Meaning of HARD in English


1. when something does not change its shape or bend

2. food

3. to become hard or make something hard




hard to do or understand : ↑ DIFFICULT

having no sympathy : ↑ UNKIND

treating someone strictly : ↑ STRICT/NOT STRICT


1. when something does not change its shape or bend

▷ hard /hɑːʳd/ [adjective]

▪ That night I had to sleep on a hard stone floor.

▪ I wish this chair wasn’t so hard and uncomfortable.

▪ Diamond is probably the hardest substance known to man.

▪ As people age, their skin becomes harder and less supple.

rock- hard

very hard

▪ After several weeks without rain, the ground was rock-hard.

as hard as something

▪ A tiled floor in the kitchen is as hard as stone, and very cold beneath your feet.

hardness [uncountable noun]

▪ The hardness of limestone varies depending on the area in which it is found.

▷ solid /ˈsɒlɪd, ˈsɒlədǁˈsɑː-/ [adjective]

something that is solid is made of thick hard material, is not hollow, and is difficult to damage or break :

▪ The door was made of solid steel.

▪ During winter the lake became a solid block of ice.

▷ firm /fɜːʳm/ [adjective]

something that is firm is not completely hard, but does not change shape much when you press it - use this about things that are sometimes soft, for example fruit, muscles, or the ground :

▪ I find I sleep better on a firm mattress.

▪ These exercises are good for making your stomach muscles nice and firm.

▷ stiff /stɪf/ [adjective]

something that is stiff keeps its shape and is not easy to bend :

▪ To make the picture, you will need a sheet of stiff card.

▪ The collar of his shirt felt stiff and uncomfortable.

go stiff


▪ The sheets outside on the washing line had gone stiff in the frost.

▷ rigid /ˈrɪdʒɪd, ˈrɪdʒəd/ [adjective]

a material that is rigid is difficult or impossible to bend, and is often used to support something else :

▪ The tent is made of strong canvas attached to a rigid frame.

▪ Spoon the ice-cream into a rigid plastic container and freeze.

2. food

▷ hard /hɑːʳd/ [adjective]

food that is hard is difficult to bite through and not nice to eat :

▪ I’ve cooked the potatoes for half an hour but they still seem a bit hard.

▪ That candy was so hard I nearly broke a tooth.

go hard

▪ Keep the cake in a tin, to prevent it from going hard.

▷ tough /tʌf/ [adjective]

food, especially meat, that is tough is difficult to cut or eat, for example because it is too old or has been cooked for too long :

▪ The chicken was very tough, as though it had not been freshly cooked that day.

▪ You can throw away the tough outer leaves of the cabbage.

▷ crunchy /ˈkrʌntʃi/ [adjective]

food that is crunchy is firm and fresh, and makes a noise when you bite it :

▪ Children love crunchy breakfast cereals and they’re full of vitamins too.

▪ For lunch I usually have something simple, with a fresh crunchy salad.

▷ crisp /crispy /krɪsp, ˈkrɪspi/ [adjective]

food, especially fruit or vegetables, that is crisp is firm and fresh, or has been cooked until it is quite hard and slightly brown :

▪ a delicious crisp green apple

▪ You can serve the chicken with a crispy stir fry of mixed vegetables.

▪ Bake the pastry at 180 for about twenty minutes until crisp and golden.

▷ firm /fɜːʳm/ [adjective]

fruit or vegetables that are firm are not soft when you press them :

▪ Buy peaches that are quite firm, as they ripen very quickly indoors.

▪ For this recipe you will need six firm tomatoes.

3. to become hard or make something hard

▷ harden /ˈhɑːʳdn/ [intransitive/transitive verb]

▪ The glue needs about 24 hours to harden.

▪ Steel is hardened by heating it to a very high temperature.

harden into/to

▪ Much of the mountain consists of volcanic ash, long since hardened to jagged rock.

▷ solidify /səˈlɪdɪfaɪ, səˈlɪdəfaɪ/ [intransitive verb]

if a liquid such as melted metal or wax solidifies, it becomes hard :

▪ Tools are made by pouring liquid metal into a mould and allowing it to cool and solidify.

▪ As the lava flowed down the volcano it solidified, forming strange shapes.

▷ set /set/ [intransitive verb]

if a liquid substance sets, it becomes harder - use this to talk about something that slowly becomes harder after it is mixed with water, for example, food or building materials :

▪ Put the jelly in the fridge for an hour to set.

▪ The concrete will take several hours to set, so make sure no one walks on it.

▷ freeze /friːz/ [intransitive verb]

if a liquid freezes, it becomes hard because it has become very cold :

▪ The water in the lake used to freeze most winters, and then it was good for skating.

be frozen solid

▪ Hey! The milk’s frozen solid!

▷ stiffen /ˈstɪf ə n/ [transitive verb]

to make something stiffer and harder :

▪ Point your toes and stiffen the muscles in your legs.

▪ You can stiffen curtain fabric by using a special liquid solution.

Longman Activator English vocab.      Английский словарь Longman активатор .