Meaning of BY in English

BY

I. preposition Etymology: Middle English, preposition & adverb, from Old English, preposition, be, bī; akin to Old High German bī ~, near, Latin ambi- on both sides, around, Greek amphi Date: before 12th century in proximity to ; near , 2. through or through the medium of ; via , in the direction of ; toward , into the vicinity of and beyond ; past , 3. during the course of , not later than , 4. through the agency or instrumentality of , born or begot of, sired or borne ~, with the witness or sanction of , 6. in conformity with , according to , 7. on behalf of , with respect to , 8. in or to the amount or extent of , in comparison with ; beside , 9. — used as a function word to indicate successive units or increments

10. — used as a function word in multiplication, in division, and in measurements

in the opinion of ; from the point of view of , II. adverb Date: before 12th century 1. close at hand ; near , at or to another's home , past , aside , away , III. adjective or ~e Date: 14th century being off the main route ; side , incidental , IV. noun or ~e (plural ~es) Date: 1567 something of secondary importance ; a side issue, V. interjection or ~e Etymology: short for good~e Date: 1709 — used to express farewell; often used with following now

Merriam Webster. Explanatory English dictionary Merriam Webster.      Толковый словарь английского языка Мерриам-Уэбстер.