Meaning of RESULT in English



1. the result of a game, competition, election etc

2. something that happens or exists because of something else

3. a result that happens in addition to the intended result

4. when one thing happens because of another

5. to think that something happens because of something else

6. a series of events and results


result of a test/exam : ↑ GRADE

see also









1. the result of a game, competition, election etc

▷ result /rɪˈzʌlt/ [countable noun]

the final number of points, votes etc at the end of a competition, election etc. In British English, result can also be used to talk about the end of a game or sports match :

▪ It was a really exciting game, and the result was 2-1 to West Germany.

▪ These are excellent results for the Christian Democratic Party.

▷ score /skɔːʳ/ [countable noun]

the number of points that each team has at the end of a game or competition :

▪ At the end of the game, the score was 32-15.

what’s the score

▪ What was the score?

final score

▪ The final score was 2-1 to Juventus.

2. something that happens or exists because of something else

▷ result /rɪˈzʌlt/ [countable noun]

something that happens because of someone’s actions or because of something else that happened before :

result of

▪ Her constant cough is the result of many years of smoking.

▪ The results of the attack included two helicopters burnt out, and three groundcrew wounded.

with the result that

▪ More and more people are using cars, with the result that towns are much more polluted.

as a result

▪ Jobs are hard to get and, as a result, more young people are continuing their education.

a direct result of something

caused by only one thing even if people think there may be other causes

▪ Her parents believe that her death was a direct result of medical error.

▷ effect /ɪˈfekt/ [countable noun]

when a person or situation is changed by something that happens or something that someone does :

effect of

▪ The effects of the oil spill were devastating for wildlife.

▪ the harmful effects of radiation

have an effect/have no effect

▪ All my efforts to persuade them were beginning to have an effect.

▪ I’ve been taking these pills for three days, but so far they’ve had no effect.

effect on

▪ The death of a parent can have very serious and long-lasting effects on a child.

have a bad/good effect (on something/somebody)

▪ Any increase in fuel costs could have a bad effect on business.

▷ consequence /ˈkɒnsɪkwəns, ˈkɒnsəkwənsǁˈkɑːnsə̇kwens/ [countable noun usually plural]

the consequences of an action, decision etc are the things that happen as a result of it, which are usually bad :

consequence of

▪ Pain and illness are sometimes thought to be the unavoidable consequences of growing old.

consequence for

▪ If river levels continue to rise, it will have very serious consequences for many people’s homes.

take/face the consequences

accept the bad results of something you do

▪ People who run up big debts eventually have to face the consequences.

damaging/dire/disastrous etc consequences

▪ Safety procedures had been ignored, with disastrous consequences.

▷ implications /ˌɪmplɪˈkeɪʃ ə nz/ [plural noun] formal

all the possible results that a plan, action, or discovery could have, especially when they affect what you think or do or what happens in the future :

implications of

▪ The legal implications of the case are extremely significant.

implications for

▪ Any change in interest rates has important implications for most people’s financial situation.

important/significant/profound etc implications

▪ The discovery of planets orbiting other suns has profound implications.

▷ outcome /ˈaʊtkʌm/ [singular noun]

the situation that exists at the end of a meeting, activity, or series of events, especially when no one knows what this will be until it actually happens :

▪ Whatever the outcome, I hope we remain friends.

▪ The talks had a better outcome than we had originally hoped.

outcome of

▪ It’s impossible to say for sure what the outcome of the election will be.

affect/influence the outcome

▪ The patient’s general health and fitness can also affect the outcome of the disease.

predict the outcome

▪ At this point, I wouldn’t even try to predict the outcome, but we’re hoping for the best.

▷ upshot /ˈʌpʃɒtǁ-ʃɑːt/ [singular noun]

the result of something, especially when it is a little unusual or unexpected :

upshot of

▪ What was the upshot of the trial?

the upshot is that

▪ The upshot of that experience was that I decided I didn’t want to study medicine after all.

▷ end result /ˌend rɪˈzʌlt/ [singular noun]

the final situation that exists after a long time, process, or series of events :

▪ It was impossible for many small businesses to survive, and the end result was the loss of many jobs.

the end result is that

▪ If students constantly fail, the end result is that they switch off any interest in learning.

▷ net result/effect /ˌnet rɪˈzʌlt, ɪˈfekt/ [singular noun]

the final situation that exists when you consider all the details and facts - use this when this situation is not good :

▪ The net result of global warming will be a rise in sea levels.

the net result/effect is that

▪ The new system is designed to spread payments over several months but the net effect is that people pay more in total.

▷ aftereffect /ˈɑːftərɪˌfektǁˈæf-/ [countable noun usually plural]

a bad effect that exists for a long time after the activity or event that caused it :

▪ The earthquake struck a week ago but the city is still feeling the aftereffects.

aftereffect of

▪ A large number of working days are lost through the aftereffects of alcohol abuse.

psychological aftereffects

▪ The psychological aftereffects of a tragedy like the Zeebrugge disaster can stay with the survivors for years.

3. a result that happens in addition to the intended result

▷ side effect /ˈsaɪd ɪˌfekt/ [countable noun]

a result that happens in addition to the result that you intended - use this especially about the unintended bad effects of medical treatment or drugs :

▪ The drug can have side effects such as headaches and sickness.

▪ Transplanting genes from one plant to another may have unintended side effects for the environment and the food supply.

side effect of

▪ One of the side effects of chemotherapy is hair loss.

dangerous/nasty/unpleasant etc side effects

▪ These pills don’t normally have any unpleasant side-effects.

▷ indirect result /ˌɪndɪrekt rɪˈzʌlt, ˌɪndərekt rɪˈzʌlt/ [countable noun usually singular]

a result that is indirectly caused by something you do or that happens :

indirect result of

▪ The job losses were an indirect result of lower cost imports.

▪ The increase in greenhouse gases is the direct result of pollution, and the indirect result of a reduction in the atmosphere’s ability to absorb them.

▷ by-product /ˈbaɪ ˌprɒdʌktǁ-ˌprɑː-/ [countable noun]

an unexpected result of an event or something you do, which happens in addition to the result you intended :

by-product of

▪ One of the by-products of the peace treaty was the growth of trade between the two nations.

▪ Another by-product of space exploration is a growing awareness of this planet’s fragile environment.

▷ corollary /kəˈrɒləriǁˈkɔːrəleri, ˈkɑː-/ [countable noun] formal

something that is certain to happen in addition to the result you intend, so that you expect it but do not usually want it :

corollary of

▪ Huge increases in unemployment were the corollary of the government’s economic policy.

a logical/natural/necessary etc corollary (of something)

▪ A rapid increase in population would be a natural corollary of any such changes in the birth control program.

the corollary of this is that

▪ The government has promised tax cuts, but the corollary of this is that there will be a reduction in public services.

▷ spin-off /ˈspɪn ɒf/ [countable noun]

an unexpected but useful result of something that you do, that happens in addition to the result that was intended :

spin-off for

▪ One of the main spin-offs for countries that host the Olympic Games is increased business for hotels, restaurants, and theatres.

have a spin-off

▪ Research into lasers has had important spin-offs for eye-surgery.

▷ ramifications /ˌræmɪfəˈkeɪʃ ə nz, ˌræməfəˈkeɪʃ ə nz/ [plural noun]

all the results of something you do, which affect people in ways that were not intended and which you do not always expect when you first make the decision to do it :

ramifications of

▪ The ramifications of the decision whether to build a new airport or not are enormous.

ramifications for

▪ The course that people choose to do at university can have ramifications for the rest of their lives.

economic/legal/political etc ramifications

▪ Whatever the judges decide, the legal ramifications of the case will be with us for many years to come.

wider ramifications

more complicated results

▪ The introduction of national testing in schools had wider ramifications than people realized.

▷ repercussions /ˌriːpəʳˈkʌʃ ə nz/ [plural noun]

the additional and usually bad results of something that happens, which continue to affect people for a long time afterwards in a way that was not intended or expected :

repercussions of

▪ The psychological repercussions of the accident might affect her for the rest of her life.

have repercussions (on something)

▪ The transport strike had all sorts of repercussions on other industries.

important/profound/serious etc repercussions

▪ A scandal like this could have serious repercussions on his political career.

economic/legal/political etc repercussions

▪ Even the possibility of a war in the Middle East has important political repercussions.

4. when one thing happens because of another

▷ because of /bɪˈkɒz ɒvǁbɪˈkɔːz-/ [preposition]

if something happens because of an earlier problem, event etc, it happens as a result of it :

▪ Sampras seemed likely to miss the US Open because of a back injury.

▪ Because of problems with the fuel system, the launch has been put back a week.

▪ She was chosen for the Peace Prize because of her courageous fight for democracy.

▷ be a result of/result from /biː ə rɪˈzʌlt ɒv, rɪˈzʌlt frɒm/ [verb phrase]

to happen because of something else that happened or was done :

▪ Our success is the result of a great deal of hard work.

▪ The big population increase in the US was partly the result of immigration.

▪ It is thought that the train crash resulted from a fault on the line.

▷ be the product of /biː ðə ˈprɒdʌkt əvǁ-ˈprɑː-/ [verb phrase]

to be the result of actions, experiences or good or bad conditions :

▪ The agreement was the product of 21 months of negotiations.

▪ Saturday’s goal was the product of some poor defending by the opposing team.

▷ come of /ˈkʌm ɒv/ [transitive phrasal verb not in progressive or passive]

if something comes of a situation or activity, it happens because of it :

▪ The company is interested in the merger: many positive things could come of it.

nothing came/has come etc of something

nothing happened because of something

▪ I’ve applied for that job, but so far nothing’s come of it.

no good comes etc of something

something does not have a good result

▪ My mother always said that no good would come of the relationship.

▷ stem from /ˈstem frɒm/ [transitive phrasal verb not in progressive or passive]

if something, especially a problem, stems from something else, it develops because of it and is directly connected with it :

stem from from (doing) something

▪ Many of my patients’ anxieties stem from experiences in their childhood.

▪ The dog’s aggression stemmed from being kept locked up all day.

stem from the fact that

▪ Part of the education problem stems from the fact that class sizes have increased dramatically in the last 5 years.

▷ arise from /əˈraɪz frɒm/ [transitive phrasal verb not in progressive or passive]

if something such as a problem or difficult situation arises from something, it starts to exist because of it :

▪ The argument arose from a misunderstanding.

▪ Lung cancer is just one of the many diseases that arise from smoking too many cigarettes.

arise from the fact that

▪ The difficulty arises from the fact that there has been insufficient time to train new staff.

▷ come out of /ˌkʌm ˈaʊt ɒv/ [transitive phrasal verb not in progressive or passive]

to happen or exist as a helpful or useful result of someone’s actions, decisions or discussions :

▪ We’re waiting to see what comes out of the inquiry before we make a decision.

▪ Much of what came out of the Rio Summit did not have an immediate effect.

▷ as a result of /əz ə rɪˈzʌlt ɒv/ [preposition]

happening because of something else :

▪ He died as a result of cold and exhaustion.

▪ Over 60 drugs have been removed from sale as a result of recent tests.

▷ resulting/consequent /rɪˈzʌltɪŋ, ˈkɒnsə̇kwəntǁˈkɑːn-/ [adjective only before noun]

happening or existing because of something else that happened before :

▪ Burrows took the resulting penalty kick.

▪ Without government support the factory would be forced to close, with the consequent loss of thousands of jobs.

▪ Britain’s resulting debt burden was greater than that of the French.

5. to think that something happens because of something else

▷ put something down to /ˌpʊt something ˈdaʊn tuː/ [transitive phrasal verb]

to say or believe that one thing happens because of something else, when you are not completely sure that this is true :

▪ When Charlie became ill, I was inclined to put it down to the pressures of his job.

▪ No one was injured, and US officials put the incident down to ‘high spirits’.

▷ attribute something to /əˈtrɪbjuːt something tuːǁ-bjət-/ [transitive phrasal verb] formal

to say that someone or something is responsible for a situation or event - use this in official contexts :

▪ The management attributed the success of the company to the new Marketing Director.

▪ 1150 deaths a year can be attributed to drunk driving.

6. a series of events and results

▷ chain reaction /ˌtʃeɪn riˈækʃ ə n/ [countable noun]

a series of events, each of which is the result of the one before, and which cannot be stopped :

▪ When oil prices rise, prices of other goods all over the world rise in a chain reaction.

chain reaction of

▪ A chain reaction of events eventually led to the Prime Minister’s resignation.

start/set off a chain reaction

▪ The revolution set off a chain reaction of revolts in neighbouring states.

▷ knock-on effect /ˈnɒk ɒn ɪˌfektǁˈnɑːk-/ [countable noun] British

something that happens as a result of something that has happened before, and that you do not want to happen :

knock-on effect of

▪ The knock-on effect of the rise in electricity prices is likely to be higher prices generally.

knock-on effect on

▪ Any reduction in community care for the elderly will have a knock-on effect on hospitals.

▷ domino effect /ˈdɒmɪnəʊ ɪˌfekt, ˈdɒmənəʊ ɪˌfektǁˈdɑː-/ [singular noun]

a series of events or actions, each one of which is caused by the effects of the previous one - use this especially about a series of bad things that happen :

▪ If schools were allowed to become more selective, there would be a domino effect.

have a domino effect (on something)

▪ Opponents of the scheme claimed that if the museum moved from Golden Gate Park it would have a domino effect on the other facilities.

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