Meaning of GROUND in English

GROUND

I. ˈgrau̇nd noun

( -s )

Usage: often attributive

Etymology: Middle English ground, grund, from Old English grund; akin to Old High German grunt ground, bottom, Old Norse grunnr bottom, Gothic grundu waddjus foundation wall, Greek chrainein to graze, touch slightly, and perhaps to Old English grindan to grind — more at grind

1.

a. obsolete : the lowest part : the surface that limits the downward extent of something : bottom , foundation

b. : the bottom of the sea or a body of water : solid bottom — now used chiefly in nautical phrases

had to anchor about a mile off shore and the holding ground was not good — A.F.Ellis

the boat struck ground

— compare aground

c. grounds plural

(1) : sediment at the bottom of a liquor or liquid

(2) : ground coffee beans after brewing

d. obsolete : the pit of a theater

2.

a. : the foundation or basis on which knowledge, belief, or conviction rests : a premise, reason, or collection of data upon which something (as a legal action or an argument) is made to rely for cogency or validity

the reference to natural law as a ground for the authority of civil law — Glenn Negley

opposing divorce on religious grounds

b. : a sufficient and determining condition : a logical condition, physical cause, or metaphysical basis — used especially of what is regarded as more fundamental than a merely natural cause

the first principle or ground of the universe — Frank Thilly

3.

a. : the area surrounding and delimiting a figure or design : background

b. : the basic surface for figures in relief

c. : the surface upon which a picture or decoration is painted (as a preliminary coating laid on a canvas)

d. : the surface appearance of a fabric distinguished by a weave, color, texture ; specifically : the plain or background portion of a patterned fabric

e. : a stiff yet yielding substance (as wood or a pitch bed) on which a design is beaten into relief in repoussé work

f. : the pieces of net or the brides that support or hold together the patterns in lace ; also : the net that serves as a foundation (as for appliqué)

g. : an acid-resistant liquid or paste that is made from varying proportions of wax, gum, and resin and that is used in etching to carry the design and to protect areas of the plate where no biting action is intended — see hard ground , lift ground , soft ground

h. : a plain tinted coat which is applied to a wallpaper and over which a pattern is then printed

i. : wood or metal strips placed around all openings and along the top of the wall base to serve as guides in finishing the plaster

4.

a. : a plainsong or other traditional tune used as the bass of a polyphonic musical composition

b. : ground bass

c. : a composition making use of a ground

5. : the surface on which man stands, moves, and dwells and on which objects naturally rest: as

a. : the surface of the earth

deep under the ground

a branch 60 feet above the ground

uneven ground

high ground

: the earth as contrasted with the air

ground troops

ground attack

or the water

glad to feel firm ground again after the rough voyage

b. obsolete : country , land

c. now dialect : a parcel of land enclosed for tillage or pasture field

d. : an area appropriated to or used for a particular purpose

picnic ground

parade ground

camping ground

e. grounds plural : the gardens, lawn, and planted areas immediately surrounding and belonging to a house or other building

hospital grounds

f. : an area to be won or defended in or as if in battle

yielding ground step by step

shifting the ground of his attack

g. : a topic or field of study or discourse : subject

touch on forbidden ground

cover a great deal of ground in an hour's lecture

h.

(1) : a cricket field

(2) : the part of the field beginning at the popping crease and extending backward past the stumps

a batsman may be stumped or run out only when he is out of his ground

(3) or ground staff : the professional players employed by a cricket club

i. chiefly Britain : floor

kneeling on the ground beside the couch he leaned over her — Aldous Huxley

her gown swept the ground

6.

a. : soil , earth

till the ground — Gen 2:5(Authorized Version)

b. : a special soil

produce of each ground

c. : rock or formation through which mine workings are driven

soft, wet, or loose ground

7.

a. : a metal object buried in the earth to make electrical connection with it (as in a telephone or radio circuit)

b. : a large conducting body (as the chassis of a car or radio, the fuselage of a plane, or the earth itself) used as a common return for an electric circuit and as an arbitrary zero of potential

c. : electric connection with the earth or other ground

Synonyms: see reason

- from the ground up

- into the ground

- off the ground

- on the ground

- take the ground

- to ground

- to the ground

II. verb

( -ed/-ing/-s )

Etymology: Middle English grounden, grunden, from ground, grund, n.

transitive verb

1. : to bring to the ground : force down on the ground : floor

2.

a. obsolete : to set (a building) on a foundation

b. : to furnish a ground for : set on a basis (as of reason or principle or belief)

sought to ground the social good on the good of individuals — K.J.Arrow

grounded their philosophy of life on logic as well as on metaphysics — Frank Thilly

c. : to instruct in elements or first principles : furnish (oneself or others) with a foundation of knowledge

the study helped to ground them in the mechanics of research

must have every American citizen well grounded in the classical ideals — Calvin Coolidge

3. : to cover (a painting surface) with a ground

4. : to place on or cause to touch the ground

ground a rifle

ground a ship on a sandbar

5. : to prepare the surface of (leather) by scraping the flesh side with a moon knife

6. : to connect electrically with a ground

7.

a. : to restrict (a pilot, passenger, or airplane) to the ground to avoid accident (as from mechanical failure, ill health, or unfavorable flying weather) or to enforce a regulation (as of licensing or discipline)

b. : to bar (a jockey) from racing

c. : to bar (a licensed driver) from operating a vehicle

intransitive verb

1. : to have a ground or basis : rely — usually used with on or upon

the institutions … ground on … four socializing forces — S.H.Chapman

2. : to run aground : strike bottom

the ship grounded gently on a mud bank

masses of ice had grounded on the shore

3. archaic : to come to the ground : fall or light on the ground

4. : to hit a grounder

grounded into a double play

grounded out to the shortstop

Synonyms: see base

- ground arms

III.

past of grind

IV. transitive verb

: to throw (a football) intentionally to the ground to avoid being tackled for a loss

Webster's New International English Dictionary.      Новый международный словарь английского языка Webster.