Meaning of ROOT in English

ROOT

I. ˈrü]t, ˈru̇], usu ]d.+V\ noun

( -s )

Usage: often attributive

Etymology: Middle English rot, root, from Old English rōt, from Old Norse; akin to Old English wyrt herb, plant, root, Old High German wurz herb, plant, Old Norse urt herb, Gothic waurts root, Latin radix root, Greek rhadix branch, rhiza root, Tocharian B witsako, Albanian rrânzë

1.

a. : the portion of the plant body of a seed plant that originates usually from the radicle at the extremity of the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage or as a means of anchorage and support, and differs from a stem in lacking nodes, buds, and leaves, in possessing an endodermis and a protective cap over the apical meristem, and in producing its branches normally in acropetal succession

b.

(1) : a subterranean part of a plant (as a true root, bulb, tuber, rootstock, or other modified stem) ; specifically : a large fleshy edible root or similar organ (as a carrot, turnip, radish, potato)

(2) : the substance, material, or tissue of a root — often used in combination

beet root

(3) roots plural , Britain : root crops

2. : something that resembles a root in position or function especially as a source of nourishment or as a support: as

a. : the part of a tooth lying within the socket ; also : any of the processes into which this part is often divided — see tooth illustration

b. : the enlarged basal part of a hair consisting of the hair follicle, papilla, and developing hair shaft that lie within the skin

c. : the proximal end of a nerve ; especially : one or more bundles of nerve fibers joining the cranial and spinal nerves with their respective nuclei and gray columns — see dorsal root , ventral root

d. : the part of an organ or physical structure by which it is attached to the body

root of a nail

3.

a.

(1) : the origin or cause of a condition, tendency, or quality

tackling not only the psychological and emotional causes of race conflicts but also their economic roots — M.F.A.Montagu

the root of civil violence lay in the unequal distribution of the land — Current Biography

specifically : an attribute that brings about an action or condition

the love of money is the root of all evil — 1 Tim 6:10 (Authorized Version)

from the root of hate grows war

(2) : the line of evolutionary development of a condition, trend, or branch of human activity — usually used in plural

although its roots go back … before the 19th century, fascism emerged after World War I — Collier's Year Book

b.

(1) : a race, family, or progenitor that is the source or beginning of a group or line of descendants

should be the root and father of many kings — Shakespeare

the roots out of which sprang two distinct people — John Locke

the roots of science, however, ran deep, stretching back to the period before the appearance of civilization — S.F.Mason

beginnings of these types of literature had roots reaching well back — R.A.Hall b. 1911

(2) obsolete : a descendant or offshoot of a line or family : scion

c.

(1) : the underlying support or foundation of something : basis

respect for the rights and intelligence of others which is the root of the democratic society — Official Register of Harvard University

has loosened the roots of the slave system — C.L.Carmer

have created a real opposition, which is the main root of continued social peace — H.J.Laski

nourishing a strong root of loyalty

tear out the evil by the roots

(2) : a culture or cultural tradition underlying subsequent related cultures in a limited area

d. : the inner core or essential nature or part of something : heart

root of the matter

delving into the roots of the inner life — R.W.Southern

the two dogmas are identical at root — Albert Hofstadter

e. : an indigenous relationship or close and sympathetic bond usually with or in the social environment : tie — usually used in plural

the feeling that modern life has no roots — E.R.Bentley

depriving youngsters of that extra stability which comes when roots can grow in one place — Martha M. Eliot

industrial workers who would never put their roots down in the countryside — Sam Pollock

4.

a. : the time (as a birth date, the position of a planet, or a point in time) from which to reckon in making astronomical or astrological calculations

b.

(1) : a quantity that when taken as a factor the number of times indicated by the index produces another quantity

either +3 or -3 is a second root of 9 because either taken twice as a factor produces 9

(2) : a value that when substituted for the unknown quantity in an equation satisfies the equation

5.

a.

(1) : the base or lower part of a material thing : bottom

root of a hill

roots of the sea

(2) : the basal extension of a geological formation

lateral compression … forces the granitic part of the crust downward to form a solid root — W.H.Bucher

b. : the part of a material thing by which it is attached to something else: as

(1) : the part of a weir or dam adjoining or penetrating the bank or sides of a stream or river

(2) : the portion of an airplane wing nearest the fuselage

(3) : the portion of the blade of a propeller or rotor nearest the hub

6.

a.

(1) : the simple element inferred as the basis from which a word is derived by phonetic change or by extension (as composition and addition of a prefix, suffix, inflectional ending, or replacive)

(2) : the simple element (as Latin sta ) inferred as common to all the words of a group in a language (as in Latin stamus “we stand” with a personal ending, sistimus “we place” with reduplication and personal ending, statio “standing place” with a suffix, and constituere “to establish” with a prefix) or in related languages

b. : the sequence of consonants recurring with various vowel sequences and affixes in a set of related words in Semitic

c. : a meaningful morpheme (as hold ) especially as recurring with various affixes or replacives in grammatically different forms (as holds, held, beholders, withholding )

7.

a. : the musical tone from whose harmonics or overtones a chord is composed

b. : the lowest tone of a chord in its normal position

8.

a. : the part of an open gear tooth between the pitch circle and the minor diameter

b.

(1) : the surface between the threads at the minor diameter of a screw or at the major diameter of a nut — compare crest 6

(2) : a similar surface on the blading of a turbine

9. : the bottom zone of the space provided for a fusion weld

10. slang : a kick usually delivered to the posterior

caught him a great root with his boot on the backside — Bruce Marshall

Synonyms: see origin

II. verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: Middle English roten, from rot, root, n.

transitive verb

1.

a. : to furnish with or enable to develop roots

root the seedlings in the hotbed

two deeply rooted and far-flung cultures — A.W.Hummel

b. : to fix or firmly attach by or as if by roots

the lichen is rooted to the rock

he stands rooted to the spot

as firmly rooted to their homesteads as the stone walls and fences — American Guide Series: New Jersey

pension and seniority rights root workers to their jobs — Jules Abels

c. : to set firmly or establish usually by implanting in something

a peace rooted in justice and law — H.S.Truman

lack of a well- rooted tradition — R.W.Southern

the rooted beliefs of a lifetime are not easily shaken — T.B.Costain

rooted in love, he grows and lives in peace

wants to root his work in the reality of his own time — M.D.Geismar

d. : to furnish or give an origin or cause to (an action or development)

a neurosis … is often rooted in some childhood difficulty — Irish Digest

many dental ailments are rooted in psychosomatic disturbance — Collier's Year Book

her problems are rooted in temperament rather than economic handicaps — E.B.George

2. : to pull, tear out, or remove often by force : root out

root these evils from the land

launched his jet at the gun and tried to root it from its cave — J.A.Michener

intransitive verb

1. : to grow roots in or as if in the earth : to strike or take root

seedlings root quickly with plenty of water and sunlight

prevent a few viruses from rooting in nerve endings — Monsanto Magazine

theories … rooting in the savage mind, growing up strongly — Emma Hawkridge

2. : to become fixed or firmly established : to establish oneself

now I'll redeem my error and root forever here — Samuel Foote

the patriots in whom the stock of freedom roots — R.W.Emerson

the new science of human behavior roots in the study of concrete cases — H.A.Overstreet

3. : to have or find an origin, basis, or cause in something

the sin of self-righteousness which not infrequently roots in sectional pride — B.G.Gallagher

like everything else in human conduct, gesture roots in the reactive necessities of the organism — Edward Sapir

III. verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: alteration (influenced by root ) (I) of earlier wroot, from Middle English wroten, from Old English wrōtan; akin to Middle Low German wrōten to root, Middle Dutch wroeten, Old High German ruozzen, Old Norse rōta to root, and probably to Old English wrītan to incise, write — more at write

intransitive verb

1. : to turn up or dig in the earth with the snout : grub

root , hog, or die

pigs rooting for truffles

fish rooting in the mud for food

2. : to poke or dig down or into usually in search of something

chickens rooting about in the rubbish — Alan Moorehead

rooted in the bog and began to eat the cherries — Katherine Mansfield

rooting about in the kitchen — Valentine Williams

transitive verb

: root out

the razor-back type was able to root its living and do battle with … most foes — E.D.Ross

IV. intransitive verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: perhaps alteration of rout (V)

1. : to shout for or otherwise noisily applaud or encourage a contestant or team : cheer

a band of students rooting for the school football team — Lucius Garvin

going to the races to root for her brown colt — Time

2. : to wish for the success of or lend support to someone or something

can't be successful unless everyone loves him and roots for him — Delmore Schwartz

the communities which it served were rooting for it — S.H.Adams

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.