Meaning of EAST ASIAN ARTS in English

music and visual and performing arts of China, Korea, and Japan. The literatures of these countries are covered in the articles Chinese literature, Korean literature, and Japanese literature. Some studies of East Asia also include the cultures of the Indochinese peninsula and adjoining islands, as well as Mongolia to the north. The logic of this occasional inclusion is based on a strict geographic definition as well as a recognition of common bonds forged through the acceptance of Buddhism by many of these cultures. China, Korea, and Japan, however, have been uniquely linked for several millennia by a common written language and by broad cultural and political connections that have ranged in spirit from the uncritically adorational to the contentious. From ancient times, China has been the dominant and referential culture in East Asia. Although variously developed Neolithic cultures existed on the Korean Peninsula and on the Japanese archipelago, archaeological evidence in the form of worked stone and blades from the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods suggests an exchange between the early East Asian cultures and the early introduction of Chinese influence. This cultural interaction was facilitated in part by land bridges that connected Japan with the continent. Significant developments in the production of earthenware vessels from about 10,000 BC in Japan (thus far, the world's earliest dated pottery) and from approximately 3500 BC in Korea are well documented. They reveal a rich symbolic vocabulary and decorative sense as well as a highly successful union of function and dynamic form. These types of vessels chronicle the increasing needs for storage as there was a gradual societal transformation from nomadic and foraging cultures to more sedentary crop-producing cultures. There were pottery-dominant cultures in China as well. The painted (c. 5000 BC) and black (c. 2500 BC) earthenware are the best known. As Korea and Japan continued in various Neolithic phases, developments in China from approximately 2000 BC were far more complex and dramatic. Archaeological evidence firmly corroborates the existence of an emerging bronze culture by approximately 2000 BC. This culture provided the base for Shang dynasty (approximately from the 16th to the 11th century BC) culture, which witnessed extraordinary developments in the production of bronze, stone, ceramic, and jade artifacts as well as the development of a pictograph-based written language. Bronze production and the expansion of rice cultivation gradually appeared in Korea from approximately 700 BC and then slightly later in Japan. While no single political event seemed to further the transmission of Chinese cultural elements to Korea and Japan, clearly the expansionist policies of the rulers of the Han dynasty (206 BCAD 220) stimulated what had been a gradual assimilation of Chinese cultural elements by both Korea and Japan. Indicatively, it is from this period that Chinese documentation of legation visits to Japan provide the first written records describing the structure of Japanese society. The cultures of China, Korea, and Japan went on, from this period of interaction during the Han dynasty, to develop in quite distinctive ways. China, for example, experienced two major dynasties, the Han and the T'ang (618907), that were truly international in scope and easily rivaled contemporary Mediterranean powers. In succeeding dynasties, including rule by foreign invaders from the north, the development of the visual arts continued to explore and develop the basic media for which the Chinese demonstrated special affinity: clay, jade, lacquer, bronze, stone, and the various manifestations of the brush, especially in calligraphy and painting. Emphases shifted, as did styles, but the fundamental symbolic vocabulary and a predisposition to renew through reinterpretation and reverence of the past was characteristic not only of Chinese but of all the East Asian arts. Korea's pivotal location gave it particular strategic value and thus made it the target of subjugation by a stronger China and Japan. But Korea strove to maintain its own identity and to prevent China and Japan from exercising control over more than a small portion of the peninsula. National contributions to the larger aesthetic culture of East Asia included unequaled mastery of goldsmithing and design as well as a ceramic tradition that included delicate celadon ware and a vigorous folk ware that inspired generations of Japanese tea masters. Indeed, Korea was a primary conduit of continental culture to the Japanese in many areas of visual expression, including metalwork, painting, and ceramics. In the late 13th century, Mongol forces made two unsuccessful attempts at invading the Japanese islands, and the country was spared occupation by a foreign power until well into the 20th century. This unusual condition of comparative isolation provided Japanese cultural arbiters with a relative freedom to select or reject outside styles and trends. Nevertheless, Chinese art's highly developed, systematic forms of expression, coupled with its theoretical basis in religion and philosophy, proved enormously forceful, and Chinese styles dominated at key junctures in Japanese history. The reception and assimilation of outside influence followed by a vigorous assertion of national styles thus characterized the cycle of Japanese cultural development. In addition to distinctive reinterpretations of Chinese ink monochrome painting and calligraphy, an indigenous taste for the observation and depiction of human activity and an exquisitely nuanced sense of design are readily apparent in most areas of Japanese visual expression, none more so than in narrative painting and in the woodblock print. The elements and tendencies common to the Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cultures are vast, but two kinds of visual expression are especially important: a strong affinity for the clay-formed vessel and calligraphic expression through the ink-charged brush. Vigorous, subtle, and technically sophisticated expressions ranging from Neolithic earthenware to celadon and glazed enamelware were both integral to daily life and prized by connoisseurs who judged ceramics by an elaborate code of appreciation. Increasingly abstracted forms of pictographs provided a means of writing that was image-based; characters formed by the brush could be normative but also offered infinite possibilities for personal expression through ink modulation and idiosyncratic gesture. Although Korea and Japan later developed phonetic syllabaries, the visual language of the educated continued to be based on the ancestral Chinese form. The meanings of words, phrases, or whole texts could be expanded or nuanced by their visual renderings. Painting was derivative from calligraphy, and implicit in painting skill was a preceding mastery of the brush-rendered calligraphic line. As a consequence, calligraphy was unequaled as the major element in the transmission of cultural values, whether as information or as aesthetic expression. The influence of Buddhism, a force which was initially foreign to East Asia, also should not be underestimated. Emerging from India and Central Asia in the first century after nearly 500 years of development on the subcontinent, Buddhism offered a convincing universalist system of belief that assimilated and frequently gave visual expression to indigenous religions. By the 5th century AD, a Chinese dynastic line had adopted Buddhism as a religion of state. While individual rulers, courts, or dynasties at times propelled the florescence of East Asian arts, none of them equaled the patronage of Buddhism in duration, scale, and intellectual sustenance. Confucianism, Taoism, and, to a somewhat lesser degree, Shinto required expression through the arts; however, Buddhism's multiple sects, complex iconography, and program of proselytizing made it the natural and dominant vehicle of transcultural influence in East Asia. The unity and diversity of the three East Asian cultures are explored in greater depth in the article, which treats both the visual and the performing arts. James T. Ulak the music and visual and performing arts of China, Korea, and Japan. The literature of these three countries is covered in separate articles under Chinese literature, Korean literature, and Japanese literature. Ultimately, China can be seen as the source of many of the major aspects of the Korean and Japanese arts. Despite this assertion, however, those elements of Chinese culture and arts that were not simply adopted have undergone such significant acculturationadaptation to geography, ethnicity, and religionthat they have become distinct and recognizable national arts. Additional reading Visual arts China General works include Terukazu Akiyama et al., Arts of China, 3 vol., trans. from Japanese (196870); Percival David (ed. and trans.), Chinese Connoisseurship: The Ko Ku Yao Lun, the Essential Criteria of Antiquities (1971); Laurence Sickman and Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of China, 3rd ed. (1968, reissued 1991); Dietrich Seckel, The Art of Buddhism, rev. ed. (1968; originally published in German, 1962); Osvald Sirn, A History of Early Chinese Art, 4 vol. (192930, reprinted 4 vol. in 2, 1970); Michael Sullivan, The Arts of China, 3rd ed. (1984); and Craig Clunas, Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China (1991).Archaeology and Neolithic and Bronze Age arts are considered in Robert W. Bagley, Shang Ritual Bronzes in the Arthur M. Sackler Collections (1987); Kwang-chih Chang, The Archaeology of Ancient China, 4th ed., rev. and enlarged (1986); Wen Fong (ed.), The Great Bronze Age of China (1980); Bernhard Karlgren, A Catalogue of the Chinese Bronzes in the Alfred F. Pillsbury Collection (1952); Thomas Lawton, Chinese Art of the Warring States Period (1983); Li Chi (Chi Li), Anyang (1977); Max Loehr, Ritual Vessels of Bronze Age China (1968); J.A. Pope et al., The Freer Chinese Bronzes, 2 vol. (1967); Jessica Rawson, Ancient China: Art and Archaeology (1980), and Western Zhou Ritual Bronzes from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections, 2 vol. (1990); William Watson, Ancient Chinese Bronzes, 2nd ed. (1977); Charles D. Weber, Chinese Pictorial Bronze Vessels of the Late Chou Period (1968); and George W. Weber, Jr., The Ornaments of Late Chou Bronzes (1973).Descriptions of architecture and gardens are found in Andrew Boyd, Chinese Architecture and Town Planning, 1500 B.C.A.D. 1911 (1962); John Hay, Kernels of Energy, Bones of Earth: The Rock in Chinese Art (1985); Ji Cheng (Ch'eng Chi), The Craft of Gardens, trans. from Chinese (1988); Maggie Keswick, The Chinese Garden (1978, reissued 1986); Ronald G. Knapp, The Chinese House: Craft, Symbol, and the Folk Tradition (1990); Liang Ssu-ch'eng (Ssu-ch'eng Liang), A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture, ed. by Wilma Fairbank (1984); Joseph Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 4, Physics and Physical Technology, part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics (1971), pp. 58144, on building technology; Johannes Prip-Mller, Chinese Buddhist Monasteries, 2nd ed. (1967); Osvald Sirn, The Walls and Gates of Peking (1924), The Imperial Palaces of Peking, 3 vol. (1926, reprinted 1976), and Gardens of China (1949); Rolf A. Stein, The World in Miniature: Container Gardens and Dwellings in Far Eastern Religious Thought (1990; originally published in French, 1987); Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Chinese Imperial City Planning (1990), and Chinese Traditional Architecture (1984); Robert Thorp, Architectural Principles in Early Imperial China: Structural Problems and Their Solution, The Art Bulletin, 68:360378 (September 1986); and Paul Wheatley, The Pivot of the Four Quarters: A Preliminary Enquiry into the Origins and Character of the Ancient Chinese City (1971).Ceramics are dealt with in Ccile Beurdeley and Michel Beurdeley, A Connoisseur's Guide to Chinese Ceramics (1974; originally published in French, 1974); Stephen W. Bushell (ed. and trans.), Description of Chinese Pottery and Porcelain: Being a Translation of the T'ao Shuo (1910, reissued 1977); Margaret Medley, The Chinese Potter: A Practical History of Chinese Ceramics, 3rd ed. (1989); Suzanne Kotz (ed.), Imperial Taste: Chinese Ceramics from the Percival David Foundation (1989); W.B.R. Neave-Hill, Chinese Ceramics (1975); Mary Tregear, Song Ceramics (1982); Suzanne G. Valenstein, A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics, rev. and enlarged ed. (1989); and William Watson, Tang and Liao Ceramics (1984).Among the numerous works on painting and calligraphy, the following may be recommended: William Reynolds Beal Acker (ed. and trans.), Some T'ang and Pre-T'ang Texts on Chinese Painting, 2 vol. in 3 (195474), and a reprint of vol. 1 (1979); Richard M. Barnhart, Peach Blossom Spring: Gardens and Flowers in Chinese Painting (1983); Mario Bussagli, Painting of Central Asia (1963); Susan Bush, The Chinese Literati on Painting: Su Shi (10371101) to Tung Ch'i-ch'ang (15551636) (1971); Susan Bush and Christian Murck (eds.), Theories of the Arts in China (1983); Susan Bush and Hsio-yen Shih (compilers and eds.), Early Chinese Texts on Painting (1985); James Cahill, Chinese Painting (1960, reissued 1985), Confucian Elements in the Theory of Painting, in Arthur F. Wright (ed.), The Confucian Persuasion (1960, reissued 1983), pp. 115140, Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the Yan Dynasty, 12791368 (1976), Parting at the Shore: Chinese Painting of the Early and Middle Ming Dynasty, 13681580 (1978), The Distant Mountains: Chinese Painting of the Late Ming Dynasty, 15701644 (1982), and The Compelling Image: Nature and Style in Seventeenth-Century Chinese Painting (1982); Victoria Contag and Wang Chi-ch'ien, Seals of Chinese Painters and Collectors of the Ming and Ch'ing Periods, rev. ed. (1966); Tseng Yu-ho Ecke (Yu-ho Tseng), Chinese Calligraphy (1971); Wen C. Fong, Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy, 8th14th Century (1992); Marilyn Fu and Shen Fu, Studies in Connoisseurship, 3rd ed. (1973), paintings from the Ming and Ch'ing dynasties; Shen Fu, Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese Calligraphy (1977); Roger Goepper, The Essence of Chinese Painting (1963); R.H. van Gulik, Chinese Pictorial Art as Viewed by the Connoisseur (1958, reprinted 1981); Herbert Hrtel et al., Along the Ancient Silk Routes (1982), on Central Asian art; Wai-kam Ho et al., Eight Dynasties of Chinese Painting (1980); Lothar Ledderose, Mi Fu and the Classical Tradition of Chinese Calligraphy (1979), Some Observations on the Imperial Art Collection in China, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, 43:3346 (197879), Some Taoist Elements in the Six Dynasties Calligraphy, T'oung Pao, 70(45):246278 (1984), and Subject Matter in Early Chinese Painting Criticism, Oriental Art, new series, 19(1):6983 (Spring 1973); Sherman E. Lee and Wai-kam Ho, Chinese Art Under the Mongols: The Yan Dynasty, 12791368 (1968); Chu-tsing Li, The Autumn Colors on the Ch'iao and Hua Mountains: A Landscape by Chao Meng-fu (1965); Chu-tsing Li (ed.), Artists and Patrons: Some Social and Economic Aspects of Chinese Painting (1989); Max Loehr, The Great Painters of China (1980); Kiyohiko Munakata (ed. and trans.), Ching Hao's Pi-fa-chi: A Note on the Art of the Brush (1974), and Sacred Mountains in Chinese Art (1991); Alfreda Murck and Wen C. Fong (eds.), Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting (1991); Christian F. Murck (ed.), Artists and Traditions: Uses of the Past in Chinese Culture (1976); Yujiro Nakata (ed.), Chinese Calligraphy, trans. from Japanese and adapted by Jeffrey Hunter (1983); Shodo Zenshu, 28 vol. (195468), a collection of calligraphy; Jerome Silbergeld, "Chinese Concepts of Old Age and Their Role in Chinese Painting, Painting Theory, and Criticism, Art Journal, 46(2):103114 (Summer 1987), Chinese Painting Studies in the West: A State-of-the-Field Article, Journal of Asian Studies, 46(4):849897 (1987), and Chinese Painting Style (1982); Osvald Sirn, The Chinese on the Art of Painting: Translations and Comments (1936, reissued 1969), and Chinese Painting: Leading Masters and Principles, 7 vol. (195658, reissued 1974); Alexander Soper (trans. and ed.), Experiences in Paintings (1951), an 11th-century history; Michael Sullivan, The Birth of Landscape Painting in China, 2 vol. (196280), and Chinese Landscape Painting: The Sui and T'ang Dynasties (1980); Fritz van Briessen, The Way of the Brush: Painting Techniques of China and Japan (1962, reissued 1978); Marsha Weidner (ed.), Flowering in the Shadows: Women in the History of Chinese and Japanese Painting (1990); Roderick Whitfield, The Art of Central Asia, vol. 12, Paintings from Dunhuang (198283); and Yu Feian (Fei-an Y), Chinese Painting Colors: Studies on Their Preparation and Application in Traditional and Modern Times, trans. from Chinese by James Silbergeld and Amy McNair (1988).Decorative arts are presented in Nancy Zeng Berliner, Chinese Folk Art: The Small Skills of Carving Insects (1986); Schuyler V.R. Cammann, China's Dragon Robes (1952); Jessica Rawson and John Ayers, Chinese Jade Throughout the Ages (1975); Osvald Sirn, Chinese Sculpture from the Fifth to the Fourteenth Century, 4 vol. (1925, reprinted 1970); John E. Vollmer, In the Presence of the Dragon Throne: Ch'ing Dynasty Costume (16441911) in the Royal Ontario Museum (1977); Zhou Zun (Hsn Chou) and Gao Chunming (Ch'un-ming Kao), 5000 Years of Chinese Costumes (1987; originally published in Chinese, 1984); and Wang Shixiang (Shih-hsiang Wang), Classic Chinese Furniture: Ming and Early Qing Dynasties (1986; originally published in Chinese, 1985).Analyses of 20th-century arts include Joan Lebold Cohen, The New Chinese Painting, 19491986 (1987); Robert Hatfield Ellsworth, Later Chinese Painting and Calligraphy, 18001950, 3 vol. (1987); Ellen Johnston Laing, The Winking Owl: Art in the People's Republic of China (1988); Chu-tsing Li, Trends in Modern Chinese Painting (1979); Jerome Silbergeld and Gong Jisui (Jisui Gong), Contradictions: Artistic Life, the Socialist State, and the Chinese Painter Li Huasheng (1993); and Michael Sullivan, Chinese Art in the Twentieth Century (1959), and The Meeting of Eastern and Western Art, 2nd ed. (1989). Jerome Silbergeld Korea Survey studies include Andreas Eckardt, A History of Korean Art (1929; originally published in German, 1929); Chewon Kim and Won-yong Kim (eds.), Korean Arts , 3 vol. (195663); Chewon Kim and Won-yong Kim, Treasures of Korean Art (1966); Evelyn McCune, The Arts of Korea (1962); The Arts of Korea, 6 vol. (1979), on prehistoric art, painting, Buddhist art, ceramics, handicrafts, and architecture; Chewon Kim and Lena Kim Lee (I-na Kim), Arts of Korea (1974); Yi Ki-baek (Ki-baek Yi), 5,000 Years of Korean Arts (1976); Kim Won-yong (Won-yong Kim), Art and Archaeology of Ancient Korea (1986); and Kim Won-yong (Won-yong Kim) et al., Korean Art Treasures (1986), a survey of the history of Korean art by Korean experts. Three useful exhibition catalogs are National Gallery of Art (U.S.), Masterpieces of Korean Art (1957); Arts Council of Great Britain, An Exhibition of National Art Treasures of Korea (1961); and Roderick Whitfield (ed.), Treasures from Korea: Art Through 5000 Years (1984), with excellent introductions. Studies of ceramics include Robert P. Griffing, Jr., The Art of the Korean Potter (1968), with an excellent introduction; G.St.G.M. Gompertz, Korean Celadon, and Other Wares of the Koryo Period (1963); W.B. Honey, Corean Pottery (1947, reissued 1955); and Chewon Kim and G.St.G.M. Gompertz (eds.), The Ceramic Art of Korea (1961). Won-Yong Kim Japan The growing body of English-language literature on Japanese art consists of both adapted translations of significant Japanese works and original English-language studies. In addition to general surveys and monographs, exhibition catalogs play a unique role in providing a forum for important scholarly essays and for documentation on specific works of art.The most comprehensive single-volume survey of Japanese art is Penelope Mason, History of Japanese Art (1993); while an abbreviated but serviceable introduction is found in Joan Stanley-Baker, Japanese Art (1984). Robert Treat Paine and Alexander Soper, The Art and Architecture of Japan, 3rd ed. (1974), is especially helpful in relating early Japanese Buddhist developments to continental sources. Two multivolume series are noteworthy: The Heibonsha Survey of Japanese Art, 31 vol. (197180), a translation and adaptation of the Japanese original, featuring both site-specific and thematic studies by various specialists; and Japanese Arts Library (1977 ), translations and adaptations of selected volumes of Nihon no Bijutsu, a monthly Japanese scholarly journal. Laurance P. Roberts, A Dictionary of Japanese Artists (1976, reissued 1990), is a nearly exhaustive compendium of Japanese artists dating from the 7th to the early 20th century, with brief biographies, listings of known alternate names in Japanese characters with English transliterations, and locations of important known works. Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, 9 vol. (1983), provides an excellent selection of general and specific articles on Japanese art with cross-references to important related articles on history, literature, and other relevant topics. Sherman E. Lee, A History of Far Eastern Art, 5th ed. edited by Naomi Noble Richard (1994), is especially helpful in providing a larger context within which to understand Japanese art. The development of visual expression in Japan from Paleolithic times to the 7th century is admirably summarized and related to Chinese and Korean material by Gina L. Barnes, China, Korea, and Japan: The Rise of Civilization in East Asia (1993). Other works of note treating the pre-Buddhist period include Richard J. Pearson et al., Ancient Japan (1992); Japan, Bunkacho and Japan Society (New York, N.Y.), The Rise of a Great Tradition: Japanese Archaeological Ceramics of the Jomon Through Heian Periods (10,500 BCAD 1185) (1990); and J.e. Kidder, Jr., Japan Before Buddhism, rev. ed. (1966).The assimilation and adaptation of continental sculptural, painting, and decorative arts traditions through the vehicle of Buddhism occurred in three great movements, the first from the 6th through the 8th century, the second from the 10th through 12th century, and the third from the 13th through 15th century. Works that treat in whole or in part the complexity of the first two periods of Buddhist assimilation include Kurata Bunsaku (Bunsaku Kurata), Horyu-ji: Temple of the Exalted Law, trans. from Japanese (1981); Jiro Sugiyama, Classic Buddhist Sculpture, trans. from Japanese and adapted by Samuel Crowell Morse (1982); Yutaka Mino et al., The Great Eastern Temple: Treasures of Japanese Buddhist Art from Todai-ji (1986); Nishikawa Kyotaro (Kyotaro Nishikawa) and Emily J. Sano, The Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture, AD 6001300 (1982); Joji Okazaki, Pure Land Buddhist Painting, trans. from Japanese and adapted by Elizabeth Ten Grotenhuis , (1977); and Hisatoyo Ishida, Esoteric Buddhist Painting (1987; originally published in Japanese, 1969). The visual expression of native religious sentiment and its relation to Buddhism is summarized in Haruki Kageyama, The Arts of Shinto, trans. from Japanese and adapted by Christine Guth (1973).John M. Rosenfield, Japanese Arts of the Heian Period, 7941183 (1967); and Yoshiaki Shimizu and John M. Rosenfield, Masters of Japanese Calligraphy: 8th19th Century, ed. by Naomi Noble Richard, (1984), are especially helpful in discussing the development of the court aesthetic.From the 13th century, the ascension of the Kamakura military government, the arrival of Zen from China, and the proliferation of populist Buddhist sects constitute important elements of the third movement of assimilation. John M. Rosenfield and Elizabeth Ten Grotenhuis, Journey of the Three Jewels (1979); Miyeko Murase, Emaki: Narrative Scrolls from Japan (1983); Victor Harris and Ken Matsushima, Kamakura: The Renaissance of Japanese Sculpture, 11861333 (1991); Hiroshi Kanazawa, Japanese Ink Painting: Early Zen Masterpieces (1979; originally published in Japanese, 1972); and Jan Fontein and Money Hickman, Zen Painting and Calligraphy (1970), all provide excellent surveys of the period from varying perspectives.The establishment of the Ashikaga shogunate and its subsequent arbitration of cultural life in Kyoto from the 15th century is well summarized in Jay A. Levenson (ed.), Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration (1991). Yoshiaki Shimizu (ed.), Japan: The Shaping of Daimyo Culture, 11851868 (1988), is informative of daimyo and shogunal patronage in this and other periods. Watanabe Akiyoshi (Akiyoshi Watanabe), Kanazawa Hiroshi (Hiroshi Kanazawa), and Paul Varley (H. Paul Varley), Of Water and Ink (1986), is an excellent treatment of the ink monochrome painting style of this period. Although the following works treat a broader chronological period, their discussions of Muromachi developments are useful: Louise Allison Cort, Shigaraki: Potter's Valley (1979); Johanna Becker, Karatsu Ware (1986); and Tsugio Mikami, The Art of Japanese Ceramics (1972; originally published in Japanese, 1968).The quarter century of political stabilization prior to the shift of power to Edo is called the Momoyama period; its vibrant aesthetic, including elements inspired by interaction with the West, is treated in Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.) and Japan, Bunkacho, Momoyama: Japanese Art in the Age of Grandeur (1975); Tsugiyoshi Doi, Momoyama Decorative Painting (1977; originally published in Japanese, 1964); Tsuneo Takeda, Kano Eitoku (1977; originally published in Japanese, 1974); and Hayashiya Seizo (seizo Hayashiya), Chanoyu: Japanese Tea Ceremony (1979). Motoo Hinago, Japanese Castles, trans. from Japanese and adapted by William H. Coaldrake (1986); and Fumio Hashimoto (ed.), Architecture in the Shoin Style, trans. and adapted by H. Mack Horton (1981; originally published in Japanese, 1972), discuss important architectural developments and their influence on artistic expression. Garden design, which developed as a significant expression from the mid-Muromachi period, is substantively discussed in Mitchell Bring and Josse Wayembergh, Japanese Gardens: Design and Meaning (1981); and Irmtraud Schaarschmidt-Richter and Osamu Mori, Japanese Gardens, trans. by Janet Seligman (1979; originally published in German, 1979).The complexity of artistic developments during the nearly 300 years of the Edo period is at least sampled in the following works. William Watson (ed.), The Great Japan Exhibition: Art of the Edo Period, 16001868 (1981), provides a broad overview of the period. The revival of the Heian aesthetic and the emergence of a distinctive decorative painting tradition are best treated in Carolyn Wheelwright (ed.), Word in Flower: The Visualization of Classical Literature in Seventeenth-Century Japan (1989); Howard A. Link, Exquisite Visions: Rimpa Paintings from Japan (1980); Richard Wilson, The Art of Ogata Kenzan (1991); and Hiroshi Mizuo, Edo Painting: Sotatsu and Korin (1972; originally published in Japanese, 1965). The trends in Chinese-inspired literati painting are summarized in James Cahill, Scholar Painters of Japan (1972); Yoshiho Yonezawa and Chu Yoshizawa, Japanese Painting in the Literati Style, trans. and adapted by Betty Iverson Monroe (1974; originally published in Japanese, 1966); and Calvin L. French, The Poet-Painters: Buson and His Followers (1974). Other styles of painting are discussed in St. Louis Art Museum and Seattle Art Museum,, Okyo and the Maruyama-Shijo School of Japanese Painting (1980); and Stephen Addiss, The Art of Zen (1989). Miyajima Shin'ichi (Shin'ichi Miyajima) and Sato Yasuhiro (Yasuhiro Sato), Japanese Ink Painting, ed. by George Kuwayama (1985), while addressing a broad theme, is especially informative on Edo period eccentric painters. Treating a chronology extending beyond Edo but discussing many works from the period are Miyeko Murase, Masterpieces of Japanese Screen Painting: The American Collections (1990); and Elise Grilli, The Art of the Japanese Screen (1970).The woodblock print is the dominant visual format of the Edo period. Very good introductions include Richard Lane, Images from the Floating World: The Japanese Print (1978, reissued 1982), which combines general essays with a highly detailed, if not exhaustive, illustrated dictionary; Helen C. Gunsaulus and Margaret O. Gentles, The Clarence Buckingham Collection of Japanese Prints, 2 vol. (195565); and Rijksmuseum (Netherlands) Rikjsprentenkabinet, Catalogue of the Collection of Japanese Prints (1977 ), are well-documented presentations of large collections. Roger S. Keyes, Japanese Woodblock Prints: A Catalogue of the Mary A. Ainsworth Collection (1984), provides a series of broadly informative thematic essays in interpreting a specific collection. Jack Hillier, The Art of the Japanese Book, 2 vol. (1987), is a comprehensive resource for another important Edo visual format.Beatrix von Ragu, A History of Japanese Lacquerwork (1976; originally published in German, 1967); and Ann Yonemura, Japanese Lacquer (1979), provide good introductions to Japan's long history of decorative lacquer use, including its extensive diversification in the Edo period. Andrew J. Pekarik, Japanese Lacquer, 16001900 (1980), is useful specifically for the Edo period. The textile arts, important throughout Japanese history but especially expansive in the Edo period, are discussed in Amanda Mayer Stinchecum, Kosode: 16th19th Century Textiles from the Nomura Collection, ed. by Monica Bethe and Margot Paul (1984); and Ishimura Hayao (Hayao Ishimura), Maruyama Nobuhiko (Nobuhiko Maruyama), and Yamanobe Tomoyuki (Tomoyuki Yamanobe), Robes of Elegance: Japanese Kimonos of the 16th20th Centuries (1988).Art of the Meiji period is introduced by Frederick Baekeland and Martie W. Young, Imperial Japan: The Art of the Meiji Era, 18681912 (1980). Other works of note include Henry D. Smith II, Kiyochika: Artist of Meiji Japan (1988); and Julia Meech-Pekarik, The World of the Meiji Print: Impressions of a New Civilization (1986). James T. Ulak Music China Western-language sources are listed in Fredric Lieberman, Chinese Music: An Annotated Bibliography, 2nd, rev. and enlarged ed. (1979). Also of interest are Rulan Chao Pian, Sonq Dynasty Musical Sources and Their Interpretation (1967); R.H. van Gulik, The Lore of the Chinese Lute, new ed., rev. (1969); Laurence Picken (ed.), Music from the Tang Court, 5 vol. (198190); Kenneth J. DeWoskin, A Song for One or Two: Music and the Concept of Art in Early China (1982); Liang Mingyue (Ming-yen Liang), Music of the Billion: An Introduction to Chinese Musical Culture (1985); Bell Yung, Cantonese Opera (1989); Colin Mackerras, The Rise of the Peking Opera, 17701870 (1972), and The Performing Arts in Contemporary China (1981); and Richard Curt Kraus, Pianos and Politics in China: Middle-Class Ambitions and the Struggle over Western Music (1989). Korea The major sources for Korean music study are in Asian languages; some are available in Bang-song Song (trans.), Source Readings in Korean Music (1980). General studies are Lee Hye-ku (Hye-gu Yi), Essays on Traditional Korean Music, trans. and ed. by Robert C. Provine (1981); and Lee Hye-ku (Hye-gu Yi) (compiler and ed.), Korean Musical Instruments, trans. by Alan C. Heyman (1982). Older works may be found by consulting Bang-song Song, An Annotated Bibliography of Korean Music (1971). Japan General introductions are Francis Piggott, The Music and Musical Instruments of Japan, 2nd ed. (1909, reprinted 1971); and William P. Malm, Japanese Music and Musical Instruments (1959, reissued 1990). Special studies are Robert Garfias, Music of a Thousand Autumns: The Togaku Style of Japanese Court Music (1975); Willem Adriaansz, The Kumiuta and Danmono Traditions of Japanese Koto Music (1973); Bonnie C. Wade, Tegotomono: Music for the Japanese Koto (1976); William P. Malm, Nagauta: The Heart of Kabuki Music (1963, reprinted 1973), and Six Hidden Views of Japanese Music (1986); and C. Andrew Gerstle, Kiyoshi Inobe, and William P. Malm, Theater as Music (1990), an examination of a bunraku play. William P. Malm Dance and theatre General works James R. Brandon (ed.), The Cambridge Guide to Asian Theatre (1993); Martin Banham (ed.), The Cambridge Guide to World Theatre (1988); Joel Trapido (ed.), An International Dictionary of Theatre Language (1985); and Asian Theatre Journal (semiannual) contain useful entries on East Asian theatre. China Critical studies include A.C. Scott, The Classical Theatre of China (1957, reprinted 1978), a standard work; the excellent history of the Peking opera by Mackerras cited above in the section on music; D. Kalvodov, V. Ss, and J. Vanis, Chinese Theatre (1958?), impressions of a Peking opera performance, valuable for its many colour plates of costume and makeup; Liu Wu-chi (Wu-chi Liu), An Introduction to Chinese Literature (1966, reissued 1990), an analysis of individual playwrights and their works; J.I. Crump, Chinese Theater in the Days of Kublai Khan (1980), a study of Yan drama; Wilt Idema and Stephen H. West, Chinese Theatre, 11001450: A Source Book (1982), translations of theatre documents; Colin Mackerras (ed.), Chinese Theater: From Its Origins to the Present Day (1983), a comprehensive survey; Roberta Helmer Stalberg, China's Puppets (1984), a well-illustrated introduction; David Johnson, Andrew J. Nathan, and Evelyn S. Rawski (ed.), Popular Culture in Late Imperial China (1985), with articles on nonelite performances of the 19th century; and Tao-ching Hs, The Chinese Conception of the Theatre (1985), a compilation of Chinese historical sources. Collections of plays are L.C. Arlington and Harold M. Acton (trans. and eds.), Famous Chinese Plays (1937, reissued 1963), partial translations of 33 plays, with colour plates and an authoritative introduction that makes this early work still valuable; Cyril Birch (compiler and ed.), Anthology of Chinese Literature (1965), translations of two Yan plays; William Dolby (trans.), Eight Chinese Plays from the Thirteenth Century to the Present (1978), short plays and excerpts; A.C. Scott, Traditional Chinese Plays, 3 vol. (196775), translations of six Peking operas with detailed stage directions; Walter J. Meserve and Ruth I. Meserve (eds.), Modern Drama from Communist China (1970), including plays of the Cultural Revolution period; and Edward M. Gunn (ed.), Twentieth-Century Chinese Drama (1983), plays from 1919 to 1979. Korea Studies of various Korean performing arts are Ch'oe Sang-su (Sang-su Ch'oe), A Study of the Korean Puppet Play (1961), a detailed study with illustrations and translations of two play texts; Won-kyung Cho (Won-gyong Cho), Dances of Korea (1962?), a short account by a professional dancer; Yi Tu-hyon (Duhyun Lee), Han'guk Kamyon'guk (1969), a useful publication on the Korean mask-dance drama, including a 20-page English summary and many photographs; Halla Pai Huhm, Kut: Korean Shamanist Rituals (1980); and Korean National Commission for UNESCO (ed.), Korean Dance, Theater, and Cinema (1983). Play texts are collected and translated in In-sob Zong (compiler), Plays from Korea (1968), 13 modern plays; Korean National Commission for UNESCO (ed.), Wedding Day and Other Korean Plays (1983), six modern dramas from 1945 to 1975; and Ch'oe Hae-ch'un (trans. and ed.), Sandae (1988), texts of folk masked drama of Yangju in English and Korean. Japan Overviews of Japanese performing arts are Benito Ortolani, The Japanese Theatre (1990); Kawatake Toshio (Toshio Kawatake), Japan on Stage: Japanese Concepts of Beauty as Shown in the Traditional Theatre (1990; originally published in Japanese, 1982), on the appeal of traditional performance to Japanese and non-Japanese audiences; Jacob Raz, Audience and Actors: A Study of Their Interaction in the Japanese Traditional Theatre (1983); and Yoshinobu Inoura and Toshio Kawatake, A History of Japanese Theater, 2 vol. (1971, reissued in 1 vol. as The Traditional Theater of Japan, 1981).Masataro Togi, Gagaku: Court Music and Dance (1971), provides an overview of this art form's various styles and genres.Studies of the history and interpretation of no and kyogen theatre are found in Monica Bethe and Karen Brazell, No as Performance (1978); Donald Keene and Kaneko Hiroshi (Hiroshi Kaneko), No: The Classical Theatre of Japan, rev. ed. (1973); Kunio Komparu (Kunio Konparu), The Noh Theater: Principles and Perspectives (1983; originally published in Japanese, 1980); Thomas Blenman Hare, Zeami's Style: The Noh Plays of Zeami Motokiyo (1986); Rebecca Teele (compiler), No/Kyogen Masks and Performance (1984), essays by Japanese artists and Western scholars; and J. Thomas Rimer and Yamazaki Masakazu (trans.), On the Art of the No Drama: The Major Treatises of Zeami (1984). Collections of plays, all translated from Japanese, include Karen Brazell (ed.), Twelve Plays of the Noh and Kyogen Theaters (1988); Earle Ernst (ed.), Three Japanese Plays from the Traditional Theatre (1959, reprinted 1976); Donald Keene and Royall Tyler (eds.), Twenty Plays of the No Theatre (1970); Don Kenny (compiler), The Kyogen Book: An Anthology of Japanese Classical Comedies (1989); Richard N. McKinnon (compiler), Selected Plays of Kyogen (1968); Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai, Japanese Noh Drama, 3 vol. (195560); and Royall Tyler (ed. and trans.), Japanese No Dramas (1992).Historical and interpretive examinations of kabuki include Earle Ernst, The Kabuki Theatre (1956, reissued 1974); Masakatsu Gunji and Chiaki Yoshida, Kabuki, trans. from Japanese (1969); Masakatsu Gunji, Buyo: The Classical Dance, trans. from Japanese (1970); and Samuel L. Leiter, Kabuki Encyclopedia (1979). Matazo Nakamura, Kabuki: Backstage, Onstage: An Actor's Life (1990), is the autobiography of a young actor who entered kabuki from the outside. Plays with stage directions, all translated from Japanese, include James R. Brandon (ed.), Chushingura: Studies in Kabuki and the Puppet Theater (1982); James R. Brandon (trans.), Kabuki: Five Classic Plays (1975, reissued 1992); and Samuel L. Leiter (trans.), The Art of Kabuki: Famous Plays in Performance (1979).Works treating the history and interpretation of bunraku include Barbara Adachi, The Voices and Hands of Bunraku (1978); Donald Keene and Kaneko Hiroshi (Hiroshi Kaneko), Bunraku: The Art of the Japanese Puppet Theatre, rev. ed. (1973); C.J. Dunn, The Early Japanese Puppet Drama (1966); A.C. Scott, The Puppet Theatre of Japan (1963, reissued 1973), a brief history of many puppet forms; and C. Andrew Gerstle, Circles of Fantasy: Convention in the Plays of Chikamatsu (1986). Shuzaburo Hironaga, The Bunraku Handbook (1976); and Donald Keene (trans.), Chushingura: The Treasury of Loyal Retainers, trans. from Japanese (1971, reissued 1981), and Major Plays of Chikamatsu, trans. from Japanese (1961, reissued 1990), are collections of play translations. Individual play translations are available in the work by Gerstle, Inobe, and Malm cited above in the section on music; and in Izumo Takeda, Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees, trans. from Japanese and ed. by Stanleigh H. Jones, Jr. (1993), one of the great plays in the puppet repertory.Modern theatre history and interpretation are explored in Ethan Hoffman et al., Butoh: Dance of the Dark Soul (1987); Susan Blakeley Klein, Ankoku Buto: The Premodern and Postmodern Influences on the Dance of Utter Darkness (1988); Toyotake Komiya, Japanese Music and Drama in the Meiji Era, trans. from Japanese (1956, reissued 1969); J. Thomas Rimer, Toward a Modern Japanese Theatre (1974); Tadashi Suzuki, The Way of Acting (1986; originally published in Japanese, 1984); and Jean Viala and Nourit Masson-Sekine, Butoh: Shades of Darkness (1988). Collections of modern plays translated from Japanese include Kobo Abe, Friends (1969); David G. Goodman (trans.), After Apocalypse: Four Japanese Plays of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1986); Kishida Kunio (Kunio Kishida), Five Plays (1989); David G. Goodman (ed. and trans.), Japanese Drama and Culture in the 1960's: The Return of the Gods (1988); Yamazaki Masakazu (Masakazu Yamazaki), Mask and Sword (1980); Robert T. Rolf and John K. Gillespie (eds.), Alternative Japanese Drama: Ten Plays (1992); and Ted T. Takaya (ed. and trans.), Modern Japanese Drama: An Anthology (1979). James R. Brandon Chinese visual arts Stylistic and historical development from AD 220 to 1206 Three Kingdoms (220280) and Six Dynasties (220589) For 60 years after the fall of Han, China was divided among three native dyna

Britannica English vocabulary.      Английский словарь Британика.