as a method allowed decision making to be delayed until material circumstances could be assessed.

The explanation is better sought in the specific social and material circumstances and their articulation with political and ideological structures.

It is frightening, a triumph of the will over material circumstances .


The unworldly, peace-loving doctor, oblivious of both material comfort and public opinion, is in some respects a self-portrait.

He wanted to enjoy this lull and the reasonable material comfort .


The other grave goods provide what little evidence we have for the economic basis and material culture of its population.

But energies are also expended on devices intended for introduction into the material culture of the host society.

Distinction does not provide a theory of either consumption or material culture as the form of modern culture.

Within anthropology, there has always been a tradition seeking to locate underlying and generalizable processes and patterns in material culture studies.

So far as material culture is concerned, the Siberian peoples fell into two main categories.


The material evidence of the archaeological record has been lying around for a long time.


What mathematicians want from infinitesimals is not material existence but rather the right to use them in proofs.

Can there be any spiritual reality transcending this material existence ?


The omission of a material fact only involves an offence where that fact was concealed with dishonest intention.

But the material facts themselves - the evidence - do not show us their causes, for which we need theories.

It is a mystic power not of the world of material facts , a divine gift in compensation for our ephemeral life.

Nevertheless, the material fact is, of course, that capital has largely abandoned these inner urban areas.

Was there any contractual duty on the defendants to disclose this material fact to the plaintiff?


The material form of the surplus-product has an important bearing upon this.

Selfhood, in other words, has individual identity only as it exists in material form .


So, although a rich source of status and prestige, athletics could not compare with professional sport in terms of material gain .

In middle age a nation seeks safety and consolidation of material gain .

The party is an instrument of material gain .


Government jobs and the opportunities which association with the government gives allow them the possibility of accumulating material goods .

Psychologists say that work helps us meet our needs for food, shelter, and material goods .

In the purchase of material goods , issues of quantity, quality, price and delivery are crucial in several respects.

Their food, dress and material goods encompassed all the richness and variety society could provide.

The production of material goods is the primary activity of humans, and it must come before all other activities.

All they live for, the only thing they care about, is material goods .

Soon it was not enough to demonstrate your success in life by the acquisition of material goods .

The relative paucity of material goods owned by Corpsmen is, in terms of transcultural perception, a complicating factor.


Confer with clients on any material information received but not in a way that confuses them. 7.


This struggle revolves around opposing material interests of competing classes and groups in all countries.

Their limited national horizons and bureaucratic rivalries and material interests preclude it.

No Director has or had during the period any material interest in any contract of significance to the Company's business.

It leaves out place and circumstance, the powerful and unconscious drive of material interests and class identity.


Inequalities in material life-chances are fundamental; status differences and differences in political influence tend to be dependent on material life chances.

The problems of housekeeping and material life occupied a certain portion of each day.

The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political, and intellectual life process in general.

At any given moment, its material life has been dominated by particular centres of privilege and influence.


You are likely to secure the material needs and objects you desire.

Led by some bishops, we have replaced spirituality with an amorphous concern for the material needs of others.

He lists expression of love through words, touch, spending time together, providing material needs and many others.

None of this material need in my opinion be disclosed to the prisoner.


It may take the form of a material object .

Newton gave three laws governing the behaviour of material objects .

The concept of mind is such that we should not wonder how material objects can be present to it.

To Aristotle the spheres were truly material objects , crystalline shells that surrounded and carried one another along.

And so there is psychokinesis, mind acting upon a material object , namely brain cells.

The sign consists of the signifier, the material object , and the signified, which is its meaning.

Klein is not the only psychoanalyst to have commented upon the place of material objects in play.


We think of the desert of modern life with the concentration on material possessions and its resultant poverty.

Society is composed of many different groups, which are unequal in power, status, and material possessions .

We realize that the spiritual life matters infinitely more than all the material possessions or human status we once may have enjoyed.

Individual achievement is often symbolized and measured by the quality and quantity of material possessions that a person can accumulate.

In the West, the value of materialism motivates individuals to invest time and energy producing and acquiring material possessions .

So great is the lure of material possessions !

If the Monster's lust for what is mine ended there, with my material possessions , I could stand it.


This time, material progress did not serve the cause of the Church.


They are the generators of the material prosperity which is now taken for granted in the West.

This suggests that in some circumstances material prosperity may increase without cultural patterns changing markedly.

Such marginalization of older people was accompanied by increasing material prosperity and political activism.

Yet material prosperity is in no way guaranteed.

There is, in other words, plenty of evidence of poverty indicated by the traditional markers of lack of material prosperity .

Meanwhile Europhiles delude themselves that material prosperity attributable to membership can move emotions.


But most of those who thought there was a material reality were not uncompromising materialists of a Hobbesian sort.

Art, they say, is beauty, and beauty is truth in its material reality .


Finally, the satisfaction of the job is regarded by sentimental observers as sufficient compensation for the lack of material rewards .

Just as material rewards are disappearing, job security is barely a memory and company loyalty a psychic fossil.

The bureaucracy enjoys more material rewards and privileges than other sectors of society.

The data showed that information specialists' actions were often impelled not simply by material rewards or to avoid punishment.

But to attempt to implement such principles in society as a whole will be disastrous unless people are seriously interested in material reward .


We often speak of climbing the ladder don't we when it comes to the world of work or material success .

Economics is, of course, crucial to material success .


They are entitled to expect all the necessary encouragement, and legal and material support from the Government.

Practical and material support linked to helping interventions.

The movement seems to have substantial sums of money, but I saw no sign of material support .


Yet covetousness goes farther than material things alone.

After they want those material things , they want their health.

We are justified in using it for a quality of material things only if the quality is like the bodily sensation.

Triangles are not material things , but shapes which material things can have.

For Hegel, material things were less real than ideas.

Triangles are not material things , but shapes which material things can have.

Materialism says that the only things that exist are material things in space.


For centuries, material wealth and abundance has been seen as incompatible with spiritual growth.

Studies and statistics underline the fact: 200 large-scale enterprises control about half the fabulous material wealth of the United States.

At the same it reveals a society rich in material wealth .

In particular, a tax on the transfer of material wealth may well make other forms of transfer more attractive.

Food was in short supply, of course, and there were few signs of any material wealth at all.

True, education is often also useful in its results - useful in the sense of promoting the creation of material wealth .


For Marx the material world is the ultimate reality.

In the material world they share telephone and mailing lists all the time.

His followers are to trust in the goodness and providence of their heavenly father and abandon their care about the material world .

Flash heat, volcanism, lightning, wind, and waves all renew the material world .

Such scientists refuse to admit that here they are dealing with another level or scale of being in the material world .

That meant he could project his spirit as he slept, and wander the material world and even the spirit lands.

Malebranche makes the material world not just a bare possibility but a redundant one too.


Material damage to the ship was negligible.

a material witness


At an individual or party level discourses not only mediate between material conditions and their interpretation but can organise experience itself.

Selfhood, in other words, has individual identity only as it exists in material form.

The cocoon is another material resource used, directly or indirectly, for musical purposes.

The search for human origins in the material record, by the techniques of archaeology, could begin.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.