Meaning of ROUGH in English
[rough] adj rough.er ; rough.est [ME, fr. OE ruh; akin to OHG ruh rough, Lith raukas wrinkle] (bef. 12c) 1 a: marked by inequalities, ridges, or projections on the surface: coarse b: covered with or made up of coarse and often shaggy hair "rough-coated collie"--compare smooth, wirehaired c (1): having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface "~ terrain" (2): difficult to travel through or penetrate: wild "into the ~ woods --P. B. Shelley"
2. a: turbulent, tempestuous "~ seas" b (1): characterized by harshness, violence, or force (2): presenting a challenge: difficult "~ to deal with --R. M. McAlmon"
3: coarse or rugged in character or appearance: as a: harsh to the ear b: crude in style or expression c: indelicate d: marked by a lack of refinement or grace: uncouth
4. a: crude, unfinished "~ carpentry" b: executed or ventured hastily, tentatively, or imperfectly "a ~ draft" "~ estimate"; also: approximate "this gives a ~ idea" -- rough.ish adj -- rough.ness n syn rough, harsh, uneven, rugged, scabrous mean not smooth or even. rough implies points, bristles, ridges, or projections on the surface "a rough wooden board". harsh implies a surface or texture distinctly unpleasant to the touch "a harsh fabric that chafes the skin". uneven implies a lack of uniformity in height, breadth, or quality "an old house with uneven floors". rugged implies irregularity or roughness of land surface and connotes difficulty of travel "a rugged landscape". scabrous implies scaliness or prickliness of surface "a scabrous leaf". syn see in addition rude
rough adv (14c): roughly 1 rough n (15c) 1: uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones; specif: such ground bordering a golf fairway
2: the rugged or disagreeable side or aspect "hiking-camping admirers of nature in the ~ --Eleanor Stirling" 3 a: something in a crude, unfinished, or preliminary state b: broad outline: general terms "the question ... has been discussed in ~ --Manchester Guardian Weekly" c: a hasty preliminary drawing or layout
4: rowdy rough vt (1763) 1: roughen
2. a: to subject to abuse: manhandle, beat--usu. used with up b: to subject to unnecessary and intentional violence in a sport
3: to calk or otherwise roughen (a horse's shoes) to prevent slipping
4. a: to shape, make, or dress in a rough or preliminary way b: to indicate the chief lines of "~ out the structure of a building" -- rough.er n -- rough it : to live under harsh or primitive conditions
Merriam-Webster English vocab. Английский словарь Merriam Webster. 2012