born Oct. 24, 1827, London, Eng. died July 9, 1909, Studley Royal, near Ripon, Yorkshire British statesman who in more than 50 years of public service occupied important Cabinet posts and served as viceroy of India. A liberal administrator acceptable to the Indians, he was thought to have weakened the British Empire but to have built up the Commonwealth. George Robinson was the only viceroy born in No. 10 Downing Street (his father, then known as Viscount Goderich, was serving briefly as prime minister). He was a member of Parliament for Hull in 185253, Huddersfield in 185357, and the West Riding of Yorkshire in 185759 as a Liberal and under the courtesy title of Viscount Goderich. In January 1859 he succeeded to his father's title of Earl of Ripon and in November to that of his uncle, Earl de Grey. He was undersecretary for war in 185961 and for India in 186163, became Lord Palmerston's secretary for war in 1863, and in 1866 was appointed secretary of state for India. On the formation of William Gladstone's first administration (1868) he became lord president of the council. He chaired the Joint High Commission on the Alabama claims (1871), which arranged the Treaty of Washington and prepared the way for the Geneva Arbitration; his reward was elevation to a marquessate (1871). Installed in 1870 as grand master of the Freemasons of England, he resigned in 1874, converted to Roman Catholicism, and withdrew from public service for six years. Lord Ripon succeeded Lord Lytton as viceroy of India in April 1880 on Gladstone's return to power. Reversing some policies of his predecessor, he ended the Second Afghan War by recognizing 'Abdor Rahman Khan as emir of Afghanistan and evacuating the Indo-British expeditionary forces from that country in 1881. He liberalized India's internal administration, lowered the salt tax, expanded powers of local elected governments, and tried unsuccessfully to stabilize land taxes. Repealing the Vernacular Press Act of 1878, he allowed local language newspapers equal freedoms with those in English. In 1881 he passed an act providing for some minor improvements in labour conditions. His Ilbert Bill (1883) was passed only after the removal of his controversial provision to allow Indian judges the same rights as European judges to handle cases of European defendants. He resigned in 1884. Lord Ripon became first lord of the Admiralty (1886) in the third Gladstone ministry, and on the return of the Liberals to power he was appointed secretary for colonies (189295). In 190508 he was lord privy seal and Liberal leader in the House of Lords. Though remembered favourably by Indian nationalists, Lord Ripon had less success with British contemporaries.

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