Meaning of THAT in English

THAT

I. ˈthat, usu -ad.+V pronoun

( plural those ˈthōz)

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English thæt, neuter demonstrative pron. & definite article; akin to Old High German thaz, daz, neuter demonstrative pron. & definite article, Old Norse that, neuter demonstrative pron., Gothic thata, neuter demonstrative pron. & definite article, Latin is tud, neuter demonstrative pron., Greek to, neuter demonstrative pron. & definite article, Sanskrit tad, neuter demonstrative pron. & adjective

1.

a. : the person, thing, or idea pointed to, mentioned, or understood from the situation : the one indicated

who is that

that is my father

what kind of tree is that

that is a maple

those are my sisters talking to the man in the corner

those are violets

he wanted to become a professional writer but that was no easy matter

— often used as subject of a form of the verb be, usually the contracted third person singular present indicative ' s, in expressions indicating or implying that the person mentioned in the predicate is following or is expected shortly to follow an approved course of action

hold the pen like this, that ' s a good girl

take your medicine, that ' s a good boy

that ' s the boy

— sometimes used disparagingly of a person who has been mentioned by name or otherwise circumstantially identified

the boy who sits across from my daughter in history class offered to take her to the football game but she refused him and told her friends she wouldn't be seen in public with that

b. Scotland : the following thing — used to point forward to a noun clause occurring later in the sentence

c. : the time just mentioned : the action or event just mentioned viewed with reference to the time of its occurrence — used after any of various prepositions

he will not be there until eleven o'clock, and I expect to get there before that

read to the end of the chapter, and after that he went to bed

d. : the one specified as follows : the kind specified as follows : the thing specified as follows — used before a modifying expression other than a clause, especially a prepositional phrase or a participle with or without a modifier or an adjective with or without a modifier

one of the first major tasks confronting the pioneer was that of clearing some land — W.M.Kollmorgen

the symptoms of the disease … sounded a good deal like those of polio — Time

the purest water is that produced by distillation

the organism that causes Malta fever … is closely related to that responsible for brucellosis — S.A.Waksman

e. : the blow just being dealt : the insult or injury just being inflicted — used in the expression take that

f. : a settled matter : something about which no further action can be taken — used in the predicate after a form of the verb be with that (sense 1a) as subject

I won't sell it for less than fifty dollars and that is that

g. : a person, thing, idea, or group of the indicated kind : such a one : such ones : such a thing

when you want something you can't have it, and by the time you can have it you've stopped wanting it, but that ' s life

wily and destructive — that ' s foxes for you

2.

a.

(1) : the one farther away : the one less immediately under observation or discussion

those are elm trees and these are maples

that is porcelain and this is plastic

— contrasted with this

(2) : the former

two principles in human nature reign; self-love, to urge, and reason, to restrain; nor this a good, nor that a bad we call — Alexander Pope

— contrasted with this

b. : another thing — sometimes contrasted with this

talking about this and that

— sometimes used as second member of a three-part series with this as the first member and the other as the third

buying this, that , or the other

3.

a. — used as a function word after and to indicate emphatic repetition of the idea expressed by a previous word or phrase which is not necessarily a noun or noun equivalent

he shall pay …, and that soundly — Shakespeare

he was helpful, and that to an unusual degree

b. — used as a function word immediately before or immediately after a word group consisting of either a verbal auxiliary or a form of the verb be preceded by either there or a personal pronoun subject to indicate emphatic repetition of the idea expressed by a previous verb or predicate noun or predicate adjective

is he capable? He is that

he told the whole truth; that he did

4.

a. : the one : the thing : the kind : something , anything — used as antecedent to a relative pronoun

recognize the truth of that which is true

one of those who introduced into the United States the results of foreign … scholarship — H.N.Fowler

or in a like function with reference to a relative adverb

the senses are that whereby we experience the material world

or to a relative clause containing no relative pronoun or relative adverb

what's that you say

b. those plural : some persons — used as antecedent to a relative pronoun

there are those who think that the time has now come for a further step — Report: (Canadian) Royal Commission on National Development

- all that

- and that

- at that

- that is

II. adjective

( plural those “)

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English thæt, neuter demonstrative pron. & definite article — more at that I

1.

a. : being the person, thing, or idea pointed to, mentioned, or understood from the situation : being the one indicated

that dog

those houses

b. : being the one specified or singled out — used interchangeably with the definite article the but usually expressing slightly greater emphasis; used almost exclusively before nouns having a following modifier (as a phrase or clause)

three o'clock in the afternoon, that last moment when the sun's intensity may be felt — A.N.Lytle

that little understood … subject of bird migration — F.C.Lincoln

those topics that lie outside the scope of this book — Fred Hoyle

c. : the well known : being the one about whom or about which further comment is unnecessary

those little steamers that are Venice's street cars — Claudia Cassidy

one of those election bets

— often used disparagingly

those feet of his

that brother of yours

d. : such : such a : so great a

that gentleness … as I was wont to have — Shakespeare

perplexed his mind to that degree that he was fain … to scratch his head — Charles Dickens

2.

a. : the farther away : the less immediately under observation or discussion

this chair or that one

— contrasted with this

b. : the other : another — sometimes contrasted with this

we argued it this way and we argued it that way — Lilian Balch

— sometimes used as second member of a three-part series with this as the first member and the other as the third

this, that , and the other way

- that way

III. thə]t, (|)tha] sometimes _the], usu ]d.+V conjunction

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English thæt, from thæt, neuter demonstrative pron. — more at that I

1.

a.

(1) — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause that is a noun equivalent, especially the subject or object of a verb, the predicate nominative after a copulative verb, or the substantive expression anticipated by the expletive it occurring as grammatical subject or object of a verb

that many historic houses … are rapidly disappearing for lack of care has been emphasized by several organizations — Report: (Canadian) Royal Commission on National Development

courts declare that they have nothing to do with theoretic economics — M.R.Cohen

the idea is that , without ruining the sport, you want to protect the participants — Charles Oldfather

it is interesting that so many of the books which have really stirred things up … have been small books — A.J.Nock

he made it clear that he did not agree

(2) — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause anticipated by the expletive it occurring as subject of a form of the copulative verb be when what follows the copulative verb is an adverb or adverbial phrase logically modifying the verb of the clause introduced by that

it was there that I first met her

it was almost as if in entreaty or reproach that she put her next question — Walter de la Mare

(3) — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause that is joined as complement or modifier to a noun or adjective or is in apposition with a noun

we are certain that this is true

the certainty that this is true

the fear that something unpleasant may happen

the fact that you are here

b.

(1) — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause that is the object of a preposition; usually interpreted as being joined with the preposition to form a compound subordinating conjunction; used currently and frequently in only a few combinations, especially but that, except that, in that, notwithstanding that, and save that, and occurring as an archaism in a few others, especially after that, before that, for that, till that, and until that

some of his earlier writings … have become classics in that they are read by most students professionally interested in anthropology — D.G.Mandelbaum

if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth — Heb 10:26 (Authorized Version)

(2) — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause that is in absolute construction with a participle; often interpreted as being joined with the participle to form a compound subordinating conjunction

men and women … could yet live in an ideal society provided that they were governed by a hard-living intellectual minority — Maurice Cranston

c. — used as a function word to introduce an exclamatory clause expressing a strong emotion especially of surprise or sorrow or indignation; sometimes preceded by an interjection or other short exclamation

oh Lord! that ever I lived to see this day

that it should come to this!

alas! that all we loved of him should be … as if it had not been — P.B.Shelley

2.

a. — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause expressing purpose or desired result

cutting down expenses that her son might inherit an unencumbered estate — W.B.Yeats

— often preceded by so or in order and sometimes by to the end

b. — used as a function word to introduce an exclamatory clause expressing a wish; sometimes preceded by an interjection or other short exclamation

oh, that the world could be persuaded of the truth of that maxim — W.S.Gilbert

3.

a. — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause expressing a reason or cause

rejoice that you are lightened of a load — Robert Browning

— often used with should in the clause which it introduces

I am sorry that you should think so

b. — used as a function word after not to introduce a clause making a statement that is understood to be not true and therefore impossible to be taken as the reason or basis for an immediately preceding or following statement

she ignored my suggestion — not that I care

not that it matters, but the shirts aren't back from the laundry yet

4.

a. — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause expressing consequence, result, or effect

are of sufficient importance that they cannot be neglected — Hannah Wormington

— often preceded by so or such

he gazed so long that both his eyes were dazzled — Alfred Tennyson

b. — used as a function word after a question or negative statement to introduce a clause expressing an appropriate consequence of what is being questioned or denied

am I a dog, that you come to me with sticks — 1 Sam 17:43 (Revised Standard Version)

I am not a doormat, that you should walk all over me

c. — used as a function word to introduce a negative subordinate clause after a negative main clause and to indicate that what is denied in the subordinate clause is the inevitable result or invariable accompaniment of what is denied in the main clause

I can't speak, that you don't try to insult me — Douglas Jerrold

5. archaic — used as a function word at the beginning of the second of two subordinate clauses in parallel construction to replace the conjunction which introduces the first such clause

when he had carried Rome and that we looked for no less spoil than glory — Shakespeare

6. — used as a function word after a subordinating conjunction without modifying its meaning

if that thy bent of love be honorable — Shakespeare

— used currently and frequently in only a few combinations, especially now that

7.

a. — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause modifying an adverb or adverbial expression

will go anywhere that he is invited

the more that doubts assailed me … the louder I apologized — Eugene Lyons

b. obsolete — used as a function word to introduce a subordinate clause that is the equivalent of a sentence adverb modifying the entire main clause

thou hast well done that thou art come — Acts 10:33 (Authorized Version)

- for all that

IV. pronoun

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English thæt, neuter relative pron., from thæt, neuter demonstrative pron. — more at that I

1.

a. — used as a function word to introduce a restrictive relative clause and to serve as a substitute within that clause for the substantive modified by that clause; used in any grammatical relation within the relative clause except that of a possessive or the object of a preceding preposition

a court jester that fell in love with a queen — M.I.Seiden

the cow that started the Chicago fire — L.A.White

another conclusion that emerges clearly from this … statement — Times Literary Supplement

this ideal theater … that he discerns — Stark Young

those beliefs that demonstrate they are trustworthy — J.L.Childs

the responsibilities that literature owes to itself — Harry Levin

a subject that most Americans probably think nothing need be said about — J.W.Clark b. 1907

thoughtful journalist and conscientious citizen that he was, he did not look with any satisfaction on that little story — F.L.Mott

— sometimes used after so or such with the implication that the action or state expressed in the clause introduced by that is a real or appropriate consequence of what is expressed by the phrase containing so or such

who is here so base that would be a bondman — Shakespeare

b. — used as a function word to introduce a nonrestrictive relative clause and to serve as a substitute within that clause for the substantive modified by that clause; used in any grammatical relation within the relative clause except that of a possessive or the object of a preceding preposition

out of the forty thousand who were within the walls eight hundred only, that had fled at the first sound of the attack, made their way to the camp — J.A.Froude

it was his specialty, that he never liked to do when there was a crowd — James Jones

2.

a. : at which : in which : on which : by which : with which : to which — used not only to serve within its restrictive relative clause as a substitute for the substantive modified by that clause but also additionally to express a relation of conformity, agreement, or identity especially in reference to time

each year that the lectures were given

I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine, until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God — Mk 14:25 (Authorized Version)

work in the arts is significant in the measure that it has submitted to discipline — General Education in a Free Society

this author has never been neglected to the same extent that some of his contemporaries have been

treated with the same respect that others are

b. : according to what : to the extent of what — used after a negative

has never been here that I know of

have never met him that I can recall

3.

a. archaic : that which — used to introduce a relative clause with no expressed antecedent

that thou doest, do quickly — Jn 13:27 (Authorized Version)

b. obsolete : the person who : persons who — used to introduce a relative clause with no expressed antecedent

I am that I am — Exod 3:14 (Authorized Version)

there be that can rule Naples as well as he — Shakespeare

V. ˈthat, usu -ad.+V adverb

Etymology: Middle English, from that, adjective

1. dialect : to such an extent — used as modifier of a following adjective or adverb followed in turn by a clause that completes the meaning

I'm that tired I can hardly walk

2.

a. : to the extent that has already been indicated

it is a hot day … when boys devote themselves principally to conversation and this day was that hot — Booth Tarkington

b. : to the extent that is being indicated by some nonlinguistic reference (as a gesture)

a nail about that long

3. dialect : extremely

she'll be that pleased when I tell her the news

VI. noun

( -s )

Etymology: that (I)

1. : one of the members and usually the second of a pair or series

civilization, they agree, faces an inexorable alternative, either this or that; but their thises are irreconcilable and even their thats are not the same — Saturday Review

— sometimes used with an initial capital to stand for a proper name which is not mentioned

Squire This and Farmer That whom he had known since boyhood — Max Peacock

— contrasted with this

2. : an existent thing quite apart from whatever may be known or stated about it : the substratum of an entity in abstraction from all of its qualities — compare what IV 2b

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.