Meaning of ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ONLINE: YEAR IN REVIEW in English

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA ONLINE: YEAR IN REVIEW

Year in Review: 1997 Shifting Attitudes in a Changing World by Gro Harlem Brundtland The Year in Review Chronicle of 1997 Disasters People of 1997 Nobel Prizes Biography Obituary World Affairs Events of 1997 Agriculture and Food Supplies Anthropology and Archaeology Architecture and Civil Engineering Art, Antiques, and Collections Business and Industry Review Computers and Information Systems Earth Sciences Economic Affairs Education The Environment Fashions Health and Disease Law, Crime, and Law Enforcement Libraries and Museums Life Sciences Literature Mathematics and Physical Sciences Media and Publishing Military Affairs Performing Arts Population Trends Religion Social Protection Sports and Games Transportation CONTRIBUTORS Biographies Abacha, Sani Adams, John Coolidge Albright, Madeleine Annan, Kofi Atta Armani, Giorgio Arnault, Bernard Arz Irigoyen, Alvaro Ashley, Merrill Ballard, Robert Duane Binoche, Juliette Blair, Tony Bowman, William Scott Crdenas Solrzano, Cuauhtmoc Carrey, Jim Carter, Chris Charles, prince of Wales Cruz, Celia DeGeneres, Ellen Duany, Andres, and Plater-Zyberk, Egoyan, Atom Favre, Brett Lorenzo Fayed, Mohamed al- Fehn, Sverre Flatley, Michael Ford, Harrison Freeman, Cathy Fujimori, Alberto Gordon, Jeff Grove, Andrew S. Gwynn, Tony Hague, William Jefferson Hanson, Pauline Lee Helms, Jesse Hingis, Martina Holyfield, Evander Hughes, Robert Studley Forrest Hun Sen Jospin, Lionel Kabila, Laurent Desire Kadare, Ismail Kawamoto, Nobuhiko Khan, Jansher Khatami, Mohammad Kim Dae Jung Lawless, Lucy, and Sorbo, LeBow, Bennett S. Lemper, Ute Lomax, Alan Lubich, Chiara Luzhkov, Yury Mikhaylovich Manning, Preston McTeer, Janet Mueller, Lisel Murdock, Richard D. Museveni, Yoweri Kaguta Nair, Mira Narayanan, Kocheril Raman O'Donnell, Rosie Paik, Nam June Pugacheva, Alla Borisovna Rimes, LeAnn Ronaldo Salgado, Sebasti?o Schweitzer, Louis Sharif, Mohammed Nawaz Shiva, Vandana Simon of Highbury, Lord Smith, Dean Edwards Spice Girls Stern, Howard Stojko, Elvis Stoppard, Sir Thomas Suo, Masayuki Taylor, Charles Ghankay Terfel, Bryn Tung Chee-hwa Vogelstein, Bert Vyalbe, Yelena Waugh, Mark Edward and Stephen Weil, Andrew Thomas Williams, Walter Ray, Jr. Wilson, William Julius Woods, Tiger Yu Miri Computers and Information Systems INTRODUCTION Industry Developments Technology Developments Computer Crime The Internet Chronology January February March April May June July August September October November December Contributors Adams, Andy. Editor and Publisher, Sumo World. Author of Sumo; Sumo World Record Book. SPORTS AND GAMES: Judo; Wrestling: Sumo Ajello, Robin Paul. Associate Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cambodia Alder, Phillip. Syndicated Bridge Columnist. Author of Get Smarter at Bridge. SPORTS AND GAMES: Contract Bridge Alexander, Steve. Freelance. COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS Allaby, Michael. Writer and Lecturer. Author of Basic Environmental Science; Facing the Future. THE ENVIRONMENT: Environmental Issues; International Environmental Activities Allan, J.A. Professor of Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Author of Water and Peace in the Middle East. WORLD AFFAIRS: Libya Andrades, Jorge Adri?n. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Polo Andrejevich, Milan. U.S.-based Writer and Consultant WORLD AFFAIRS: Bosnia and Herzegovina; Yugoslavia Archibald, John J. Retired Feature Writer, St. Louis (Mo.) Post-Dispatch; Adjunct Professor, Washington University, St. Louis. Member of the American Bowling Congress Hall of Fame. SPORTS AND GAMES: Bowling: U.S. Tenpins Arnold, Guy. Freelance Writer. Author of South Africa: Crossing the Rubicon; Modern Nigeria; and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Botswana; Burundi; Cape Verde; Chad; Comoros; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Gambia, The; Ghana; Guinea-Bissau; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Maldives; Mauritius; Nigeria; Rwanda; S?o Tom and Pr?ncipe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Swaziland Arnold, Mavis. Freelance Journalist, Dublin. WORLD AFFAIRS: Ireland Arrington, Leonard J. Formerly Church Historian, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Coauthor of The Mormon Experience and others. RELIGION: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Aurora, Vincent. Preceptor of French Literature, Columbia University, New York City. LITERATURE: French: France Baber, Bonnie. Senior Editor, Footwear News magazine. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Apparel: Footwear Backe, Everett E. Senior Scientist and Professor, Institute of Textile Technology. Author of Cotton Ginners Handbook. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Cotton; Wool Bahry, Louay. Adjunct Professor of Political Science, Washington, D.C. Author of The Baghdad Bahn. WORLD AFFAIRS: Bahrain; Iraq Bailey, George. Author of Galileo's Children; Germans. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Magazines: Sidebar; WORLD AFFAIRS: Germany Bakker, Martinus A. Professor of Germanic Languages, Calvin College, Grand Rapids, Mich. Editor of Studies in Netherlandic Culture and Literature. LITERATURE: Netherlandic Balaban, Avraham. Professor of Modern Hebrew Literature, University of Florida. Author of A Different Wave of Hebrew Fiction: Postmodernist Israel. LITERATURE: Jewish: Hebrew Balmforth, Dennis. Visiting Professor Emeritus, Institute of Textile Technology. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Introduction; Man-made Fibres Barrett, David B. Research Professor of Missiometrics, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Va. Author of World Christian Encyclopedia; Schism and Renewal in Africa. RELIGION: Tables (in part) Barrett, John C.A. Headmaster, the Leys School; Secretary, British Committee, World Methodist Council. Author of Family Worship in Theory and Practice. RELIGION: Methodist Churches Bass, Howard. Journalist and Author; formerly Editor, Winter Sports; Ice Hockey Correspondent, Daily Telegraph; Skiing and Skating Correspondent, Daily Mail. Author of 19 books on winter sports. SPORTS AND GAMES: Ice Hockey: International; Ice Skating; Skiing Bauer, Steven. Professor of English, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Author of Daylight Savings, winner of the Peregrine Smith Poetry Prize. LITERATURE: Introduction Beckwith, David C. Director of Government Relations, Electronic Data Systems, Inc., Washington, D.C. WORLD AFFAIRS: United States: State and Local Affairs Belaski, Ann M. Multimedia Content Editor, McDougal Littel. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Bell, Tom. Classifier, Encyclopdia Britannica OBITUARIES (in part) Berfield, Susan. Senior Writer, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Indonesia Bickelhaupt, David L. Professor Emeritus, Fisher College of Business, Ohio State University. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Insurance Binczewski, George J. Principal Technical Adviser, S.C. Systems, Moraga, Calif. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Light Metals Bird, Thomas E. Co-director of the Jewish Studies Program and the Center for Jewish Studies, Queens College, City University of New York. LITERATURE: Jewish: Yiddish Blackmore, Heather. Editorial Assistant, Encyclopdia Britannica BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Boddy, William C. Founder and Editor, Motor Sport, London. Author of Aero-Engined Racing Cars, etc., and MBE. SPORTS AND GAMES: Automobile Racing: Grand Prix Racing Bodeker, Gerard C. Member, Health Services Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, Eng. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Special Report: Alternative Medicine (in part) Boden, Edward. Publications Adviser, British Veterinary Association. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Veterinary Medicine Boggan, Tim. Historian, U.S.A. Table Tennis Association (USATT). Author of Winning Table Tennis. SPORTS AND GAMES: Table Tennis Bonds, John B. Adjunct Professor, The Citadel. SPORTS AND GAMES: Sailing Booth, John Nicholls. Lecturer and Writer. Author of The Quest for Preaching Power; Psychic Paradoxes; and others. RELIGION: Unitarian (Universalist) Churches Boswall, Jeffery. Freelance Lecturer on Wildlife Television. LIFE SCIENCES: Ornithology Box, Ben. Editor, Footprint Handbooks. WORLD AFFAIRS: Costa Rica; Honduras; Panama; Uruguay Boye, Roger. Formerly Coin Columnist, Chicago Tribune. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Numismatics Bradsher, Henry S. Foreign Affairs Writer. WORLD AFFAIRS: Philippines Brazee, Rutlage J. Geophysical Consultant. EARTH SCIENCES: Geophysics Brecher, Kenneth. Professor of Astronomy and Physics, Boston University. MATHEMATICS AND EARTH SCIENCES: Astronomy Brockmann, Stephen. Assistant Professor of German Studies, Carnegie Mellon University LITERATURE: German Brokopp, John G. Specialist in publicity, public relations, and writing about equestrian racing. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Thoroughbred Racing: United States Brown, Bess. Human Dimensions Specialist, OSCE Liaison Office for Central Asia. Author of Authoritarianism in the New States of Central Asia. WORLD AFFAIRS: Kazakstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan Brundtland, Gro Harlem. Physician and Former Prime Minister of Norway. COMMENTARY: Shifting Attitudes in a Changing World Buchan, David. Correspondent, Financial Times, Paris. WORLD AFFAIRS: France; SPOTLIGHT: France's New African Policy Burks, Ardath W. Professor Emeritus of Asian Studies, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. Author of Japan: A Postindustrial Power. WORLD AFFAIRS: Japan Burns, Erik. Bureau Chief, AP-Dow Jones News Services, Lisbon. WORLD AFFAIRS: Portugal Butler, Frank. Formerly Sports Editor, News of the World. Author of The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: A Story of Boxing. SPORTS AND GAMES: Boxing Cafferty, Bernard. Associate Editor, British Chess Magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Chess Cameron, Sarah. Freelance Writer and Editor, Footprint Handbooks. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cuba; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Nicaragua Campbell, Paul J. Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Mathematics Campbell, Robert. Architect and Architecture Critic. Author of Cityscapes of Boston; Coauthor of American Architecture of the 1980s . ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING: Architecture Carter, Robert W. Journalist, London. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Show Jumping and Dressage; Steeplechasing; Thoroughbred Racing: International Chappell, Duncan. Deputy President, Federal Administrative Appeals Tribunal, Sydney, Australia. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Crime; Law Enforcement Chapple, Abby. Writer and Consultant, Consumer Communications, Largent, W.Va. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Home Furnishings: Furniture Cheadle, Bruce. Reporter, The Canadian Press. SPORTS AND GAMES: Curling Cheuse, Alan. Writing Faculty, English Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.; Book Commentator, National Public Radio. Author of The Light Possessed and others. LITERATURE: English: United States Choong Tet Sieu. Associate Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Malaysia Cioroslan, Dragomir. National Coach for U.S.A. Weightlifting, Inc. SPORTS AND GAMES: Weight Lifting Clark, David D. Managing Editor, World Literature Today. LITERATURE: English: Other Literature in English Clarke, Douglas L. Captain, U.S. Navy (ret.); Military Analyst. Author of The Missing Man: Politics and the MIA. MILITARY AFFAIRS Clarke, R.O. Lecturer and Consultant on Industrial Relations, London. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Labour-Management Relations Cogle, T.C.J. Consultant, Electrical Review. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Electrical Colvin, David. Managing Editor, The Middle East Journal. WORLD AFFAIRS: Oman; Qatar Corzine, Robert. Energy Correspondent, Financial Times. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Alternative Energy; Natural Gas; Petroleum Cosgrave, Bronwyn. Health and Beauty Editor, U.K. Cosmopolitan. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); FASHIONS; OBITUARIES (in part) Coveney, Michael. Theatre Critic, The Daily Mail. Author of The World According to Mike Leigh and others. PERFORMING ARTS: Theatre: Great Britain and Ireland Craine, Anthony G. Associate Editor, Inside Sports magazine. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); SPORTS AND GAMES: Baseball: Sidebar; Introduction Crampton, Richard J. Professor of East European History and Fellow of St. Edmund Hall, University of Oxford, Oxford, Eng. Author of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Bulgaria Crowell, George T. Senior Writer, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of Crowley, Edward. Editor, Baltic Magazine Supplements; Director, Technical Writing Services. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Shipbuilding; TRANSPORTATION: Shipping and Ports Cunningham, Susan M. Economic and Political Analyst; Freelance Writer. Author of Latin America Since 1945. WORLD AFFAIRS: Argentina; Brazil; Mexico Curwen, Peter J. Professor of Business, Sheffield (Eng.) Business School. Author of The U.K. Publishing Industry and others. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Book Publishing (international) Deam, John B. Retired Technical Director, AMT--The Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Va. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Machinery and Machine Tools Deanin, Rudolph D. Professor, Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts at Lowell. Author of Plastics Additives. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Plastics Deeb, Marius K. Professor, SAIS, Johns Hopkins University, Washington, D.C. Author of Political Parties and Democracy in Egypt. WORLD AFFAIRS: Egypt de la Barre, Kenneth. Director, the Bridge Group. WORLD AFFAIRS: Arctic Regions Denselow, Robin. Rock Music Critic, The Guardian; Current Affairs Reporter, BBC Television. Author of When the Music's Over: The Politics of Pop. PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Popular (international) de Puy, Norman R. Minister, American Baptist Churches; Editor and Publisher, Cabbages and Kings newsletter. RELIGION: Baptist Churches Dicks, Geoffrey R. U.K. Economist, NatWest Markets. Author of Sources of World Financial and Banking Information. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Introduction Dixon, Bernard. Science Writer; Consultant; Editor, Medical Science Research. Author of Power Unseen: How Microbes Rule the World and others. HEALTH AND DISEASE: Medicine (international); Mental Health Doll, Susan. Freelance Writer, Instructor of Film History, School of the Art Institute of Chicago and Oakton Community College. Author of Best of Elvis and others. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Home Furnishings: Housewares; OBITUARIES (in part) Dooling, Dave. Freelance Aerospace Writer, D2 Associates. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Space Exploration Dowd, Siobhan. Columnist, Literary Review (London); Glimmer Train (U.S.). Author of This Prison Where I Live. LITERATURE: English: United Kingdom Eadington, William R. Professor of Economics, Director, Institute for Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming, University of Nevada, Reno. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Special Report: Gambling Earp, John H. Director, Halcrow Fox and Associates. TRANSPORTATION: Introduction; Freight and Pipelines; Intercity Rail; Roads and Traffic; Urban Mass Transit Edmondson, Lesley. Freelance Writer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Ehringer, Gavin Forbes. Rodeo Columnist, Western Horseman. SPORTS AND GAMES: Rodeo Ellis, Roger. Editor, Mining Journal, London. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Mining: Sidebar Eron, Carol L. Director, Editorial Concepts. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Ceramics (in part) Fagan, Brian. Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara. Author of Time Detectives. ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY: Archaeology: Western Hemisphere Farr, D.M.L. Professor Emeritus of History, Carleton University, Ottawa. WORLD AFFAIRS: Canada Fendell, Robert J. Board Member, Amelia Island Concours d'Elegance. Columnist, Sport Scene Florida. Author of Encyclopedia of Motor Racing Greats and others. SPORTS AND GAMES: Automobile Racing: U.S. Auto Racing Finch, Andrew. Assistant Director, Government and Public Affairs, American Association of Museums. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Museums (United States) Fischer, Adelheid. Associate Editor, Yearbook of Science and the Future, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Fisher, Sharon. Central European Specialist, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Czech Republic; Slovakia Flagg, Gordon. Managing Editor, American Libraries. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Libraries (United States) Flanders, Douglas L. Development Officer, The United Church Observer. RELIGION: The United Church of Canada Fletcher, Charmaine. Media and Press Officer, the Salvation Army. RELIGION: Salvation Army Flink, Steve. Senior Correspondent, Tennis Week magazine; formerly Editor, World Tennis magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Tennis Flores, Ramona Monette S. Professor, University of the Philippines; Editorial Consultant, Masks and Voices; Editor-in-Chief, Pahinungd Annual Journal. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Radio (international); Television (international) Fogle, Douglas. Curatorial Assistant, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, Minn. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Paintings and Sculpture Follett, Christopher. Denmark Correspondent, The Times; Danish Correspondent, Radio Sweden; Newscaster, Radio Denmark, affiliated to Reuters News Agency, Copenhagen. Author of Fodspor paa Cypern. WORLD AFFAIRS: Denmark Forrest, Brett. Reporter, Men's Journal SPORTS AND GAMES: Special Report: Alternative Sports Foster, David William. Chair, Regents' Professor of Spanish, Humanities, and Women's Studies, Arizona State University. Author of Violence in Argentine Literature and others. LITERATURE: Spanish: Latin America Frank, Stephen E. Staff Reporter, The Wall Street Journal. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Banking: United States Freeman, Laurie. Freelance Writer and Editor. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Advertising Fridovich, Irwin. James B. Duke Professor of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. LIFE SCIENCES: Molecular Biology (in part) Fridovich-Keil, Judith L. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Ga. LIFE SCIENCES: Molecular Biology (in part); WORLD AFFAIRS: Japan: Sidebar Friedrich, Mary Jane. Life Sciences Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Friskin, Sydney E. Hockey Correspondent, The Times. SPORTS AND GAMES: Billiard Games: Snooker; Field Hockey Fuller, Elizabeth. Editor, Newsline, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, Prague. WORLD AFFAIRS: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia Gaddum, Anthony H. Chairman, H.T. Gaddum and Co.; Vice President, International Silk Association. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Textiles: Silk Ganado, Albert. Lawyer. Coauthor of A Study in Depth of 143 Maps Representing the Great Siege of Malta of 1565 and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Malta Garrod, Mark. Golf Correspondent, PA Sport, U.K. Contributor to Golf World and Amateur Golf magazines. Secretary of the Association of Golf Writers. SPORTS AND GAMES: Golf Gaughan, Thomas. Associate Director of Libraries, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS: Libraries (international) Gibbons, Anne R. Freelance Writer. LIFE SCIENCES: Entomology Gibbons, J. Whitfield. Professor of Ecology, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia. Author of Keeping All the Pieces and others. LIFE SCIENCES: Zoology Gill, Martin J. Information and Computer Expert, F.A.O. EASTFISH. AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SUPPLIES: Fisheries Girnius, Saulius A. State Consultant, Republic of Lithuania Government WORLD AFFAIRS: Lithuania Gobbie, Donn. Director of Publicity and Media Relations, U.S. Badminton Association. SPORTS AND GAMES: Badminton Goldsmith, Arthur. Freelance Writer. Author of The Camera and Its Images. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Photography; BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Photography Gottlieb, Jean S. Freelance Editor; Bibliographer. Author of A Checklist of the Newberry Library's Printed Books in Science, Medicine, Technology, and the Pseudosciences, ca. 1460-1750. BIBLIOGRAPHY Greeman, Adrian Lee. Editor, Civil Engineer International. ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING: Bridges Green, Anthony L. Copy Supervisor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Green, Theresa. Information Officer. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Glass Greskovic, Robert. Dance Reviewer, A&E Entertainment Almanac; Freelance Writer. PERFORMING ARTS: Dance: North America Griffiths, A.R.G. Associate Professor in History, Flinders University of South Australia. Author of Contemporary Australia; Beautiful Lies. WORLD AFFAIRS: Australia; Nauru; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Spotlight: Racial Integration in Australia and New Zealand Grumet, Robert S. Anthropologist, New Hope, Pa. Author of Historic Contact and others. ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY: Anthropology: Cultural Gutek, Gerald Lee. Professor, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Loyola University, Chicago. Author of A History of the Western Educational Experience and others. EDUCATION (U.S.); EDUCATION: Sidebar Guthridge, Guy G. Manager, Polar Information Program, U.S. National Science Foundation. WORLD AFFAIRS: Antarctica Halman, Talat S. Distinguished Visiting Professor, Bilkent University, Ankara. Author of Poetry of Ancient Anatolia and Near East. LITERATURE: Turkish Hamilton, Andrea. Staff Correspondent, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Singapore Hammer, William R. Professor and Chair, Department of Geology, Augustana College, Rock Island, Ill. Author of contributions to Dinofest II International Proceedings, National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia; Antarctic Paleobiology. LIFE SCIENCES: Paleontology Hannen, Mark. Competitions Officer, English Basket Ball Association. SPORTS AND GAMES: Basketball: International Harakas, Stanley S. Emeritus Archbishop Iakovos Professor of Orthodox Theology, Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology. Author of Health and Medicine in the Eastern Orthodox Tradition and others. RELIGION: Oriental Orthodox Church; The Orthodox Church Haub, Carl V. Demographer, Population Reference Bureau. Author of Population Change in the Former Soviet Union and others. POPULATION TRENDS: Demography Hawkland, William D. Chancellor Emeritus of Law and Boyd Professor, Louisiana State University. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT: Court Decisions Healy, Tim. General Editor, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Brunei; Dependent States: East Asia Heim, Chris. Music Director and Freelance Writer, WBEZ Radio, Chicago. PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Special Report: Listening to the Music of the World Heinzl, John. Business Reporter, Toronto Globe and Mail. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Retailing Helgadottir, Birna. Senior Reporter, The European. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: Europe's Crumbling Social Network Hendershott, Myrl C. Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif. EARTH SCIENCES: Oceanography Hennelly, James. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Labour-Management Relations: Sidebar; OBITUARIES (in part) Henschel, Milton. President, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. RELIGION: Jehovah's Witnesses Hering, Howard. Administrative Manager, Frederick Wildman and Sons. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Beverages: Wine Higgs, Kimball. Assistant Vice President, Sotheby's Book Department. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Antiquarian Books Hobbs, Greg. Chief Writer, Australian Football League. Author of books on Australian Football. SPORTS AND GAMES: Football: Australian Hoeksema, Klaas J. Staff Member, Institute for Polytechnics, Amsterdam. WORLD AFFAIRS: Netherlands, The; Suriname Hoffman, Dean A. Executive Editor, Hoof Beats magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Equestrian Sports: Harness Racing Hoke, John. Publisher, Amateur Wrestling News. SPORTS AND GAMES: Wrestling Hollar, Sherman. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); disasters Homel, David. Author of Rat Palms and others. LITERATURE: French: Canada Hope, Thomas W. Chairman/CEO, Hope Reports, Inc. Author of America's Top 100 Contract Producers. PERFORMING ARTS: Motion Pictures: Nontheatrical Films Hunnings, Neville March. Editor, Encyclopedia of European Union Law--Constitutional Texts. LAW, CRIME, AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (international) IEIS. International Economic Information Services. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: World Economy; Stock Exchanges (international) Ingham, Kenneth. Emeritus Professor of History, University of Bristol, Eng. Author of Politics in Modern Africa: The Uneven Tribal Dimension and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Angola; Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Zaire); Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Sudan, The; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe Ingram, Derek. Consultant Editor, Gemini News Service. Author of Commonwealth for a Colour-Blind World; The Imperfect Commonwealth. WORLD AFFAIRS: Commonwealth of Nations Ionescu, Dan. Journalist, Radio Free Europe, Romanian/Moldovan Desk. Former Senior Research Analyst with Open Media Research Institute, Prague. WORLD AFFAIRS: Moldova; Romania Jackson, Peter S. Wyse. Secretary-General, Botanic Gardens Conservation International, U.K. THE ENVIRONMENT: Botanical Gardens Jamail, Milton. Lecturer, Department of Government, University of Texas at Austin. SPORTS AND GAMES: Baseball: Latin America Jessell, Harry A. Executive Editor, Broadcasting & Cable. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Radio: (U.S., in part); Radio: Amateur Radio (in part); Television (U.S., in part) Joff, George. Journalist and Writer on North African and Middle Eastern Affairs. Deputy Director, RIIA, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia Johnson, Todd M. Senior Researcher, World Evangelization Research Center. Coauthor of World Christian Encyclopedia. RELIGION: Tables (in part) Johnsson, William G. Editor, Adventist Review. Author of Behold His Glory and others. RELIGION: Seventh-day Adventist Church Jones, David G.C. Honorary Lecturer in Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton, Eng. Author of Atomic Physics. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES: Physics Jones, W. Glyn. Professor Emeritus of Scandinavian Studies, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Eng. Author of Colloquial Danish and others. LITERATURE: Danish Jotischky, Helma. Head of Business Intelligence, Paint Research Association. Author of The Americas and others. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Paints and Varnishes Kang, Taehi. Associate Professor of Art Theory, The Korean National University of Arts, Seoul. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Karimi-Hakkak, Ahmad. Associate Professor of Persian Languages and Literature, University of Washington. LITERATURE: Persian Kelleher, John A. Journalist, New Zealand. Formerly Editor, Dominion and Dominion Sunday Times (Wellington). WORLD AFFAIRS: New Zealand Keller, Edmond J. Professor, Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles. WORLD AFFAIRS: Eritrea; Ethiopia Kelling, George H. Historian, Wilford Hall Air Force Medical Center. Author of Countdown to Rebellion: British Policy in Cyprus 1939-1955. WORLD AFFAIRS: Cyprus Kellner, Peter. Political Commentator, BBC Television; Columnist, The Observer, London. Author of The Civil Servants: An Inquiry into Britain's Ruling Class and others. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); WORLD AFFAIRS: United Kingdom; Sidebar Knapp, Rebecca. Managing Editor, Art & Antiques. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Introduction Knowles, Gerald. Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, Eng. Author of A Cultural History of the English Language. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: English Language Imperialism Knox, Richard A. Specialist Energy Writer, Technical Press Services. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Nuclear Koberstein, Wayne. Editor, Pharmaceutical Executive magazine. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Pharmaceuticals Koelsch, James R. Freelance Journalist, Discrete Parts Manufacturing Industry. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Metalworking Kovel, Ralph and Terry. Authors; Publishers. Authors of Kovels' Antiques & Collectibles Price List 1996. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Collectibles Kowalski, Lawrence. Copy Supervisor, Encyclopdia Britannica. OBITUARIES (in part) Krause, Stefan. Historian and Balkan Specialist, London. WORLD AFFAIRS: Greece; Macedonia Kroll, Thomas E. Lecturer, Roosevelt University and Northwestern University, Chicago; President, Thomas Kroll Associates. Author of Introduction to Data Processing; C Language Programming. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Microelectronics; Telecommunications Kuiper, Kathleen. Associate Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. Editor, Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of Literature. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Kuptsch, Christiane. Research Officer, ISSA. SOCIAL PROTECTION (international) Lamb, Kevin M. Special Projects Writer, Dayton (Ohio) Daily News. Author of Quarterbacks, Nickelbacks & Other Loose Change. SPORTS AND GAMES: Football: Canadian, U.S. Lamb, Robert E. Executive Director, American Philatelic Society. ART, ANTIQUES, AND COLLECTIONS: Philately Langeneckert, Sandra. Copy Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Laqueur, Walter. Chairman, International Research Council, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, D.C. Author of Europe in Our Time and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Introduction Latham, Arthur. Freelance Writer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Lavalle, H.-Claude. Director of Graduate Studies, Pulp and Paper Research Centre, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivires. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Wood Products: Paper and Pulp Lawler, Nancy Ellen. Professor Emeritus, Oakton Community College, Des Plaines, Ill. Author of Soldiers of Misfortune and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; C?te d'Ivoire; Gabon; Guinea; Mali; Mauritania; Niger; Senegal; Togo Lawson, Fred H. James Irvine Professor of Government, Mills College, Oakland, Calif. WORLD AFFAIRS: Syria Lawson, Richard L. General, USAF (retired). President and Chief Executive Officer, National Mining Association. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Energy: Coal Lee, Jungbock. Professor, Department of Political Science, Seoul National University. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Legassick, Martin. Professor, History Department, University of Western Cape, Bellville, S.Af. WORLD AFFAIRS: South Africa Lehman, Richard L. Professor, College of Engineering, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J. Author of Handbook on Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Materials and Metals: Ceramics (in part) Levine, Beth. Freelance Writer. Author of Divorce: Young People Caught in the Middle and others. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Book Publishing (United States) Levine, Steven I. Senior Research Associate, Boulder Run Research. WORLD AFFAIRS: China; Spotlight: Hong Kong's Return to China; Taiwan Lindstrom, Sieg. Managing Editor, Track & Field News. SPORTS AND GAMES: Track and Field Sports Litweiler, John. Jazz Critic; Contributor to Down Beat, Chicago Tribune, and others. Author of Ornette Coleman: A Harmolodic Life. OBITUARIES (in part); PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Jazz Logan, Robert G. Sportswriter, Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, Ill.). Author of Cubs Win and others. SPORTS AND GAMES: Basketball: United States Longmore, Andrew. Chief Sports Feature Writer, The Independent; formerly Assistant Editor, The Cricketer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); SPORTS AND GAMES: Cricket Luling, Virginia R. Social Anthropologist. WORLD AFFAIRS: Somalia Macdonald, Barrie. Professor of History, Massey University, Palmerston, N.Z. WORLD AFFAIRS: Dependent States: Pacific; Fiji; Kiribati; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Federated States of; Samoa; Solomon Islands; Tonga; Tuvalu; Vanuatu McElroy, John. Editorial Director, Automotive Industries. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Automobiles McGregor, Alan. Freelance Contributor, The Times; The Lancet; Swiss Radio International; CBS Radio. WORLD AFFAIRS: Switzerland; Switzerland: Sidebar McIvor, Greg. Stockholm Correspondent, Financial Times. WORLD AFFAIRS: Sweden McLachlan, Keith S. Professor Emeritus, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Author of Boundaries of Modern Iran. WORLD AFFAIRS: Iran Mango, Andrew. Foreign Affairs Analyst. Author of Turkey: The Challenge of a New Role. WORLD AFFAIRS: Turkey Mantzavrakos, Afrodite. Copy Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Marples, David R. Professor of History, University of Alberta. Author of Belarus: From Soviet Rule to Nuclear Catastrophe and others. WORLD AFFAIRS: Belarus; Ukraine Marty, Martin E. Professor, University of Chicago. Director, Public Religion Project. Author of The One and the Many; Under God, Indivisible; and others. RELIGION: Special Report: Doomsday Cults Mathews, John H. Copy Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Matth?asson, Bj?rn. Economist, Ministry of Finance, Iceland. WORLD AFFAIRS: Iceland Maughan, Shannon. Freelance Writer and Editor, Publishers Weekly; Crayola Kids. LITERATURE: Special Report: English-Language Children's Literature Mazie, David M. Staff Writer, Reader's Digest; Freelance Writer. SOCIAL PROTECTION (U.S.) Meisner, Nadine. Freelance Dance Critic. PERFORMING ARTS: Dance: European Mermel, T.W. Consulting Engineer; formerly Chairman, Committee on World Register of Dams, International Commission on Large Dams. ARCHITECTURE AND CIVIL ENGINEERING: Dams Mesa-Lago, Carmelo. Distinguished Service Professor of Economics and Latin American Studies, University of Pittsburgh. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: Latin America's New Investors Michael, Tom. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); NOBEL PRIZES (in part); OBITUARIES (in part) Mihalisko, Kathleen. Network Administrator for Calibre Systems, Inc. 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Professor Emeritus, University of Wales, Bangor. LIFE SCIENCES: Marine Biology Neher, Stephen. Assistant Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. WORLD AFFAIRS: World Legislative Election Results (in part) Newby, Donald J. Formerly Bowls Correspondent, Daily Telegraph; formerly Editor, World Bowls. Author of various bowls publications. SPORTS AND GAMES: Lawn Bowls Noble, Thomas F.X. Professor of History, University of Virginia. Author of Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saints' Lives. RELIGION: Roman Catholic Church Nurse, Charlie. Lecturer, Politics Department, Anglia Polytechnic University, England. WORLD AFFAIRS: Chile; Paraguay O'Donoghue, Michael. Lecturer in Gemology, London Guildhall University. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Gemstones Ogden, Shepherd. President, The Cook's Garden. Author of Step by Step Organic Flower Gardening and others. THE ENVIRONMENT: Gardening; Gardening: Sidebar O'Quinn, Jim. Editor in Chief, American Theatre magazine. 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Professor of Romance Languages and Literature, Harvard University. Author of Cambridge History of Italian Literature. LITERATURE: Italian Peszek, Luan. Publications Director, U.S.A. Gymnastics; Editor, U.S.A. Gymnastics magazine; Technique magazine. SPORTS AND GAMES: Gymnastics Pfeffer, Irving. Attorney. Author of The Financing of Small Business. ECONOMIC AFFAIRS: Stock Exchanges (North America) Pollack, Benny. Professor of Iberian and Latin American Politics, University of Liverpool. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spain Pollard, Peter. Associate Editor, Footprint Handbooks. WORLD AFFAIRS: Colombia Prasad, H.Y. Sharada. Formerly Information Adviser to the Prime Minister of India. WORLD AFFAIRS: India; Spotlight: Poverty in South Asia Primorac, Max. President, Center for Civil Society in Southeastern Europe, Washington, D.C. WORLD AFFAIRS: Croatia Prince, Greg W. Executive Editor, Beverage World. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Beverages: Beer; Soft Drinks; Spirits Qian Zhongwen. Senior Research Fellow, Literature Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. LITERATURE: Chinese Rakisits, Claude. International Affairs Consultant. WORLD AFFAIRS: Bangladesh; Bhutan; Myanmar (Burma); Nepal; Sri Lanka Rauch, Robert. Freelance Editor and Writer. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Ramonn, P?raic. Communications Director, World Alliance of Reformed Churches. RELIGION: Reformed, Presbyterian, and Congregational Churches Rebelo, L.S. Reader Emeritus; Visiting Professor, Department of Portuguese Studies, King's College, University of London. LITERATURE: Portuguese: Portugal Reed, Arthur. Senior Editor, Europe, Air Transport World. Author of Britain's Aircraft Industry; Coauthor of RAE Farnborough. TRANSPORTATION: Aviation Reid, Ron. Staff Sportswriter, Philadelphia Inquirer. SPORTS AND GAMES: Ice Hockey: North America Rengers, Maria Ottolino. Copy Editor, Encyclopdia Britannica. BIOGRAPHIES (in part) Renwick, David. Freelance Journalist. WORLD AFFAIRS: Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas, The; Barbados; Dependent States: Caribbean and Bermuda; Dominica; Grenada; Guyana; Jamaica; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago Reyes, Alejandro. Senior Correspondent, Asiaweek magazine. WORLD AFFAIRS: Vietnam Richards, Denby. Editor, Musical Opinion. PERFORMING ARTS: Music: Classical Ridgway, Laurence. Consultant, Contributor, and Producer of Symposia, World Tobacco magazine. BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY REVIEW: Tobacco Robinson, David. Film Critic and Historian. Author of A History of World Cinema; Chaplin: His Life and Art. PERFORMING ARTS: Motion Pictures Roby, Anne. Freelance Writer and Editor. MEDIA AND PUBLISHING: Magazines; Newspapers; WORLD AFFAIRS: Andorra; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Monaco Rogers, Peter. Gordon McKay Professor of Environmental Engineering and Professor of City Planning, Harvard University. WORLD AFFAIRS: Spotlight: The Water Crisis in the Middle East and North Africa Rollin, Jack. Executive Editor, Rothmans Football Yearbook. Compiler of Playfair Football Who's Who. Author of World Cup 1930-1990 and others. BIOGRAPHIES (in part); SPORTS AND GAMES: Football: Association Football (Soccer): Europe Romano, Frank J. Professor of Graphic Arts, School of Printing Management and Sciences, Rochester (N.Y.)

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.