Meaning of GRAFT in English

GRAFT

I. ˈgraft, -aa(ə)-, -ai-, -ȧ- verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: Middle English graften, alteration of graffen — more at graff

transitive verb

1.

a. : to unite (plants or scion and stock) to form a graft

impossible to graft unrelated trees successfully

: cause (a scion) to unite with a stock in a graft

grafted a branch of white roses on his red rose tree

b. : to insert scions in (a plant)

possible to cut back an old apple and graft it with scions of a better variety

c. : to propagate (a plant) by grafting

apples and most other fruits are grafted to retain desirable qualities that do not come true from seed

d. : to perform the operation of preparing grafts on or of

graft all our own replacement trees

2.

a. : to join or fasten as if by grafting so as to bring about a close union

the jute industry was also grafted on to a local textile trade

a hopeful ending grafted on to the story — David Sylvester

the level of industrial civilization grafted on to a world of feudal manners — Frank Gibney

the rail that was especially grafted on to the grand staircase — Emily Hahn

turn him adrift, grafting upon him a sense of failure — Dixon Wecter

b. : to implant (living tissue) so as to form an organic union (as in a lesion)

were able to graft new skin over the badly burned area of the arm

grafted a new piece of artery into the ruptured portion of the old artery

c. : to join or mend invisibly ; especially : to weave together with a needle (two unfinished or broken edges of knitted fabric)

3. : to cover (as a rope, ringbolt, or stanchion on a boat) with a weaving of small cord

intransitive verb

1. : to become grafted

many pears graft well on quince rootstocks

2. : to perform grafting (as of a fruit tree or shrub)

grafting is used especially to increase the numbers of a clonal plant or to improve the vigor of a plant of a weak-rooted variety

3. : to engage in graft

II. noun

( -s )

Etymology: Middle English grafte, alteration of graffe — more at graff

1.

a. : the growth or an individual resulting from the union of scion and stock : a grafted plant (as a rosebush)

some excellent two-year-old grafts on dwarf rootstocks

an expert can turn out a surprising number of grafts in a day

b. : scion 1

c. : the point of insertion of a scion upon a stock

the graft should be high enough to prevent the formation of scion roots

also : the area of joining of scion and stock in grafting

a poor graft may break after several years satisfactory growth

2.

a. : the act of grafting or of joining one thing to another as if by grafting

a strange partial graft of Nordic traits on broad-faced and broad-headed Mongolian physique — A.L.Kroeber

b. : something grafted in this way ; specifically : a piece of living tissue used in grafting — see autograft , heterograft , homograft

3.

a. : the acquisition of money, position, or other profit by dishonest or questionable means (as by actual theft or by taking advantage of a public office or a position of trust or employment to obtain fees, perquisites, profits on contracts, or pay for work not done or service not performed) : illegal or unfair practice for profit or personal gain

tried to clear the graft , waste, and inefficiency out of government

claimed that any large and complex business organization tended to breed graft because of the inevitable towering hierarchy of command

b. : something gained in this way

no matter how much graft his subordinates may have garnered — Green Peyton

c. : something given as payment to one engaged in such a practice

forced to pay out graft to local politicians to avoid being annoyed by the police

d. : a means or method of making such gain or advantage

systematic appropriation of public funds by lawless political groups … and the more honest graft of special favors to real-estate or public-service interests — H.E.Davis

[s]graft.jpg[/s] [

graft 1c: a scion, b stock

]

III. noun

( -s )

Etymology: Dutch graft, gracht ditch, canal, from Middle Dutch; derivative from the stem of Middle Dutch graven to dig, Old High German graban — more at grave

now dialect England : ditch , trench

IV. intransitive verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: alteration of grave (I)

1. dialect England : dig

2. dialect England : work

V. noun

( -s )

dialect chiefly Britain : work , labor ; also : trade , occupation

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.