Meaning of HARD in English

I. ˈhärd adjective

Etymology: Middle English, from Old English heard; akin to Old High German hart hard, Greek kratos strength

Date: before 12th century


a. : not easily penetrated : not easily yielding to pressure

b. of cheese : not capable of being spread : very firm


a. of liquor

(1) : having a harsh or acid taste

(2) : strongly alcoholic

b. : characterized by the presence of salts (as of calcium or magnesium) that prevent lathering with soap

hard water


a. : of or relating to radiation of relatively high penetrating power : having high energy

hard X rays

b. : having or producing relatively great photographic contrast

a hard negative


a. : metallic as distinct from paper

hard money

b. of currency : convertible into gold : stable in value

c. : usable as currency

paid in hard cash

d. of currency : readily acceptable in international trade

e. : being high and firm

hard prices


a. : firmly and closely twisted

hard yarns

b. : having a smooth close napless finish

a hard worsted


a. : physically fit

in good hard condition

b. : resistant to stress or disease

c. : free of weakness or defects



(1) : firm , definite

reached a hard agreement

(2) : not speculative or conjectural : factual

hard evidence

(3) : important or informative rather than sensational or entertaining

hard news

b. : close , searching

gave a hard look

c. : free from sentimentality or illusion : realistic

good hard sense

d. : lacking in responsiveness : obdurate , unfeeling

a hard heart



(1) : difficult to bear or endure

hard luck

hard times

(2) : oppressive , inequitable

sales taxes are hard on the poor

a hard restriction


(1) : lacking consideration, compassion, or gentleness : callous

a hard greedy landlord

(2) : incorrigible , tough

a hard gang


(1) : harsh, severe, or offensive in tendency or effect

said some hard things

(2) : resentful

hard feelings

(3) : strict , unrelenting

drives a hard bargain

d. : inclement

hard winter


(1) : intense in force, manner, or degree

hard blows

(2) : demanding the exertion of energy : calling for stamina and endurance

hard work

(3) : performing or carrying on with great energy, intensity, or persistence

a hard worker

f. : most unyielding or thoroughgoing

the hard political right


a. : characterized by sharp or harsh outline, rigid execution, and stiff drawing

b. : sharply defined : stark

hard shadows

c. : lacking in shading, delicacy, or resonance

hard singing tones

d. : sounding as in arcing and geese respectively — used of c and g

e. : suggestive of toughness or insensitivity

hard eyes



(1) : difficult to accomplish or resolve : troublesome

hard problems

the true story was hard to come by

(2) : difficult to comprehend or explain

a hard concept

b. : having difficulty in doing something

hard of hearing

c. : difficult to magnetize or demagnetize

11. : being at once addictive and gravely detrimental to health

such hard drugs as heroin

12. : resistant to biodegradation

hard detergents

hard pesticides such as DDT

13. : being, schooled in, or using the methods of the natural sciences and especially of the physical sciences

a hard scientist

14. of money : contributed (as by individuals or political action committees) directly to a particular candidate or campaign


hard , difficult , arduous mean demanding great exertion or effort. hard implies the opposite of all that is easy

farming is hard work

difficult implies the presence of obstacles to be surmounted or puzzles to be resolved and suggests the need of skill, patience, or courage

the difficult ascent of the main face of the mountain

arduous stresses the need of laborious and persevering exertion

the arduous task of rebuilding

II. adverb

Date: before 12th century


a. : with great or utmost effort or energy : strenuously

were hard at work

the children played hard

b. : in a violent manner : fiercely

c. : to the full extent — usually used in nautical directions

steer hard aport

d. : to an immoderate degree

hitting the bottle hard

e. : in a searching, close, or concentrated manner

stared hard at me


a. : in such a manner as to cause hardship, difficulty, or pain

b. : with rancor, bitterness, or grief

took the defeat hard

3. : in a firm manner : tightly

4. : to the point of hardness

frozen hard

5. : close in time or space

stands hard by the river

Merriam-Webster's Collegiate English vocabulary.      Энциклопедический словарь английского языка Merriam Webster.