adj., adv., n., & v.
1. a having an uneven or irregular surface, not smooth or level or polished. b Tennis applied to the side of a racket from which the twisted gut projects.
2 (of ground, country, etc.) having many bumps, obstacles, etc.
3 a hairy, shaggy. b (of cloth) coarse in texture.
4 a (of a person or behaviour) not mild or quiet or gentle; boisterous, unrestrained (rough manners; rough play). b (of language etc.) coarse, indelicate. c (of wine etc.) sharp or harsh in taste.
5 (of the sea, weather, etc.) violent, stormy.
6 disorderly, riotous (a rough part of town).
7 harsh, insensitive, inconsiderate (rough words; rough treatment).
8 a unpleasant, severe, demanding (had a rough time). b unfortunate, unreasonable, undeserved (had rough luck). c (foll. by on) hard or unfair towards.
9 lacking finish, elaboration, comfort, etc. (rough lodgings; a rough welcome).
10 incomplete, rudimentary (a rough attempt; a rough makeshift).
11 a inexact, approximate, preliminary (a rough estimate; a rough sketch). b (of stationery etc.) for use in writing rough notes etc.
12 colloq. a ill, unwell (am feeling rough). b depressed, dejected.
--adv. in a rough manner (the land should be ploughed rough; play rough).
1. (usu. prec. by the) a hard part or aspect of life; hardship (take the rough with the smooth).
2 rough ground (over rough and smooth).
3 a rough or violent person (met a bunch of roughs).
4 Golf rough ground off the fairway between tee and green.
5 an unfinished or provisional or natural state (have written it in rough; shaped from the rough).
6 (prec. by the) the general way or tendency (is true in the rough).
1. (foll. by up) ruffle (feathers, hair, etc.) by rubbing against the grain.
2 a (foll. by out) shape or plan roughly. b (foll. by in) sketch roughly.
3 give the first shaping to (a gun, lens, etc.).
Phrases and idioms:
rough-and-ready rough or crude but effective; not elaborate or over-particular. rough-and-tumble adj. irregular, scrambling, disorderly.
--n. a haphazard fight; a scuffle. rough breathing see BREATHING. rough coat a first coat of plaster applied to a surface. rough copy
1. a first or original draft.
2 a copy of a picture etc. showing only the essential features. rough deal hard or unfair treatment.
1. an uncut diamond.
2 a person of good nature but rough manners. rough-dry (-dries, -dried) dry (clothes) without ironing. the rough edge (or side) of one's tongue severe or harsh words. rough-handle treat or handle roughly. rough-hew (past part. -hewed or -hewn) shape out roughly; give crude form to. rough-hewn uncouth, unrefined. rough house sl. a disturbance or row; boisterous play. rough-house v.
1. tr. handle (a person) roughly.
2 intr. make a disturbance; act violently. rough it do without basic comforts.
1. treatment that is approximately fair.
2 treatment that is not at all fair.
1. a crossing over rough sea.
2 a difficult time or experience. rough ride a difficult time or experience. rough-rider a person who breaks in or can ride unbroken horses. rough stuff colloq. boisterous or violent behaviour. rough tongue a habit of rudeness in speaking. rough trade sl. a tough or sadistic element among male homosexuals. rough up sl. treat (a person) with violence; attack violently.
1. preliminary or provisional work.
2 colloq. violence.
3 a task requiring the use of force. sleep rough sleep outdoors, or not in a proper bed.
Etymology: OE ruh f. WG