born 1147, Japan
died Feb. 9, 1199, Kamakura
Founder of the Kamakura shogunate, or bakufu .
A member of the Minamoto warrior clan, Yoritomo was banished in his youth as a consequence of his father's revolt against the reigning Taira family. In exile Yoritomo found support for his cause in H 014D; j 014D; Tokimasa (see H 014D; j 014D; family ), and in 1185 he defeated the Taira. In 1192 the cloistered emperor (see insei ) granted him the title of shogun , which made him the supreme authority over all military forces in the country. He established his own governors ( shugo ) and stewards ( jit 014D; ) throughout Japan, thereby creating a governmental infrastructure in competition with, and gradually superseding, that of the imperial court. He was thus able to rule without actually overthrowing the emperor, a pattern that was to be emulated by future shogunates. See also Kamakura period ; Gempei War .