Meaning of CLASS in English

CLASS

I. noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a cookery class/lesson

I had basic cookery lessons at school.

add a touch of glamour/class (to sth)

Champagne always adds a touch of glamour to the occasion.

an exercise class

I usually go to my exercise class on Wednesdays.

antenatal classes

Many young mothers do not attend antenatal classes .

business class

cabin class

class action

class-action lawsuits

class background

Class background is an important factor in the level of schooling achieved.

class clown (= someone in a school class who behaves in a funny or silly way )

class conscious (= concerned about what class of society people come from )

In the past, people were much more class conscious.

class consciousness

class differences (= between different classes of society )

People’s answers to the questions showed clear class differences.

class inequality (= inequality between social classes )

Class inequality is firmly embedded in our society.

class prejudice

Those old class prejudices haven’t gone away.

class structure (= the way society is organized according to people’s education, jobs, income etc )

Britain had a very rigid class structure.

class struggle

class/team/work etc mate

Dad’s office mates are throwing a party for him.

club class

cultural/racial/class barriers

Sport is a sure way to break down racial barriers.

economy class syndrome

economy class

We flew economy class.

evening class

first class

We prefer to travel in first class.

first/second/third class honours degree

lower class

middle class

This led to the creation of a new, affluent middle class.

night class

racial/class/gender etc division

The old class divisions had begun to break down.

reception class

repeat a class/grade/year (= do the same class at school again the following year )

ruling class

A ruling class clearly existed.

second class

skip school/class especially AmE

He skipped chemistry class three times last month.

third class

We travelled third-class.

tourist class

upper class

upper-class families

working class

Marx wrote about the political struggles of the working class.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

high

Apogee have made an entry into the educational market with this first high class educational game.

One day I changed from second class to high class.

Eventually they were replaced, moved to higher classes , or learned Hausa.

Ellsworth had graduated seventh in a high school class of 400.

Are they both unskilled workers or is she in a higher class than her husband?

In my high school class , only 4 of us survived.

Food for higher classes is increasingly split between the two fractions of the dominant class.

This is high class , incredible tasting stuff.

low

By the end of the nineteenth century the lower middle classes were actually seen as the bulwark of respectability.

In college he loved a young girl of a lower class and ruined her; she died a suicide.

Black immigrants to Britain in the 1960s were in the lowest housing class .

Ultimately, in an episode of the class war, a lower class succeeds in overthrowing the highest class.

Cost per pupil may be low because class sizes are high.

His wife died from being too lower class .

No way was found to rally or organize the urban lower middle classes .

Some historians now view it as an attempt by the state to exercise more effective though subtle control over the lower classes .

middle

This is obviously not the case in Britain, where the ideology of the white middle classes dominates.

The middle class had formed no independent standards of honor.

The middle class found this hard to understand.

And in this regard there is no doubt that the middle classes of the emerging world have an edge.

First, it failed because it did not benefit the poor as much as it did the middle classes .

They were better than middle class .

The restitution was described by Klaus as accelerating the re-establishment of a property-owning entrepreneurial middle class .

According to this conventional wisdom, the middle class and the poor think the rich should pay a heavy share.

professional

Of graduates, more than 80% have ended up in the professional and managerial classes .

Recruited from the artisan and professional classes , this group did not stay.

Consistently, those elderly from the professional and managerial classes experience better health than their contemporaries from the manual occupation groups.

His methods had an appeal among the wealthy, professional classes who made up the congregation.

He was served by a professional class of Ottoman civil servants and soldiers.

It also attracts many from the middle or professional classes who have a commitment to social and economic justice.

The older and more substantial houses were occupied by the professional and commercial classes .

Among women of the professional classes especially, individual men are still the focus of potent fantasies.

ruling

Read the extract on p. 16 concerning the ruling class .

He argues that capitalist societies remain polarized between two main classes: the ruling class and the working class.

Marx maintained that in all class societies, the ruling class exploits and oppresses the subject class.

However, Marx believed that ruling class ideology could only slow down the disintegration of the system.

How the bureaucracy relates to the ruling class is more than a matter of origins.

This cast of mind is easily recognizable as the outlook of the traditional ruling class .

The subject class is made up of the majority of the population whereas the ruling or dominant class forms a minority.

Some members of the ruling class have transferred property to relatives and friends to avoid death duties.

social

There are no social class differences.

People used to think that you could work only at those occupations your family or social class were supposed to do.

The motive behind much late nineteenth-century visiting was to put the social classes back in touch with one another.

There were no differences in the use of services by the social class of the older people.

There are, however, no reliable statistics relating to social class and illness over the years.

The passage which opens this chapter is an instance of a satirist attacking a higher social class .

When the authors looked at the proportion of the community experiencing vulnerability factors, important social class differences emerged.

Once thought of as a disorder of upper social classes , it now seems to be well represented across the socioeconomic spectrum.

top

Being in the business the longest, we know the importance of providing a top class service.

How can we attract players to the sport if a top class player is advocating potentially dangerous play?

Stewart rates Gascoigne and Beardsley as the top class acts of the hundreds he appeared with at club level.

I think that a horse has to be a minimum of 7/8 bred now to become a top class event horse.

There's also a superb tennis centre where top class coaches can help you to club championship winning form.

You are still top of the class , aren't you?

Organised by the Eastern Sporting Sidecar Association, the first of 12 scheduled meetings this year has attracted a top class entry.

upper

They could both accept that the upper class should be defined, first and foremost, by its possession of productive capital.

But the magazine also reflected the snobberies and prejudices of the upper classes .

Although development is taking place it is mainly benefitting the middle and upper class communities.

He does not though, claim that the upper classes are all-powerful.

Like Margarett, he was a child of the upper class who had declared himself an artist.

In the upper classes women often remained unmarried because their families could not provide sufficient dowries.

working

For Marx and Engels the working class had nothing to lose but their chains of false consciousness.

The dominant class , the capitalists, own and control the means of production and thereby exploit the subordinate working class.

Most central city schools serve primarily poor, working class and minority students.

These later attenders tended to be women who were younger, single, working class .

He posed the question: how do working class kids get working class jobs?

Having established a good working relationship with classes the new teacher may well be able to adopt a freer design with confidence.

The party leadership presumably wants working class unity in the North.

Put it the other way round, what incentives have the police or the white working class got not to be racist?

■ NOUN

action

The only ultimately effective way the worker can resist is through collective class action to overthrow the capitalist mode of production.

The lawsuit later became a class action , representing about 1, 400 current and former black Texaco employees.

Their long-term destiny lies in united working class action and the rejection of other forms of understanding.

A class action can drive you crazy.

A settlement is pending in a recent class action suit against Greyhound.

Sucharow, which represented some of the investors in the class action .

business

The business class and the establishment are not totally closed to outsiders.

While at Stanford law school, she took a business class on entrepreneurship.

The planes have 174 seats - 14 for first class , 30 for business class and 130 economy.

Flying economy class can kill you, and business class isn't much better.

All the while relaxing in one of the biggest business class seats in the business.

The core of the business class makes the important decisions about planning for the future.

Managers below the chief executive level are distinct from the business class itself.

consciousness

At this stage its members have class consciousness and class solidarity.

There is no trace of conceit, arrogance or class consciousness about her.

There has, therefore, been little chance in the past for a political growth of class consciousness among subordinate groups.

This separate class consciousness he endeavored to dispel.

They also encourage the development of false class consciousness .

This pattern is confirmed by analyses of the process underlying the development of class consciousness among workers.

Low levels of class consciousness are exacerbated by clientelism, which links the peasant through personal relationships to some one in another class.

Union commitment grew, in some cases, from pre-existing class consciousness .

difference

There are no social class differences .

Highlighting class differences to emphasize his own down-to-earth roots is nothing new to Dole.

However, there were also marked class differences .

There were some clear social class differences in their answers.

On the other hand, what older people have in common is in some ways more striking than the class differences between them.

Social class differences in fertility are little evident in women who marry between ages 25 to 29.

Then it seemed that class differences were an insurmountable barrier, but this too was not the only answer.

division

But its impact on class inequality ... is to sharpen class division .

Robert Reich and James Fallows are two of the best writers who worry over the new class division in the country.

Status groups can also cut across class divisions .

What has then happened is a class division , of a stable and organized kind, within cultural production.

Amongst themselves the Zuwaya did not divide into classes , nor did any inter-tribal division mark a class division.

They might have to deal directly with the country's ethnic and class divisions .

They claim that the private ownership of capital provides the key to explaining class divisions .

Conflicts which do not appear directly related to class divisions are no minor anomalies.

evening

A popular weekly evening class is the Access Course, which is designed for those considering higher education.

On the downside, college evening classes cost a bundle.

However, the same rule applies to evening classes as to joining clubs - it must be a subject that really interests you.

Its main function was teaching, through evening classes .

Timetable: Morning, afternoon and evening classes .

Many girls worked in minor clerical jobs and were encouraged to learn shorthand and typing skills at evening classes .

A fancy thought popped into his mind then, handed to him by the tutor of his evening class .

member

Please do your best to encourage your class members to come along.

Please collect counterfoils and money from your class members and send to Joan Daniels as soon as possible.

It is possible for teachers and/or class members to attend individual sessions which are taken by different people each week.

It would be necessary to bring along some class members - a fee will be paid.

It is very helpful if the renewal cards can be used, so please take the opportunity to remind all class members .

Please publicise these days to your class members .

Please be on the look-out for talented class members ... especially young ones! 6.

Please encourage class members , their photographic friends and relatives or anyone else wishing to snap subject matter in class.

structure

Weber strongly criticized Marx's attempt to explain all social cleavages as the product of economically based class structures and struggles.

In contrast, where class structures are less developed - both economically and culturally - the political institutions may be inherently weak.

This can be assessed by linking class structure to income distribution figures.

Meanwhile, other areas of the class structure are much less open.

However, the structure of employment is crucial for class structure.

In class structure grammar these form a class.

In giving most people middle-class aspirations it tried to rid the nation of its old-fashioned class structure .

The growth in their numbers this century has led to a longstanding debate about their position in the class structure .

struggle

This was followed by intervention, by an ... intensification of the class struggle , which assumed the form of civil war.

The class approach centers on the examination of the tactics of class domination and the dynamics of the class struggle .

This does not, of course, mean that Marx avoided the problems of class and the class struggle .

Equality in poverty might mean civil population contentment whereas glaring inequalities sow the seeds of a class struggle or revolution.

Concessions which judges make to workers at one moment in the class struggle may be removed at another.

Class and social change Class struggle Marx believed that the class struggle was the driving force of social change.

The first part of his answer appeals to the class struggle .

This romance is duly mirrored in working-class politics - miners are the Clark Gables, the Reds of class struggle .

system

It adds to our reputation as an island still constricted by an ossified class system .

Many criminal actions appear to offer little threat to the capitalist class system .

The class system is all but dead.

Outwardly Britain may have appeared stable; the class system and its accompanying distribution of wealth remained largely unchallenged.

So he picked the one profession that would work around the class system .

Marxist feminism is rather more complicated in that it sees the oppression of women as inextricably linked to the class system .

The teddy bear knows no class system ... and acknowledges no international borders.

world

Now the approach is expanding to include world class quality service.

He became world class by converting opportunity into performance.

Unless we get a WORLD class player ... like a younger Gullit, or maybe Ndlove ... I m seriously disillusioned.

He made at least 5 WORLD class saves, the best to deny Noel Whelan.

Seaman should have saved the first goal, but did make a two world class saves against Berkamp and Rikaard.

This will provide a world class source of environmental consultancy and technical services.

This summer he should break through the 8,000 points mark into truly world class territory.

■ VERB

attend

Sarah and Theodore are attending a literacy class , taught in a shut-down factory, in the nearby city of Le6n.

Many attend classes in, or actually teach, another type of movement; in Norfolk.

He never attended classes and never left his ten-hours-a-day, six-days-a-week job at Midvale.

Soon Horton was told that Alvin was attending classes at last and that the boy might even be gifted.

I used to attend his classes when I was in high school and that was very, very beneficial.

Those activities could include attending a literacy program, doing volunteer work, or attending parenting classes .

teach

In the winter women went to Radcliffe, where Harvard professors taught them in special classes .

Katherine Mansfield is held to be a great writer in the States and taught in their college classes .

I taught a Sunday school class and sang in the church choir, whose members included soldiers stationed at nearby bases.

A continuing programme to investigate, evaluate, and disseminate best practice information on teaching large classes has also been developed.

He taught no high-level classes in black studies; the department, in fact, had no such classes.

I remember teaching a class of social workers who had once received some lectures on Freud.

Father Henry taught catechism to some classes and was, in effect, the priest in the convent chapel.

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

First Class/Second Class Honours

cut class/school

She started cutting classes and fighting with her teachers and parents.

But Democratic legislators say the tax cut would cut school funding by more than $ 3 billion.

The conference also approved resolutions to cut class sizes and protect teachers from undue stress.

infant school/teacher/class etc

Ah, but here was a job: the infant teacher was called away for half an hour.

An infant school built in 1840 served both Seaton and Sigglesthorne.

At this time Syeduz was nearly six and in his second term in the infant school.

Children attended infant school until they were seven.

Read in studio An infant school has reopened after being severely damaged by arsonists.

The limit for first-year infants classes will be 27 and for classes of children of mixed ages, 24.

This infant school was sometimes part of a junior school which catered for seven to eleven year olds.

labouring class/family etc

Although in other poems Leapor shows that labouring class women can be desperately unhappy in marriage, she is not unequivocal.

Day schooling was received by only a minority of children from the labouring classes, in some parishes a very tiny one.

Even 2 out of every 3 farm labouring families stayed put and overall 3 out of every 4 households remained virtually the same.

For the most part, however, the labouring classes did not move very far.

His poetry often depicts labouring class life vividly.

Relatively little attention has been paid to the origins of labouring class poetry.

Stephen Duck, however, is not the first instance of a labouring class poet in the eighteenth century.

The claims made for these poems, however, reveal some of the difficulties in a discussion of labouring class poetry.

remedial course/class/teacher etc

About one quarter of entering college students now take at least one remedial course.

Middle-class children thus tend to fill the honors and advanced-placement classes while poor children take the general and remedial classes.

Most of these students take remedial classes in all three fields.

People were appointed to co-ordinate the work of remedial teachers in schools.

Some run efficient remedial courses, which could surely be used for youngsters who had taken a broader sixth-form course.

The Association has branches throughout the country that provide information and hold remedial classes.

Their placement in a remedial course confirmed their suspicions.

These students traverse course after remedial course, becoming increasingly turned off to writing, increasingly convinced that they are hopelessly inadequate.

the chattering classes

Hamlet re-visited, or Art aspiring to the condition of group therapy for the chattering classes?

No ordinary person wants them any more, though they will for years to come provide talking points for the chattering classes.

The chattering classes of Blackheath may find his food digestible enough, but my cellmate Paul was flabbergasted.

the upper class

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Doctors are reluctant to prescribe a new class of drugs, especially ones which need to be taken for long periods of time.

French is one of a class of languages known as the Romance languages.

Heidi fainted during French class today!

I'm going out with some friends from my dance class .

I graduated in 1999. What class were you in?

I was talking to a girl in my class about the math homework.

Let's go - I have my first class in 10 minutes!

My dad's going to his 40th class reunion this year.

People were excluded from education based on class and race.

She gets along well with the other children in her class .

Some people argue that class distinctions do not exist in the U.S., but this is untrue.

Success in this country seems to be based on class rather than on ability.

The old class system is slowly disappearing.

the professional and managerial classes

The Republicans are promising tax cuts for the middle class .

The treaty called for the elimination of an entire class of nuclear weapons.

There are twenty kids in the class .

There is a clear link between social class and educational achievement.

Today we only had a small class of ten people.

When's your next class ?

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

After they had used swear words once in class , he argued, they would never use them again.

But all important ones must pass through that process, and ours certainly falls into that class .

Marxism, my friend, has studied economics and the social classes.

Moreover, there is no doubt that in large classes this practice can ease the burden on the class teacher.

One day I changed from second class to high class.

See, I spent two years of core classes and you get to meet all the professors.

Special classes of applicant Like other institutions the Polytechnic has paid increased attention to the recruitment of overseas students in recent years.

Ten years ago, fewer than 100 Harvard students took entrepreneur classes, he said.

II. verb

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

First Class/Second Class Honours

infant school/teacher/class etc

Ah, but here was a job: the infant teacher was called away for half an hour.

An infant school built in 1840 served both Seaton and Sigglesthorne.

At this time Syeduz was nearly six and in his second term in the infant school.

Children attended infant school until they were seven.

Read in studio An infant school has reopened after being severely damaged by arsonists.

The limit for first-year infants classes will be 27 and for classes of children of mixed ages, 24.

This infant school was sometimes part of a junior school which catered for seven to eleven year olds.

labouring class/family etc

Although in other poems Leapor shows that labouring class women can be desperately unhappy in marriage, she is not unequivocal.

Day schooling was received by only a minority of children from the labouring classes, in some parishes a very tiny one.

Even 2 out of every 3 farm labouring families stayed put and overall 3 out of every 4 households remained virtually the same.

For the most part, however, the labouring classes did not move very far.

His poetry often depicts labouring class life vividly.

Relatively little attention has been paid to the origins of labouring class poetry.

Stephen Duck, however, is not the first instance of a labouring class poet in the eighteenth century.

The claims made for these poems, however, reveal some of the difficulties in a discussion of labouring class poetry.

remedial course/class/teacher etc

About one quarter of entering college students now take at least one remedial course.

Middle-class children thus tend to fill the honors and advanced-placement classes while poor children take the general and remedial classes.

Most of these students take remedial classes in all three fields.

People were appointed to co-ordinate the work of remedial teachers in schools.

Some run efficient remedial courses, which could surely be used for youngsters who had taken a broader sixth-form course.

The Association has branches throughout the country that provide information and hold remedial classes.

Their placement in a remedial course confirmed their suspicions.

These students traverse course after remedial course, becoming increasingly turned off to writing, increasingly convinced that they are hopelessly inadequate.

the upper class

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

This prison houses the most dangerous criminals in Britain, those classed as "category A'.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

Respondent: No I wouldn't, I wouldn't class them as being Northumbrians.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.