Meaning of MONEY in English

MONEY

INDEX:

1. money

2. money in the form of coins or notes

3. the money that is used in a country

4. an amount of money

5. a large amount of money

6. all the money that a person, company etc has

7. money that you receive regularly

8. money given to a student to pay for his or her education

9. money for starting a new business or other activity

10. money that you pay to the government

11. money paid to someone to make them do something dishonest

12. money that you pay to your former husband or wife

13. money that is collected for a purpose

14. relating to money and the way it is used

15. to put money into a business, in order to make money

16. the financial system in a country or area

17. when a person or company has no money

18. having no money to spend at the present time

RELATED WORDS

someone who wants a lot of money : ↑ GREEDY

to have just enough money to live : ↑ SURVIVE

see also

↑ RICH

↑ POOR

↑ PROFIT

↑ EARN

↑ OWE

↑ COST

↑ SPEND MONEY OR TIME

↑ PAY

↑ SELL

↑ BUY

↑ EXPENSIVE

↑ CHEAP

↑ FREE

◆◆◆

1. money

▷ money /ˈmʌni/ [uncountable noun]

what you use to buy things, what you earn by working etc :

▪ We don’t have enough money for a vacation this year.

▪ I haven’t got any money, if that’s what you’re after.

▪ Do you think these trainers are worth the extra money?

money to do something/money for something

money you can use to pay for something

▪ Dad, can I have some money to buy some new jeans?

▪ If she’s got money to run a car, how come she gets the bus every day?

▪ Shall I give you some money for petrol?

spend (your) money (on something)

▪ I spend far too much money on Christmas presents.

▪ Don’t spend all your money on sweets.

save money

not spend much money

▪ ‘Are you coming out with us on Saturday?’ ‘No, I’m trying to save money.’

waste (your) money (on something)

spend money on things you do not really need

▪ She wastes an awful lot of money on expensive clothes.

▪ We’re wasting public money, which would be better spent on improving the service we offer.

a waste of money

▪ Critics have described the project as ‘a complete waste of money’.

▪ Gillian said not to get any flowers - she thinks it’s a waste of money.

good money

informal when the amount of money you earn or pay for something is quite large

▪ I enjoy the work, and I make good money.

▪ You have to pay good money for a pedigree dog.

▷ cash /kæʃ/ [uncountable noun]

money, especially money that is available for you to spend :

▪ I don’t have much cash at the moment. Could I pay you next week?

▪ She earns extra cash by working as a waitress.

▪ The Health Authority says that it simply has no extra cash from its £136 million budget.

▷ dosh /dɒʃǁdɑːʃ/ [uncountable noun] British informal

money :

▪ He gave us loads of dosh, just for handing out leaflets.

▪ He says if we don’t come up with the dosh by Sunday, he’s selling the car to someone else.

▷ dough /dəʊ/ [uncountable noun] informal

money, especially a lot of money :

▪ He only married her for her dough.

▪ I’d go on vacation three times a year too, if I had his dough!

2. money in the form of coins or notes

▷ money /ˈmʌni/ [uncountable noun]

▪ Whose money is this on the table?

▪ I’ve left some money in the pot for your bus fare.

▪ The thieves repeatedly demanded money and jewellery.

the right money

British the exact amount of money something costs

▪ This machine does not give change. Please have the right money ready.

▷ cash /kæʃ/ [uncountable noun]

money - use this to emphasize that you mean coins and notes, and not cheques, bank cards etc :

▪ Thieves stole a large amount of cash, and jewellery worth £50,000.

in cash

▪ Do you have a couple of dollars in cash?

▪ I’ll write you a cheque, and you can pay me back in cash later.

pay cash

to pay someone using notes and coins, rather than a cheque, credit card etc

▪ Are you paying cash for these items?

▪ I heard she paid cash for her house back in the sixties.

▷ change /tʃeɪndʒ/ [uncountable noun]

money in the form of coins, or the money you get back when you pay for something with more money than it cost :

▪ I hope you’ve got some change for the bus, because I haven’t.

▪ Check your change make sure you have been given the right amount before leaving the shop.

loose change

▪ I’ve got £20 and a bit of loose change as well.

small change

coins of low value

▪ You’ll need some small change for the telephone.

the wrong change

when the amount of money you are given in change is incorrect

▪ Excuse me, I think you’ve given me the wrong change.

change for something

lower value coins or notes in exchange for a coin or note of a higher value

▪ Does anyone have change for a five dollar bill?

$4/£2 etc in change

in the form of coins

▪ I’ve got a £10 note and about £5 in change.

exact change

the exact amount of money something costs

▪ This toll booth is for drivers with exact change only.

3. the money that is used in a country

▷ currency /ˈkʌrənsiǁˈkɜːr-/ [countable/uncountable noun]

the particular type of money that is used in a country :

▪ Investors continued to swap yen for the currencies of nations that offer higher interest rates.

▪ The dollar is now the overwhelming world currency.

French/Italian/US etc currency

▪ We soon got used to using Italian currency.

foreign currency

▪ Local banks give better rates for converting your traveler’s checks into foreign currency.

local currency

▪ What’s the local currency in Malta?

hard currency

a currency that keeps its value in relation to other currencies, and is used for international payments

▪ A lot of the food grown in Mexico is exported to earn hard currency.

single currency

the common currency used in many European Union countries

▪ You can argue about the single currency but you can’t opt out of the European Single Market.

▷ money /ˈmʌni/ [uncountable noun]

French/Japanese etc money

:

▪ He put the Italian money in a separate billfold.

▪ You can get a good exchange rate for German money at the moment.

4. an amount of money

▷ amount /əˈmaʊnt/ [countable/uncountable noun]

the money that something costs, is paid etc :

▪ Work out the amount you spend each month on food and clothes.

▪ He expects to spend a similar amount on getting his daughter through college.

▪ He was fined $300,000, an amount that would ruin the average householder.

amount of money

▪ We spent an astonishing amount of money in town today.

▪ The judge reduced the amount of money awarded to the victim.

small/large/considerable amount

▪ She has a pension, and receives a small amount from her ex-husband.

the full amount

all the money that someone owes, must pay etc

▪ You must pay the full amount in advance.

undisclosed amount

when someone does not say what the amount was

▪ Heinz Co. acquired the ailing food company for an undisclosed amount.

▷ sum /sʌm/ [countable noun]

an amount of money - use this to say how large or small an amount is :

▪ They are asking $40 for the new software, almost twice the sum it costs when bought via the Internet.

sum of money

▪ My uncle left me a small sum of money when he died.

sum of $100,000/£400 etc

▪ He offered to purchase the estate for the sum of $80,000.

large/small/considerable/enormous etc sum

▪ Stars like Chaplin earned $2000 a week, which was an enormous sum in those days.

▪ Apple has spent huge sums in its drive to penetrate new markets.

▪ She puts away small sums of money when she can afford to.

▪ The store chain has been forced to pay hefty sums a very large amount to female employees after it was sued for discrimination.

lump sum

an amount of money given in a single payment

▪ You can receive your bonus in monthly instalments, or as a lump sum.

▪ a lump-sum payment

undisclosed sum

when someone does not say what the amount was

▪ The case was settled for an undisclosed sum last year.

princely sum

used to emphasize how small an amount is, when you think it should be bigger

▪ She and the other workers received the princely sum of $14 for the evening’s work.

▷ figure /ˈfɪgəʳǁˈfɪgjər/ [countable noun]

a particular amount of money that is stated or written down :

▪ ‘We need $30,000 to get the project started.’ ‘How close are you to that figure?’

▪ A comparison of the two figures shows the estimated profit on investment.

row/column of figures

a list of figures written one below the other

▪ Add up that row of figures, and transfer the full amount to the top of the next page.

a four-/five-/six-etc figure number

a number in the thousands, ten thousands, hundred thousands etc

▪ What’s the point of a six-figure salary and no time to enjoy it?

final figure

the amount of money after everything has been added up

▪ The event raised $400,000 for charity, but that is not the final figure as donations are still coming in.

5. a large amount of money

▷ a lot of money /ə ˌlɒt əv ˈmʌniǁ-ˌlɑːt-/ [noun phrase]

a large amount of money :

▪ The painting was sold for £20,000 in 1926, which was a lot of money in those days.

spend/pay/make a lot of money

▪ I don’t want to spend a lot of money on holiday.

▪ I’d pay her a lot of money to organize my life for me.

▪ Do you make a lot of money doing this?

cost a lot of money

to be expensive

▪ That hi-fi looks as though it cost a lot of money.

▪ It’ll cost a lot of money to have the roof fixed.

be worth a lot of money

▪ These will be worth a lot of money in 50 years’ time or so.

have a lot of money

▪ They don’t have a lot of money, but they live comfortably.

be a lot of money for something

used to emphasize how expensive something is

▪ Two hundred and fifty dollars is a lot of money just for a new carpet.

a whole lot of money

American spoken used to emphasize how large an amount is

▪ They wanted to charge me a whole lot of money just to change my car insurance.

▷ a fortune /ə ˈfɔːʳtʃ ə n/ [singular noun] informal

a lot of money :

▪ I thought you were going to tell me you’d won a fortune!

cost (somebody) a fortune

▪ The lighting effects alone must have cost a fortune.

▪ It costs an absolute fortune to park in town these days, you know.

▪ You’re costing me a fortune in coffee!

make/spend/pay a fortune

▪ I paid a fortune for this car, and I’ve had nothing but trouble with it.

▪ Walter made a fortune with his first book.

be worth a fortune

▪ That house must be worth a fortune!

a small fortune

used to emphasize that the amount of money was surprising or unexpected

▪ She earned a small fortune selling antique furniture, and retired when she was 45.

▷ a bomb /ə ˈbɒmǁ-ˈbɑːm/ [singular noun] British informal

a very large amount of money :

cost (somebody) a bomb

▪ It was lovely and I wanted it -- the only problem was, it cost a bomb.

make/earn etc a bomb

▪ He’s been earning a bomb repairing computers at home for people.

▪ You won’t make a bomb, but it’s worth doing.

be worth a bomb

▪ The house is worth a bomb at today’s prices.

▷ big money /ˌbɪg ˈmʌni/ [uncountable noun] informal

a large amount of money, especially money that is earned or paid in business :

▪ He’s hoping there’s big money in this new business.

▪ I’m making big money these days.

▪ The investors are talking big money. At least $100,000.

6. all the money that a person, company etc has

▷ money /ˈmʌni/ [uncountable noun]

▪ My grandmother left me all her money when she died.

▪ The committee is meeting to discuss how the money should be spent this year.

make your money

earn all your money doing a particular type of business

▪ He had made his money as a butcher in Kingstown.

▷ means /miːnz/ [plural noun] formal

all the money that you have - especially when you are talking about whether you are able to pay for everything you need :

have the means to do something

▪ He had the means to pay, but he refused on principle.

beyond your means

costing more than you can afford

▪ I think private schooling would be well beyond our means.

▪ She’s been living beyond her means spending more than she can really afford to , and now the debts have caught her up.

within your means

not costing more than you can afford

▪ She was required to pay a $500 fee, which appeared to be within her means.

▪ Money isn’t a problem. We simply live within our means do not spend more than we can afford to .

private/independent means

money that someone has from property, investments etc rather than earning it by working

▪ He’s given up his lecturing job, but he does have private means.

▪ Many tropical countries welcome people of independent means as long-term residents.

limited/modest means

used to say that someone only has a small amount of money

▪ The best choice for elderly people with limited means is index-linked certificates.

▪ A university professor who used his modest means to collect over 300 valuable artworks has donated them to the National Gallery.

means test

an official check to find out whether someone is poor enough to need money from the state

▪ The Council is introducing means tests for housing tenants.

▷ assets /ˈæsets/ [plural noun]

all of the money and property that a company or person owns, and which they may sell or use if necessary :

▪ On her death, she wants all her assets to go to her husband.

assets of $1 billion/£300,000,000 etc

▪ With assets of just under $1 million, the business is still relatively small.

$1billion/£300,000,000 etc in assets

▪ Massachusetts Financial Services manages $43 billion in assets.

financial assets

▪ Tomorrow, the court will hear evidence relating to Simpson’s financial assets.

personal assets

owned by an individual, rather than a company

▪ The directors’ personal assets will not be at risk if the company does fold.

▷ finances /ˈfaɪnænsɪz, ˈfaɪnænsəz, fə̇ˈnænsə̇zǁfə̇ˈnænsə̇z, ˈfaɪnænsə̇z/ [plural noun]

all the money that a person, company, organization etc has, especially when this is regularly checked so they know about any changes in it :

▪ An accountant handles the school’s finances.

▪ She wondered if they’d ever get all their bills paid and their finances in order.

family/personal finances

▪ An investigation into his personal finances produced no evidence of fraud

▪ To help the family finances, she went back to work at a retail store after William was born.

public/government finances

▪ Indeed, Lebanon’s public finances and yawning trade deficit, do look depressing.

▪ Government finances are strained to the hilt, dealing with essential services.

drain somebody’s finances/be a drain on somebody’s finances

to reduce someone’s finances over a period of time, usually by an amount they cannot afford to lose

▪ Legal expenses had drained his finances, and he could no longer afford to pursue the case.

▪ Many of the housing agencies represent a severe drain on the state’s finances.

▷ savings /ˈseɪvɪŋz/ [plural noun]

the money which you have saved, which is usually kept in a bank or some other financial institution :

▪ Your savings are safe with the Bank of America.

▪ I should just take the money out of my savings and pay off my credit card.

▪ Since we retired we’ve been living on our savings and a small pension.

life savings

all of the money you have saved

▪ He had invested his life savings in the new business.

retirement savings

the money you have saved so that you have something to live on when you retire

▪ Break yourself of the habit of borrowing from your retirement savings.

lose your savings

▪ Investors lost their savings, and some businessmen went bankrupt.

sink your savings into something

to spend all the money you have saved on a particular investment, plan etc

▪ He and his wife July sank their life savings into an unsuccessful attempt to build a marina on a reservoir in Colorado.

▷ resources /rɪˈzɔːsɪz, -ˈsɔːs-ǁˈriːsɔːrsə̇z/ [plural noun]

all the money, property, or goods that a company, organization, or country owns and that can be used to make more money or to provide services :

▪ We have to make the best use of the resources we’ve got.

financial/economic resources

▪ The government must make more human and financial resources available for AIDS research.

limited/scarce resources

used to say that the amount of money available is small

▪ With limited resources, the club cannot continue to function without donations from members.

allocate resources (to something)

decide how much money will be spent on particular things

▪ The process for allocating resources to military intelligence is severely flawed.

devote resources (to something)

to spend money on a particular thing

▪ Few firms devote significant resources to research and development.

pool your resources

share your money with other people, so that you can all use it

▪ She and I pooled our resources -- not much -- and hired a car for the weekend.

7. money that you receive regularly

▷ income /ˈɪŋkʌm, ˈɪn-/ [countable/uncountable noun]

all the money that someone receives regularly, for example from their job, from their savings or from the government :

▪ I’d love to know what his income is. He has so many new clothes and such an expensive car.

▪ We knew we’d need another source of income if we were planning to have a big family.

▪ Couples with joint incomes over $50,000 are the fastest growing segment of the housing market.

income of $200/£400 etc

▪ The whole family survives on the mother’s monthly income of less than £500.

low income

▪ If you are on a low income, you may be entitled to free dental treatment.

regular income

▪ She receives a regular income from the investments she made twenty years ago.

monthly/annual/weekly/yearly income

▪ The average annual income in Hong Kong is now much higher than it was in 1994.

▷ pension also retirement plan American /ˈpenʃ ə n, riˈtaɪəʳmənt plæn/ [countable noun]

an amount of money that old people receive regularly from the government, their former employer, or from an insurance company, because they have paid in money to the government etc over many years :

▪ I don’t know how you manage on your pension, Lil, I really don’t.

▪ He gets a pretty good pension from his old firm.

▪ The company has a very generous retirement plan.

state pension

a pension from the government

▪ If a man retires at 58, he’s actually got seven years to go before he draws his state pension.

old-age pension

British a pension that people receive from the government when they reach a particular age

▪ The government is considering linking the old-age pension to earnings.

disability/invalidity pension

British a pension given to someone who cannot work because they are ill or injured

▪ He retired from the force with a disability pension.

▪ Martin still hasn’t got his invalidity pension sorted out.

pension plan also pension scheme

British an arrangement to pay people a pension

▪ Is there a pension scheme where you work?

draw a pension

receive a pension, especially one from the government

▪ How long have you been drawing a pension?

live on a pension

when your pension is the only money you receive

▪ Living on a pension isn’t easy you know. You really have to scrimp and save.

▷ Social Security /ˌsəʊʃ ə l sɪˈkjʊ ə rə̇ti/ [uncountable noun]

in the UK, money that the government gives to people who are ill, old, or unemployed. In the US, money from a government programme that workers pay into, which provides them with money when they are old or unable to work, or the programme itself :

▪ Once I’ve paid for my rent and food, most of my Social Security is used up.

▪ an increase in spending on Social Security and Medicare

Social Security benefits/payments

▪ The government faces strong opposition to its proposals to cut Social Security payments.

be/live on Social Security

▪ How’d you find it, living on Social Security?

Social Security number

▪ Can you write your Social Security number in the box please?

▷ benefit usually benefits American /ˈbenɪfɪt(s), ˈbenəfɪt(s)/ [countable/uncountable noun]

money that people receive from the government if they have no job, do not earn a lot, or are sick :

▪ There are several benefits you can claim if you are unemployed.

▪ You should find out about any benefits you’re entitled to.

housing benefit

regular payments towards your rent

▪ Surely she’ll be eligible for housing benefit?

unemployment benefit

regular payments to people who do not have a job

▪ If you were fired from your previous job, you may not be able to claim unemployment benefit.

child benefit

British regular payments made to mothers of children under 16

▪ Child benefit has been frozen for the last three or four years.

be/live on benefit

British

▪ Two-thirds of lone parents are on benefit.

▷ welfare /ˈwelfeəʳ/ [uncountable noun] American

the money that is paid by the government to people without jobs :

▪ The amount of money that the government spends on welfare has halved in the past decade.

▪ Getting people off welfare and into paying jobs is a major national priority.

welfare benefits/payments

▪ Annabelle stopped getting welfare benefits when her husband landed a minimum-wage job.

be/live on welfare

to be receiving money from the government

▪ Raising the minimum wage might make it more difficult for people on welfare to get a job.

▷ allowance /əˈlaʊəns/ [countable noun]

money that someone receives regularly for a special reason, and that they do not earn by working :

▪ Some students have an allowance from their parents.

clothing allowance

money for buying clothes

▪ Does your mom give you a clothing allowance?

monthly/weekly/yearly allowance

▪ In exchange for looking after the children, Annie has all her meals paid for and receives a small monthly allowance.

▪ I think my yearly allowance is about three hundred, you know, so I’m rapidly running out.

▷ pocket money British /allowance American /ˈpɒkɪt ˌmʌni, ˈpɒkət ˌmʌniǁˈpɑː-, əˈlaʊəns/ [uncountable noun]

a small amount of money that children receive from their parents every week :

▪ What do you spend your allowance on, Jimmy?

▪ You’ll pay for that vase out of your pocket money.

8. money given to a student to pay for his or her education

▷ grant /grɑːntǁgrænt/ [countable noun]

money that the government gives to someone to help them pay for their education :

▪ Will I get a grant, even though both my parents are earning?

student grant

▪ Without a student grant, I’d never even have gone into higher education.

▷ scholarship /ˈskɒləʳʃɪpǁˈskɑː-/ [countable noun]

money that a student received from their school, college etc to pay for their education, especially because they have passed a special examination :

▪ The Foundation’s goals include providing scholarships for gifted young students.

▪ Admitted to Mills College on a full scholarship, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa without a penny of help from her parents.

college scholarship

▪ The company has a small number of college scholarships to offer to employees’ children.

athletic/drama/music etc scholarship

a scholarship given to someone who is very good at sport, acting, music etc

▪ I attended the University of Houston on an athletic scholarship.

▪ At 9, he became a boy soprano, beginning a six-year music scholarship in a cathedral choir.

win/be awarded a scholarship

▪ When she was 18, she won a scholarship to study at the Conservatoire in Paris.

▪ We’re very proud of the five students from this school who were awarded scholarships.

9. money for starting a new business or other activity

▷ finance British /financing American /ˈfaɪnænsǁfɪˈnæns, ˈfaɪnænsǁfəˈnæns, ˈfaɪnænsɪŋ,ǁfə̇ˈnænsɪŋ/ [uncountable noun] British

money that you borrow or receive in order to pay for something important and expensive, for example for starting a business :

▪ We can’t continue our research unless we get more finance.

▪ The business plan is strong, but without financing, it will never work.

finance for

▪ Scottish Homes is the nation’s biggest source of finance for house building.

obtain/raise finance

▪ The next step was to obtain finance to develop the project.

▪ You’ll have to explain to them how you intend to raise the financing you need.

provide finance

▪ The European Investment Bank will provide finance for a variety of regional initiatives.

▷ capital /ˈkæpɪtl, ˈkæpətl/ [uncountable noun]

a large amount of money that you can use to start a business or to pay for something that will later produce more money :

▪ There is a shortage of capital for building new aircraft.

▪ Our return on capital has more than doubled since 1980.

investment capital

▪ The plan is expected to create vast amounts of investment capital.

raise capital

▪ Since the stockmarket crash, companies have been trying to raise capital by selling new stock.

▷ funding /ˈfʌndɪŋ/ [uncountable noun]

money that a government provides to pay for education, theatre, music etc, not for business activities :

▪ The President has yet to approve the additional funding needed to implement the program.

▪ If the funding were increased by just 12%, we could be close to a cure for the disease in five years.

funding of

▪ A special body advises the government on the funding of research.

funding for

▪ Cuts in funding for the arts has lead to the closure of several theatres.

government/federal/state/public funding

funding provided by the government

▪ Congress banned federal funding of embryo research in 1995.

▪ The church is seeking an extra $300,000 in government funding.

lack of funding

not enough funding

▪ School facilities have deteriorated over the past six years because of a lack of funding.

provide funding

▪ The Center will also provide funding to improve data collection and research.

▷ investment /ɪnˈvestmənt/ [countable/uncountable noun]

the money that people or organizations give to a company, business, or bank, because they expect that they will get back more money than they gave :

▪ In ten years’ time, your investment should be worth four times what it is now.

▪ Once we have seen an improvement in the company’s performance, we will think about further investment.

▪ exciting investment opportunities

investment in

▪ We have the largest investment in microelectronics technology of any company in the world.

make an investment

▪ The Postal Service has made an extremely large investment in automated technology.

foreign investment

investment in a country that is not your own country

▪ Foreign investment peaked in November, when overseas investors took advantage of low prices.

sound investment

an investment that is not likely to lose money

▪ Buying shares in blue-chip companies is always a sound investment.

▷ sponsorship /ˈspɒnsəʳʃɪpǁˈspɑːn-/ [uncountable noun]

money that is provided by a company or by the government to pay for someone to do something or pay for something such as a sports event, art show etc :

▪ We are looking for sponsorship from local businesses.

▪ Companies can help projects by providing financial sponsorship, office space, or printing facilities.

sponsorship of

▪ a ban on tobacco company sponsorship of sports events

government/state sponsorship

▪ The exhibition received £50,000 in government sponsorship.

corporate sponsorship

sponsorship from a private company

▪ Corporate sponsorship ensures that far more money finds its way into sport than would otherwise be the case.

▷ grant /grɑːntǁgrænt/ [countable noun]

an amount of money that a government or other organization gives to someone to help pay for something good or useful, such as their education :

▪ These grants will help communities address the problems faced by young people.

grant from

▪ You can get a grant from the council to pay for the repairs.

a grant of $400/£30 etc

▪ She received a grant of £20,000 from the Arts Council to set up the Centre.

government/state/federal grant

▪ Researchers at the University of San Francisco will receive a $6.7 million federal grant for research on ovarian cancer.

block grant

money that the central government gives to local government to help pay for roads, police, schools etc

▪ Our role is to decide how the block grant should be allocated.

development grant

money that a government gives to a country or a city to help pay for economic development in a particular area

▪ The building was converted into flats with the aid of an urban development grant.

▪ Most regions in Spain and Portugal qualify for sizeable development grants from the EU.

research grant

a grant given to someone to do research in a particular subject

▪ Research grants are plentiful in science and engineering subjects, but much harder to get in the humanities.

award/give somebody a grant

▪ He was awarded a $25,000 grant by the Rockefeller Foundation, which enabled him to finish the work.

apply for a grant

▪ To apply for a loan or grant, call 1-800-323-4140.

▪ We’re applying for a grant of £500 for equipment.

grant proposal

a special form that you fill in when you ask for a grant

▪ Jen was up all night writing her grant proposal.

▷ subsidy /ˈsʌbsɪdi, ˈsʌbsədi/ [countable noun]

money that the government provides to help a business or industry which might not be able to operate without this additional money :

▪ The taskforce has recommended some kind of subsidy to help businesses get their Internet start-ups off the ground.

▪ Lacking the generous subsidies that European orchestras receive, modern American groups are under increasing pressure to play popular pieces.

state/federal/government/public subsidy

▪ Without state subsidies, the railways couldn’t survive.

▪ Federal subsidies would be available to help employers pay the insurance premiums.

▪ They built and financed a whole new suburb, and they did it without a public subsidy.

agricultural/farm subsidy

▪ US farmers are having trouble coping with the reductions in agricultural subsidies.

▪ Farm subsidies totaled $53 billion last year.

10. money that you pay to the government

▷ tax /tæks/ [countable/uncountable noun]

money that you have to pay to the government, especially from the money you earn or as an additional payment when you buy something :

▪ Although the tax on cigarettes has doubled in the past two years, sales are still going up.

▪ proposals for an increase in taxes to pay for medical care

tax on

▪ Consumers are angry that the tax on petrol has gone up yet again.

cut/reduce tax

▪ The Republicans promised to reduce taxes before the last election.

▪ The Chancellor said he would cut income tax by 2 pence in the pound.

income tax

tax that you pay according to how much money you earn

▪ He failed to report and pay income tax on a portion of his income.

sales tax

tax you pay on things that you buy

▪ Sales tax in the state is 8%.

after tax

after you have paid income tax

▪ I made over $600 a week, which was around $450 after tax.

tax avoidance/evasion

when someone tries to avoid paying tax, especially income tax

▪ He pleaded guilty to charges of fraud and tax evasion.

▷ duty /ˈdjuːtiǁˈduː-/ [countable/uncountable noun]

a tax you pay on something you buy, especially goods you have bought in another country :

▪ You have to pay a duty on the value of goods worth over $500 that you bring into the country.

customs duty

▪ The customs duty on luxury cars went up last month.

▷ tariff /ˈtærɪf, ˈtærəf/ [countable/uncountable noun]

a tax on goods coming into a country or going out of a country :

▪ The aim of the organization is to reduce tariffs and promote free trade.

▷ taxpayer /ˈtæks-peɪəʳ/ [countable noun]

someone who pays tax :

▪ Are you a higher rate taxpayer, or do you pay the basic rate?

taxpayers’ money

money the government gets from taxes

▪ This defence project is simply a waste of taxpayers’ money.

the taxpayer

all the people in a country who pay tax

▪ Bonus payments to top officials cost the taxpayer millions of pounds each year.

▪ Unemployment is up, and the poor old taxpayer has to foot the bill, as usual.

▪ I think these bureaucrats have a jolly good time at the taxpayer’s expense.

11. money paid to someone to make them do something dishonest

▷ bribe /braɪb/ [countable noun]

money that someone gives to a person in an official position, in order to persuade them to do something that they should not do :

▪ The two brothers regularly used bribes and threats to further their business.

$400/£30,000/millions etc in bribes

▪ A customs official pocketed up to $500,000 in bribes for permitting cocaine to pass through the port.

offer (somebody) a bribe

▪ In all his years of public service, he has only been offered a bribe once.

▪ Foreign firms willing to offer bribes typically win 80% of international deals.

pay a bribe (to somebody)

give someone a bribe

▪ Some companies in Belgium and France had paid bribes for the award of contracts.

▪ They paid millions in bribes to tax officials in order to avoid investigation.

take/accept a bribe

▪ The judge admitted that he had accepted bribes.

▪ During his term in office, he took bribes ranging from 22 million to 220 million yen.

cash bribe

in the form of notes, rather than a cheque

▪ He offered me a cash bribe to help him secure the contract.

bribery [uncountable noun]

when people give and accept bribes :

▪ The inquiry showed that bribery was widespread.

bribery and corruption

▪ He was arrested on charges of bribery and corruption.

bribe [transitive verb]

to offer someone a bribe :

▪ He alleged that the manager had tried to bribe him during a business lunch in 1993.

▪ The defence are arguing that he was bribed to withdraw his testimony.

▷ kickback /ˈkɪkbæk/ [countable noun]

a large amount of money that someone pays to a person in an important position in a company or government, in exchange for dishonestly arranging a business deal :

$300/£400,000/millions etc in kickbacks

▪ Top executives received millions of dollars in kickbacks.

accept/take a kickback

▪ He is on trial for allegedly accepting kickbacks from business.

▪ He and his partner were charged with taking $300,000 in kickbacks in exchange for their political influence.

pay/offer a kickback

▪ The company paid kickbacks to local officials to win contracts worth millions of dollars.

▪ A cardiologist was offered kickbacks by a pacemaker manufacturer.

▷ backhander /ˈbækhændəʳ/ [countable noun] British informal

a small amount of money paid to someone to persuade them to do something that is dishonest but usually not very serious :

▪ There’s some suggestion that a backhander was involved.

▪ Perhaps the landlord’s getting a backhander from the estate agent.

£300/£10 etc in backhanders

▪ Fifty pounds has already gone in backhanders to the guys in the security office.

12. money that you pay to your former husband or wife

▷ maintenance British /child support American /ˈmeɪnt ə nəns, ˈtʃaɪld səˌpɔːʳt/ [uncountable noun]

money that is paid regularly by someone to their former wife or husband in order to support their children :

▪ Failure to pay child support is a growing problem.

▪ I have no job and receive no maintenance from my children’s father.

▪ The judge set her child support at ten dollars a week.

▪ He gives no money for the care of his son, and Aurora has abandoned plans to pursue child support.

maintenance/child support payments

▪ The court will now force him to meet maintenance payments.

▷ alimony /ˈælɪməni, ˈæləməniǁ-məʊni/ [uncountable noun]

an amount of money that a court orders someone to pay regularly to their former husband or wife after their marriage has ended :

▪ Because Jean had given up a career to support her husband’s career, the court ordered him to pay alimony.

▪ His alimony amounts to around one thousand dollars a month.

13. money that is collected for a purpose

▷ fund /fʌnd/ [countable noun]

a large sum of money that is collected and kept, especially so that it can be used by a particular group of people who need it :

▪ There’s a special fund you can apply to, that pays for blind students to go to university.

▪ If I’m successful in raising over £500, those funds will go to the Bible School.

£400/$30,000 etc in funds

▪ A total of $5,800 in church funds has been used to provide assistance to local people.

set up a fund

▪ They used this money to set up a fund for the refugees.

raise funds

▪ The event was held to raise funds to promote AIDS awareness among young gays.

▪ The hand-sewn quilts will be sold at a Christmas Craft Fair to raise funds for the arts project.

appeal fund

a special fund that is set up to help someone who is ill, needs special help etc

▪ Supporters have set up an appeal fund to help Peter fight the case.

▪ Tell us, Gillian, how much do you have in the appeal fund now?

slush fund

money that has been obtained secretly and illegally, and that is used for illegal purposes

▪ He is on trial for accepting kickbacks from business moguls to build his slush fund.

▷ kitty/pot /ˈkɪti, pɒtǁpɑːt/ [countable noun] informal

a small sum of money that is collected from all the people in a group and used to buy their food or drinks, pay their bills etc :

▪ ‘Are we having takeout tonight?’ ‘Depends how much is in the pot.’

▪ Do you all just put a bit in the kitty each week for basics?

▪ There’s nothing in the kitty, so if anyone wants another drink they’ll have to get it themselves.

14. relating to money and the way it is used

▷ financial /fɪˈnænʃ ə l, fəˈnænʃ ə l, faɪ-/ [adjective only before noun]

connected with money - use this about the way that people and organizations use and control their money :

▪ Wall Street is the financial center of the US.

▪ There is a possibility of a full-scale financial crisis, like the great crash of 1929.

▪ Many libraries have found that their financial resources are stretched to the limit.

▪ The accounts show that the school’s financial position is very healthy.

financial support/backing/assistance etc

▪ He failed to get financial support from his employers.

▪ The amount of financial aid offered has become more central to students’ decisions about which school to attend.

financial dealings/transactions

▪ Revelations about his financial dealings could change his election prospects dramatically.

▪ He developed computer software to handle complicated financial transactions.

financial difficulties/problems

▪ Joan has a lot of financial problems at the moment.

▪ Mexico’s financial difficulties increased rather than diminished.

financial year

British the 12-month period used by companies to calculate their accounts

▪ Norton have announced profits of £3.5 million for the financial year 2000-01.

financially [adverb]

▪ She wanted to go out to work and be financially independent

▪ Who would benefit financially from Bobby’s death?

▪ His parents support him financially.

▷ finance /ˈfaɪnæns, fə̇ˈnænsǁfə̇ˈnæns, ˈfaɪnæns/ [uncountable noun]

all the activities that are related to how a company or country uses or organizes its money :

▪ He was an expert in finance and advised people where to invest their money.

▪ The use of IT in areas such as accounting and finance has grown at an astonishing rate.

▪ She works as a director of finance for an oil company.

finance minister/officer etc

▪ Kubo is slated to become Japan’s next finance minister.

high finance

financial activities involving countries or big companies -- used especially to show that you do not know very much about those activities

▪ The other guys in the office were ten to fifteen years my senior, and old hands in high finance.

▷ monetary /ˈmʌnɪt ə ri, ˈmʌnət ə riǁˈmɑːnə̇teri/ [adjective only before noun]

relating to or involving money, especially the money that is available to the government of a country, and how it decides to spend it :

▪ There’s only one conclusion to make about this data on monetary growth.

monetary policy/control etc

▪ The IMF should not dictate how Mexico should run its monetary policies.

▪ a plan to introduce monetary reform

▪ Some economists question the effectiveness of monetary control as a means of regulating the economy.

▪ European monetary union

▷ fiscal /ˈfɪsk ə l/ [adjective only before noun] formal

connected with money, taxes, debts, etc that are owned and managed by the government :

▪ Perez stated that the current fiscal crisis was the result of the collapse of the oil industry.

▪ It was thought that skillful monetary and fiscal intervention could rescue the economy.

fiscal policy

▪ The Council of Finances determined fiscal policy within the region.

fiscal deficit

▪ Columbia’s fiscal deficit could soar to 1.6 percent of GDP.

fiscal year

especially American the 12-month period used by companies to calculate their accounts

▪ Over the past fiscal year, the school has received $250 million in federal dollars for 1,600 projects.

fiscally [adverb]

▪ countries with fiscally sound well-managed economies

▪ The President is pro-business and fiscally conservative.

▷ economic /ˌekəˈnɒmɪk◂, ˌiː-ǁ-ˈnɑː-/ [adjective only before noun]

connected with the way money is earned, spent, and controlled within a country or society :

▪ The tax breaks will stimulate economic activity.

▪ Florida will benefit from a number of economic trends that play to its strengths.

economic climate

general state of the economy

▪ In this kind of economic climate, employees prefer a lower salary in a job that is secure.

economic crisis

▪ Cuba is emerging from five years of economic crisis.

▪ Investors took their money elsewhere, prompting a far-reaching economic crisis.

economic growth/development etc

▪ Slow economic growth and low consumer spending affected sales last year.

▪ a wide variety of economic development strategies

economic recovery

▪ Investors are holding out from Mexican stocks until they see clear signs of an economic recovery.

economic sanctions

official laws that stop trade with another country, for political reasons

▪ The US has maintained tough economic sanctions on Cuba.

economic summit

an important meeting for the leaders of countries to discuss the world’s economy

▪ World leaders gathered in the Miyako Hotel to map out the agenda for next month’s economic summit.

▷ economics /ˌekəˈnɒmɪks, ˌiː-ǁ-ˈnɑː-/ [uncountable noun]

the study of how money is earned, spent, and controlled within a country or society :

▪ He studied economics at Harvard University.

▪ He knows very little about economics or international finance.

▪ Keynes’s theories have had an important influence on modern economics.

15. to put money into a business, in order to make money

▷ invest /ɪnˈvest/ [intransitive/transitive verb]

to let a company, business, or bank use your money for a period of time, especially because you expect that you will get back more money than you gave :

▪ I want to invest the money my aunt left me.

▪ The Singapore government is interested in investing abroad.

invest in

▪ Investing in property is no longer as safe as it used to be.

▪ Shares in CMG Information, which invests in Internet-related businesses, declined sharply in the spring.

invest £300,000/$400/money etc in something

▪ I invested £5000 in my brother’s printing business.

invest heavily

give a lot of money

▪ He had invested heavily in risky assets like junk bonds.

▷ put money into /ˌpʊt ˈmʌni ɪntuː/ [verb phrase]

to give money to a company or business in order to help that company develop and be successful, especially because you expect that you will make a profit :

▪ Home-owners who put their money into building society accounts could be losing thousands each year.

▪ The biggest bonus is that KPBS didn’t have to put any capital into the project.

▪ The plan calls for each company to put in $100 million toward the new car plant.

▷ investor /ɪnˈvestəʳ/ [countable noun]

someone who puts money into a business, company, or bank in order to make a profit in the future :

▪ Having made the initial payment, the investor need make no further effort.

foreign investor

▪ Foreign investors have shown considerable interest in the venture.

▪ Most of the venture funds have come from foreign investors.

small investor

someone with a small amount to invest

▪ Our financial consultants can advise the small investor.

▪ The British Gas sale attracted 4.5 million applications from small investors.

▷ backer /ˈbækəʳ/ [countable noun]

someone who supports a business plan by giving or lending money :

▪ Things became even more difficult when one of his principal backers went bankrupt.

financial backer

▪ The directors closed the company after the financial backers pulled out of the operation.

16. the financial system in a country or area

▷ economy /ɪˈkɒnəmiǁɪˈkɑː-/ [countable noun]

▪ The government’s management of the economy has been severely criticized.

▪ Inflation is a major problem in many South American economies.

black/shadow economy

business activities that take place illegally, especially in order to avoid paying tax

▪ It is impossible to quantify the exact value of the black economy.

▪ shadow economies that escape accurate analysis

global economy

the economy of the world, seen as whole

▪ In a global economy, the only way to maintain a competitive edge is to lead the world in innovation.

market/free-market economy

a system in which companies, rather than the government, decide what to produce and sell

▪ Poland is trying to move from a centrally planned socialist economy to a free-market capitalist economy.

17. when a person or company has no money

▷ bankrupt /ˈbæŋkrʌpt/ [adjective]

a company or person that is bankrupt does not have enough money to pay their debts, and so they have to stop doing business :

▪ Five years ago she was a successful actress, but now she is bankrupt.

▪ He lent him several thousand dollars to help rescue his bankrupt textile business.

go bankrupt

become bankrupt

▪ Many small businesses will go bankrupt unless interest rates fall.

declare somebody bankrupt

say officially that they are bankrupt

▪ He was declared bankrupt in the High Court yesterday.

bankrupt [transitive verb]

▪ He realized that it would bankrupt the company if he continued the expansion.

bankruptcy [uncountable noun]

▪ It was no surprise when the Internet Startup firm declared bankruptcy.

▷ insolvent /ɪnˈsɒlvəntǁɪnˈsɑːl-/ [adjective]

a company or business person that is insolvent has lost all their money :

▪ A spokesman denied the bank was insolvent, but depositors are rushing to withdraw their money.

▪ The court ordered the dissolution of seven insolvent housing loan companies.

become insolvent

▪ The company auditor has filed a warning that Eurotunnel is in danger of becoming insolvent.

declare somebody insolvent

say officially that they are insolvent

▪ He withdrew savings from a major bank just two days before it was declared insolvent.

render somebody insolvent

make someone insolvent

▪ The bank could even be rendered insolvent by such a large payment.

insolvency [uncountable noun]

▪ Accountants have been called in to save the firm from insolvency.

▪ If they cannot repay the loan, they face insolvency.

▷ go bust /ˌgəʊ ˈbʌst/ [verb phrase] informal

to no longer have enough money to pay your debts, so that you have to stop doing business :

▪ The supermarket isn’t there any more. They went bust ages ago.

▪ About 60,000 business go bust each year in the United States.

▷ ruin /ˈruːɪn, ˈruːən/ [transitive verb]

if something ruins someone, it makes them lose all their money and property after working very hard for it, and they have to stop doing business :

▪ Many firms have been ruined by hasty decisions.

▪ The incident has all but ruined her financially.

▪ She is still angry with the suppliers, who she says ruined her by failing to deliver on time.

18. having no money to spend at the present time

▷ broke /brəʊk/ [adjective not before noun] informal

having no money or very little money to spend at the moment :

▪ ‘Can you lend me some money?’ ‘Sorry, I’m broke.’

▪ She’s just come back off holiday and she’s completely broke.

▷ skint /skɪnt/ [adjective not before noun] British informal

having no money at the moment :

▪ I sold my record collection when I was skint one time.

▪ Can you lend me some money to tide me over? I’m a bit skint at the moment.

▷ strapped for cash /ˌstræpt fəʳ ˈkæʃ/ [adjective phrase]

not having enough money at the moment :

▪ I’m warning you, we’re really strapped for cash right now.

▪ I’m a bit strapped for cash myself at the moment, but I’ll see what I can do.

Longman Activator English vocab.      Английский словарь Longman активатор .