Meaning of SUBSTANCE in English
That which makes a thing what it is and not something else, i.e., essence (ousia) in Greek philosophy. Aristotle said essence equals substance. Aristotle said substance is the inherent essence or cause of a particular thing, i.e., the unity of its form and matter. In scholasticism, substance is that which exists and persists independent of any other being. In Cartesianism , substance is that which exists independent of any other being. Infinite substance is God; finite substance, mind, and matter. In Spinoza , there is only infinite substance (God) and its modes. In Kantianism , substance becomes a subjective concept of the mind arising from the necessary organizing activity of Mind in connection with the data of experience. In British empiricism , substance is essentially the systematic or coherent organization of the specific qualities of experience. As such, it does not exist or is unknowable.
Theological and philosophical biography English dict. Английский словарь богословской и философской биографии . 2012