Meaning of ROUGH in English

ROUGH

I. ˈrəf adjective

( rough·er ; rough·est )

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English rūh; akin to Old High German rūh rough, Lithuanian raukas wrinkle

Date: before 12th century

1.

a. : marked by inequalities, ridges, or projections on the surface : coarse

b. : covered with or made up of coarse and often shaggy hair

rough -coated collie

— compare smooth , wirehaired

c.

(1) : having a broken, uneven, or bumpy surface

rough terrain

(2) : difficult to travel through or penetrate : wild

into the rough woods — P. B. Shelley

2.

a. : turbulent , tempestuous

rough seas

b.

(1) : characterized by harshness, violence, or force

(2) : presenting a challenge : difficult

rough to deal with — R. M. McAlmon

3. : coarse or rugged in character or appearance: as

a. : harsh to the ear

b. : crude in style or expression

c. : indelicate

d. : marked by a lack of refinement or grace : uncouth

4.

a. : crude , unfinished

rough carpentry

b. : executed or ventured hastily, tentatively, or imperfectly

a rough draft

rough estimate

also : approximate

a rough idea

• rough·ish ˈrə-fish adjective

• rough·ness ˈrəf-nəs noun

Synonyms:

rough , harsh , uneven , rugged , scabrous mean not smooth or even. rough implies points, bristles, ridges, or projections on the surface

a rough wooden board

harsh implies a surface or texture distinctly unpleasant to the touch

a harsh fabric that chafes the skin

uneven implies a lack of uniformity in height, breadth, or quality

an old house with uneven floors

rugged implies irregularity or roughness of land surface and connotes difficulty of travel

a rugged landscape

scabrous implies scaliness or prickliness of surface

a scabrous leaf

Synonym: see in addition rude .

II. adverb

Date: 14th century

1. : roughly 1

2. British : without usual conveniences ; especially : without proper shelter

become homeless and have to sleep rough — London Times

III. noun

Date: 15th century

1. : uneven ground covered with high grass, brush, and stones ; specifically : such ground bordering a golf fairway

2. : the rugged or disagreeable side or aspect

hiking-camping admirers of nature in the rough — Eleanor Stirling

3.

a. : something in a crude, unfinished, or preliminary state

b. : broad outline : general terms

the question…has been discussed in rough — Manchester Guardian Weekly

c. : a hasty preliminary drawing or layout

4. : rowdy

IV. transitive verb

Date: 1763

1. : roughen

2.

a. : to subject to abuse : manhandle , beat — usually used with up

b. : to subject to unnecessary and intentional violence in a sport

a penalty for rough ing the passer

c. : shell 3 — used with up

was rough ed up for six runs

3. : to calk or otherwise roughen (a horse's shoes) to prevent slipping

4.

a. : to shape, make, or dress in a rough or preliminary way

b. : to indicate the chief lines of

rough out the structure of a building

• rough·er noun

- rough it

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate English vocabulary.      Энциклопедический словарь английского языка Merriam Webster.