Meaning of CLAUSE in English

CLAUSE

noun

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

a clause/provision in the constitution (= a rule or condition in it )

The provision in the European constitution that limited women's roles in the military was found to be discriminatory.

dependent clause

independent clause

main clause

opt-out clause

an opt-out clause

penalty clause

relative clause

restrictive clause

subordinate clause

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADJECTIVE

dependent

This should be written in short grammatical sentences with the minimum of dependent clauses .

The example below uses an independent and dependent clause .

The dependent clause functions as a substitution item in a frame, the frame being the rest of the sentence.

What is the ratio of dependent to independent clauses ?

general

A general exclusion clause which excludes liability altogether is thus very unlikely to be reasonable under s 3.

Second, the text shows that it was important to know whether the general clause applied or not.

independent

The example below uses an independent and dependent clause .

Frye wrote the words independent clause and subordinate clause on the board.

What is the ratio of dependent to independent clauses ?

main

The main clause elements are subject, predicator, object, complement, and adjunct.

However, when a subordinate clause follows a main clause this additional processing load does not occur.

Also, they commonly appear as subordinate elements in a sentence where the main clause indicates the speaker.

new

Mr. Wilson: The new clause and amendments are primarily concerned with consumer interests.

The new clause provides him with an opportunity to prove that he is a caring individual.

Invariably, new clauses will come first in the order of business on Report.

It would certainly include statements by successful movers of amendments and new clauses to Bills.

I ask the Minister to support the new clause .

The new clause seeks to address that specific problem.

Our new clause 17 would establish their entitlement to rebates, which would benefit them greatly.

relative

The most notable is the relative pronoun that, which can only be used with a restrictive relative clause .

A relative clause counts as dependent whereas an adjective modifying a noun clearly does not.

Moreover, as we have remarked, many relative clauses with adjectives will not give postnominal adjectives.

restrictive

The most notable is the relative pronoun that, which can only be used with a restrictive relative clause .

A restrictive clause in the title deed limited the land use to mission purposes.

Intellectual property: Restrictive intellectual property clauses in employment contracts or restrictive covenants could force the brightest free workers to walk.

subordinate

Judgments frequently consist of long paragraphs and convoluted sentences replete with subordinate clauses .

Frye wrote the words independent clause and subordinate clause on the board.

This seems likely, to judge from the profusion and confusion of qualifications and subordinate clauses .

However, when a subordinate clause follows a main clause this additional processing load does not occur.

■ NOUN

escape

He would act alone, but he would take care to provide himself with an escape clause .

Fourth, the escape clauses it provides are likely to be far from fully effective.

Here was the escape clause the board was looking for.

The film strives for a surface kind of cynicism, only to invoke the Love Conquers All escape clause in the end.

The metal employers' federation says half its members may resort to the escape clause .

exclusion

In interpreting the clause , their lordships observed that this was a limitation of liability clause and not a complete exclusion clause.

Having regard to future possibilities as well as present realities, an exclusion clause would be indispensable in the new system.

The Court of Appeal held that the oral statement overrode the exclusion clause which therefore did not form part of the contract.

The nature of the contract, contractual and tortious liabilities and the use of exclusion clauses will be considered.

It therefore appears that an exclusion clause can apply, even to cases of fundamental breach and breach of fundamental term.

The exclusion clause was of no effect for this breach of an express term.

It is for this reason that a seller will usually be unable to rely on an exclusion clause printed on a receipt.

The policy is subject to the war exclusion clause .

exemption

As a defence, the Council pleaded an exemption clause printed on the back of the ticket.

An exemption clause may, contrary to appearances, have little or no effect.

Under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 any exemption clauses in the rules must be reasonable.

The 1977 Act places severe curbs upon the effectiveness of exemption clauses of many sorts.

The plaintiff was awarded £50 in damages. Exemption clauses are also controlled by statute.

The sellers tried to rely upon the exemption clause .

This means that, even though an exemption clause on its wording apparently provides a defence, it may nevertheless be ineffective.

From this trilogy of cases the modem approach to the interpretation of exemption clauses has emerged.

penalty

She knew she would feel a good deal less proud when she told Alice about the penalty clause .

The defendants were liable to a penalty clause in the main contract if the work was not completed on time.

How if at all did the existence of the penalty clause affect the consideration given by the plaintiff?

The owners of the dredger required it to complete a contract which contained an onerous penalty clause .

There are stiff penalty clauses for late delivery.

review

The interrelationship of this clause with the rent review clause should be considered.

However, most leases incorporate a rent review clause which provides for the periodic raising of the rent.

Commercially, such a rent review clause may work to the disadvantage of either party.

All those cases turned on the effect of particular words in the rent review clause .

■ VERB

add

Where the seller is successful in adding his additional clause , the guarantee obviously acts as an exclusion of liability.

The epilogue claims that Childebert added six clauses and Chlothar ten.

allow

This clause allows provinces to be exempt from court rulings for five years.

Some contracts, however, have cost-escalation clauses allowing the passing on of any increased costs.

The law includes a clause which allows a delay of one and a half years for its application for some users.

construe

The courts were generally reluctant to construe an exclusion clause as covering cases of breach of fundamental term or fundamental breach.

contain

Clause 9.2 of Precedent 2 contains a standard clause preventing sub-contracting.

Operating leases also often contain cancellation clauses so that the lessee is not locked into a long-term agreement.

At one extreme one may find a written contract containing many detailed clauses setting out the terms of the contract.

It also contained a clause which effectively provided for its continued validity should the Soviet Union be dissolved or reconstituted.

Explain the reasons why partnership agreements often contain clauses relating to interest, bonuses, salaries and division of profits.

The Bill is short, containing only five clauses and two schedules, which is a good thing.

These trust deeds usually contain an expert clause about the remuneration of the trustee appointed under the deed.

The owners of the dredger required it to complete a contract which contained an onerous penalty clause .

hold

The House of Lords held the clause unreasonable.

It was held that clause 13 dearly imposed that fiduciary relationship upon the buyers.

include

Only 14 % had received advice about including mediation clauses in contracts.

His new deal, however, does not include clauses that would prevent him from leaving before the term is completed.

They included clauses to devolve power by increasing the autonomy and economic power of local councils.

Tulsa signed Self, 34, to a five-year contract that includes a buyout clause .

Is it beyond the wit of Byers and his legal eagles to include a sunset clause in the final version?

The law includes a clause which allows a delay of one and a half years for its application for some users.

insert

It is encouraging that the National Union of Journalists has now inserted an anti-ageist clause into its code of conduct.

The newly inserted clause in the lease required a tenant to vacate the premises on 90 days notice.

Subsequently, the Government inserted a clause of their own which went some way to meet Lord Scarman's amendment.

He has inserted a clause into his contract which bans screenwriter Joel Silver from the set while he is working.

interpret

In interpreting the clause , their lordships observed that this was a limitation of liability clause and not a complete exclusion clause.

The court in interpreting the clause , leans against the seller.

The model may be the context for interpreting the clause , but the interpretation need not be a full one.

provide

Clause 9 provides an interesting exemption clause .

rely

The burden of proving that a clause satisfies the reasonableness test is on the party who seeks to rely on the clause.

The burden of proof is on the person seeking to rely on the clause .

It is for this reason that a seller will usually be unable to rely on an exclusion clause printed on a receipt.

The sellers tried to rely upon the exemption clause .

state

The clause should also state the earliest date upon which the option may be exercised.

This clause must state the company's nominal capital, and how the capital is divided into shares.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

A clause in the contract states when payment must be made.

Courts ruled that prayer in school violates a clause of the First Amendment.

I was told that this clause would be removed from the contract.

In the sentence "Can you tell me what time it is?" 'Can you tell me' is the main clause , and 'what time it is' is a subordinate clause.

We will go to the theatre tonight [main clause ] if we can get tickets [subordinate clause].

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

An important preliminary point is that the dividing line between an exclusion clause and a disclosure clause may be thin.

However, the clause did not make this clear.

In many cases it may be impossible to predict with certainty whether or not a particular clause will be effective.

It also covers a selection of other contract clauses frequently encountered in many types of commercial agreement, for example confidentiality clauses.

Later, I had cause to be grateful for that clause .

The agreement included a clause setting up a joint committee to oversee air quality.

The compulsory clauses of the memorandum are only part of it.

The law includes a clause which allows a delay of one and a half years for its application for some users.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.