Meaning of ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES in English

the fields of study concerned with the structure and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere. Included are meteorology, climatology, and aeronomy. Such mathematical tools as differential equations and vector analysis, together with large computer systems, are used to evaluate the physical and chemical relations that describe the workings of the atmosphere. Planetary science and stellar science are comparable fields of study of the atmospheres of other astronomical bodies. The atmospheric sciences traditionally have been divided into the areas of meteorology, climatology, and aeronomy. In meteorology the focus of study is the day-to-day, hour-to-hour changes in weather within the lower stratosphere and troposphere. Climatology, on the other hand, concentrates on a statistical description of the weather in the same region of the atmosphere but over long periods of time ranging from a month to millions of years. Meteorology is the science from which weather forecasts are prepared, whereas climatology provides an explanation of why climate differs across the Earth and how it is interrelated with other components of the natural environment. Studies of the atmospheric regions above the lower stratosphere are associated with the field of aeronomy. They deal with such matters as the photochemical processes of the upper atmosphere, ionospheric physics, airglow, magnetospheric storms, and auroral phenomena. The scope of the atmospheric sciences is indeed broad. Here it is possible only to survey the basic concerns and principal areas of research of the various disciplines involved. Additional reading General references on meteorology, climatology, and aeronomy include Ralph E. Huschke (ed.), Glossary of Meteorology (1959, reissued 1970); and Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Meteorological Tables, 6th rev. ed. prepared by Robert J. List (1949, reprinted 1968). (General meteorology and climatology): Stanley David Gedzelman, The Science and Wonders of the Atmosphere (1980); William J. Kotsch, Weather for the Mariner, 3rd ed. (1983); Glenn T. Trewartha and Lyle H. Horn, An Introduction to Climate, 5th ed. (1980); and John M. Wallace and Peter V. Hobbs, Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey (1977), more mathematically sophisticated than the above works. (Dynamic meteorology and climatology): E. Palmn and C.W. Newton, Atmospheric Circulation Systems: Their Structure and Physical Interpretation (1969); John A. Dutton, The Ceaseless Wind: An Introduction to the Theory of Atmospheric Motion (1976, reissued with corrections, 1986); James R. Holton, An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 2nd ed. (1979); Brian Hoskins and Robert Pearce (eds.), Large-Scale Dynamical Processes in the Atmosphere (1983); S. Panchev, Dynamic Meteorology (1985; originally published in Bulgarian, 1981); J.V. Iribarne and W.L. Godson, Atmospheric Thermodynamics, 2nd ed. (1981); and Barry Saltzman (ed.), Theory of Climate (1983). See also Hans A. Panofsky and Glenn W. Brier, Some Applications of Statistics to Meteorology (1958), the fundamental text on uses of statistics in atmospheric analysis. (Micrometeorology): T.R. Oke, Boundary Layer Climates (1978); J.L. Monteith (ed.), Vegetation and the Atmosphere, 2 vol. (197576); and Norman J. Rosenberg, Blaine L. Blad, and Shashi B. Verma, Microclimate: The Biological Environment, 2nd ed. (1983). Turbulence theory is covered in H. Tennekes and John L. Lumley, A First Course in Turbulence (1972); and Hans A. Panofsky and John A. Dutton, Atmospheric Turbulence: Models and Methods for Engineering Applications (1984). (Cloud physics and dynamics): N.H. Fletcher, The Physics of Rainclouds (1962, reprinted 1966); L.T. Matveev, Cloud Dynamics (1984; originally published in Russian, 1981); and George M. Hidy, Aerosols: An Industrial and Environmental Science (1984). (Atmospheric chemistry): E.D. Goldberg (ed.), Atmospheric Chemistry (1982); and H.W. Georgii and W. Jaeschke, Chemistry of the Unpolluted and Polluted Troposphere (1982). (Air pollution meteorology): An excellent though now somewhat dated work is John H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals (1975). Other useful texts include Arthur C. Stern (ed.), Air Pollution, vol. 1, Air Pollutants, Their Transformation and Transport, 3rd ed. (1976), and vol. 4, Engineering Control of Air Pollution, 3rd ed. (1977); and F.T.M. Nieuwstadt and H. Van Dop (eds.), Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling (1982, reprinted 1984). (Synoptic meteorology): Sverre Petterssen, Weather Analysis and Forecasting, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1956), is excellent, but much of the material is dated. The best sources are publications of public and military weather services, including Ralph K. Anderson et al., Application of Meteorological Satellite Data in Analysis and Forecasting (1969, reprinted 1974); United States. Department of the Air Force. Air Weather Service, The Use of the Skew T, Log P Diagrams in Analyzing and Forecasting (1969); and Robert C. Miller, Notes on Analysis and Severe-Storm Forecasting Procedures of the Air Force Global Weather Central, rev. ed. (1972). A new forecasting concept is discussed in K.A. Browning (ed.), Nowcasting (1982). Mesoscale atmospheric systems are discussed in B.W. Atkinson, Meso-Scale Atmospheric Circulations (1981). A summary of current work in applied areas of meteorology, including weather forecasting, is David D. Houghton (ed.), Handbook of Applied Meteorology (1985). (Atmospheric modeling): The use of computer models to simulate atmospheric features is treated in George J. Haltiner and Roger Terry Williams, Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology, 2nd ed. (1980); and Roger A. Pielke, Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling (1984). (Remote sensing): Richard J. Doviak and Duan S. Zrnic, Doppler Radar and Weather Observations (1984); E.C. Barrett and L.F. Curtis, Introduction to Environmental Remote Sensing, 2nd ed. (1982); E.E. Gossard and R.G. Strauch, Radar Observation of Clear Air and Clouds (1983); and T.D. Allan (ed.), Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing (1983). (Weather modification): Useful summaries are available in W.N. Hess, Weather and Climate Modification (1974); and Arnett S. Dennis, Weather Modification by Cloud Seeding (1980). Roger Alvin Pielke

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