Meaning of CRYSTAL in English


any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. any solid material in which the component atoms are arranged in a definite pattern and whose surface regularity reflects its internal symmetry. Additional reading Works on solids in general include Lawrence H. Van Vlack, Elements of Materials Science and Engineering, 6th ed. (1989), an elementary textbook; Charles A. Wert and Robb M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd ed. (1970), an intermediate-level text; Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 6th ed. (1986), the standard college textbook; Neil W. Ashcroft and N. David Mermin, Solid State Physics (1976), an advanced textbook; George E. Bacon, The Architecture of Solids (1981), an introduction to bonding and structure; and Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals, 3rd ed. (1960, reissued 1989), the classic reference work on chemical bonding. On crystalline solids in particular, a readable treatment of crystal structure is C.S. Barrett and T.B. Massalski, Structure of Metals: Crystallographic Methods, Principles, and Data, 3rd rev. ed. (1980). Ralph W.G. Wyckoff, Crystal Structures, 2nd ed., 6 vol. (196371), compiles information on known structures. Phase diagrams of binary alloys are compiled in T.B. Massalski (ed.), Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams, 2nd ed., 3 vol. (1990); and in William G. Moffatt (ed.), The Handbook of Binary Phase Diagrams, 4 vol. (1976 ), published in a regularly updated looseleaf format. Traditional crystal growing is discussed in J.C. Brice, The Growth of Crystals from the Melt (1965); Alan Cottrell, An Introduction to Metallurgy, 2nd ed. (1975); and Merton C. Flemmings, Solidification Processing (1974). Epitaxy is discussed by Gerald B. Stringfellow, Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Theory and Practice (1989); and Seymour P. Keller (ed.), Materials, Properties, and Preparation (1980). William Shockley, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors (1950, reprinted 1976), is an introduction; while Richard Dalven, Introduction to Applied Solid State Physics, 2nd ed. (1990), is an intermediate-level text on semiconductors and semiconducting devices. A wealth of information is available in H.H. Landolt and R. Brnstein, Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Naturwissenschaften und Technik, new series, ed. by K.H. Hellwege, known as Landolt-Brnstein, with a parallel title in English, Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, reflecting the two languages of the work; group III, Kristall- und Festkrperphysik (or Crystal and Solid State Physics), contains compiled measurements of semiconductor properties in vol. 17ag (198285) and resistivity data on all metals and alloys in vol. 15a, pp. 1289 (1982), and vol. 15b, pp. 147 (1985). Books on magnetism include D.H. Martin, Magnetism in Solids (1967); John E. Thompson, The Magnetic Properties of Materials (1968); and Kenneth Hope Stewart, Ferromagnetic Domains (1954). Fullerenes are reviewed in a special issue of Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 25, no. 3 (March 1992). Gerald D. Mahan

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