Meaning of RAPE in English
act of sexual intercourse with a woman by a man without her consent, either through force or the threat of force or through fraud. By the late 20th century, there was a tendency to enlarge the definition of rape to cover any act of sexual penetration against the will of the victim; this definition includes forcible sodomy, the victim of which may be another man or a child. Most jurisdictions do not treat as rape an act of sexual intercourse by a husband with his wife against her will. Rape is considered to be a serious crime and is treated as a felony in most countries with common-law systems. But in many rape trials the issue becomes whether or not the victim consented to sexual intercourse. The determination of consent can lead to distressing cross-examinations of rape victims in court, and, in light of this probability, many rape victims fail to report the crime to police or refuse to press charges against their assailant. Even when brought to trial, those charged with the crime have a higher-than-average rate of acquittal, mainly because of the difficulty in proving a crime for which there usually exist no other witnesses besides those involved in it. But where guilt is established, rape is usually treated as a serious crime, and most persons convicted of it receive sentences of imprisonment. The age when effective consent can be given by a woman is commonly set between 14 and 18 years. Sexual intercourse with a female who is below consenting age is termed statutory rape, and consent is no longer relevant. The term statutory rape specifically refers to the legal proscription, existing in most countries, against a man's having sexual intercourse with a child or any other person presumed to lack comprehension of the physical and other consequences of that act. The term statutory rape may also refer to those laws, as in France, against taking sexual advantage of a person in a subservient position, such as an employee or ward. The psychological motivation of rapists is now considered more complex than was formerly thought. Rather than the mere brutal satisfaction of sexual desire, rape is now often thought to be an act of anger or aggression and a pathological assertion of power over the victim. Victims' psychological reactions to rape vary but usually include feelings of shame, humiliation, confusion, fear, and rage. Victims have reported a feeling of perpetual defilement, an inability to feel clean, an overwhelming sense of vulnerability, and a paralyzing feeling of lack of control over their lives. Many are haunted by fear of the neighbourhood in which the crime occurred, or of being followed, or of all sexual relationships. Others experience long-term disruption of sleep or eating patterns or an inability to function at work. The duration of the psychological trauma varies from individual to individual; many feel the effects for years, even with considerable supportive therapy. also called Colza (species Brassica napus), plant of the mustard family (Brassicaceae), native to Europe. Rape is an annual, 30 cm (1 foot) or more tall, with a long, usually thin taproot. Its leaves are smooth, bluish green, and deeply scalloped, and the bases of the upper leaves clasp the stem. Rape bears clusters of four-petaled, yellow flowers. Each round, elongated pod has a short beak and contains many seeds. These seeds, known as rapeseeds, yield an oilrapeseed oil, or canolathat in its crude form is used in cooking, as an ingredient in soap and margarine, and as a lamp fuel. The use of the oil in cooking (frying and baking) increased in the late 20th century because it is the lowest in saturated fat of any edible oil. The refined form of rapeseed oil, known as colza oil, is used as a lubricant. The seeds are used as bird feed, and the seed residue after oil extraction is used for fodder.
Britannica English vocabulary. Английский словарь Британика. 2012