Meaning of BY in English

BY

■ preposition

1》 through the agency or means of.

↘indicating how something happens.

2》 indicating a quantity or amount, or the size of a margin.

↘identifying a parameter.

↘expressing multiplication, especially in dimensions.

3》 indicating the end of a time period.

4》 near to; beside.

↘past and beyond.

5》 during.

6》 according to.

7》 used in mild oaths: ~ God!

■ adverb so as to go past.

■ noun ( plural ~es ) variant spelling of ~e 1 .

Phrases

~ and ~ before long.

~ the ~ (or ~e ) incidentally.

~ and large on the whole. [orig. in naut. use, describing the handling of a ship both to the wind and off it.]

~ oneself

1》 alone.

2》 unaided.

~ way of see way .

Origin

OE bī , bi , be , of Gmc origin.

Concise Oxford English vocab.      Сжатый оксфордский словарь английского языка.