Meaning of LOWER in English

LOWER

I. adjective

COLLOCATIONS FROM OTHER ENTRIES

an upper/lower limit (= the highest/lowest amount allowed )

There is no upper limit on the amount you can borrow.

Ensure the temperature in the aquarium does not fall below the lower limit.

bow/bend/lower your head (= look down )

He bowed his head and tried not not to look at her.

cut/lower/reduce a price

The company recently cut the price of its best-selling car.

cut/reduce/lower a rate

The Halifax Building Society is to cut its mortgage rate by 0.7 percent.

drop/lower your eyes (= look down at the ground )

The servants lowered their eyes as the countess walked past.

further/lower down a scale

Bonuses are not paid to people lower down the salary scale.

hoist/lower the sails (= put the sails up or down )

leaden/lowering literary (= with a lot of grey cloud )

The leaden skies cleared and the sun came out.

little/lower/high/greater etc likelihood

There was very little likelihood of her getting the job.

lower a threshold

the demand to lower the retirement threshold to 60

lower case

lower case letters

lower class

lower down the line

There should be more direct discussion between managers and workers lower down the line .

Lower House

lower orders

lower sb's expectations (= make someone expect less success, money etc )

If you can't afford your dream home, you may have to lower your expectations.

lower school

lower standards

He refused to lower his standards.

lower the temperature

Paracetomol lowers your body temperature.

lower your voice (= speak more quietly )

He lowered his voice to a whisper.

lower/cut/reduce taxes

There’s no point promising to cut taxes if you can’t afford it.

lower/damage morale

We need to avoid damaging people's morale.

lower/drop your gaze (= look down )

Her eyes met his and she immediately dropped her gaze.

lower/inferior status

In parts of the world, women still have inferior status.

lower/raise the age (= at which something can be done )

The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18.

lower/upper etc deck

I managed to find a seat on the upper deck.

Eddie returned to the flight deck the part of an aircraft where the pilot sits .

lower/upper jaw

an animal with two rows of teeth in its lower jaw

push sth higher/lower

New technology has pushed the cost of health care even higher.

raise/lower the ceiling (on sth)

reduce/lower barriers

We should be reducing barriers to imports from poor countries.

reduce/lower/bring down the cost

If you go later in the year, it will bring down the cost of your holiday.

slightly higher/lower/better/larger etc

January’s sales were slightly better than average.

the bottom/lower edge

The lower edge of the window frame was starting to rot.

the lower/upper slopes of sth

It was misty and only the lower slopes of Vesuvius could be seen.

the upper/lower body

Slowly raise your upper body into a sitting position.

the upper/lower etc reaches of a river (= the upper, lower etc parts )

We sailed down the lower reaches of the river.

the upper/lower half

The upper half of the door contained a stained glass window.

the upper/middle/lower register

the upper register of the cello

the working/lower class

At this time most of the working class was very poor.

upper/higher/lower echelons

the upper echelons of government

Their clients are drawn from the highest echelons of society.

upper/lower/top/bottom lip

His bottom lip was swollen.

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ ADVERB

even

The proportion of actual spending met was even lower . 3.

An increase in cotton exports would leave even lower stockpiles, raising concern about available supply.

The president's popularity was even lower .

When we worded the question a little differently, we got an even lower percentage.

But, overall, our crime rate could and should be even lower .

He fired into the jungle again and flew even lower than last time, but he could not draw fire.

Between 1983 and the year 2000 the growth rate will probably be even lower at something around 2.5% perannum.

Calcium chloride, another useful salt, will melt ice at even lower temperatures.

far

The drop-out rate is far lower , and patients often find it more acceptable.

The specials, publicized only on the Internet and good for weekend getaways, are far lower than any other fares.

Acidifying droplets can reduce the growth of trees and crops, at concentrations far lower , than had been suspected up to now.

Wage inequality has widened, with the gains for ordinary workers far lower than in previous economic expansions.

The proportion in top jobs that combined clinical and academic roles was far lower .

Wages were far lower in those countries than in the United States at the time, far lower, indeed.

The chance that those who were vaccinated are those who succumbed is far lower .

Wages were far lower in those countries than in the United States at the time, far lower, indeed.

much

This is a much lower figure than Hand 91 found for his sample of 65 entomological theses.

Exercise performed in the late afternoon or the early evening will force the body temperature to dip much lower during sleep.

In hot and high areas where air density is much lower , performance will be different, with faster descents.

Flutie could be available at a much lower price if the Redskins decide to get involved.

This would explain the much lower residual pressures.

In other words, margins were much lower in the Euromarkets than in domestic markets due to: 7.

The light levels used here would certainly be much lower than this.

Secondary schools offered more rungs on the career ladder, but the chance of becoming a head teacher was much lower .

significantly

Some scepticism has been expressed by tenants as to whether independently judged rents will be significantly lower than those asked by brewers.

Participation in east Jerusalem was significantly lower .

But these facts are not indicative of a significantly lower priority, nor necessarily of a substantially more modest achievement.

The significantly lower plasminogen activator activity of malignant ascites is associated with greatly increased concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.

The cancer subgroup, even those with very early tumours, had significantly lower cholesterol values than the group with polyps alone.

Median and minimum arterial-alveolar oxygen tension ratios for ventilated infants on the first day were significantly lower in the random group.

However, only for Dipentum did this result in significantly lower 5-ASA mucosal concentrations.

Those parts of the envelope where the thermal resistance is significantly lower are described as cold bridges.

slightly

The opportunity to purchase works at slightly lower prices had encouraged museums back into the market.

London shares recovered from deep early losses to end slightly lower .

The slightly lower figure may relate to the more discursive nature of the subject.

The Kutchi Rabaris, for example, being a slightly lower sub caste of his own caste, aroused his disapproval.

The Durava was a considerably smaller caste than the Salagama, and its social status was probably slightly lower .

Fees are slightly lower November through April.

The ratio was slightly lower than that achieved by the industry before nationalisation, but it was not markedly out of line with other countries.

The interim dividend is 2.5p, against 1.75p and earnings were 0.5p higher at 8.2p after a slightly lower tax burden.

■ NOUN

case

Another approach is to use a mixture of numbers, upper and lower case letters and large and small Roman numerals.

The magic, upper and lower case , is gone.

Upper and lower case variables of the same name are different.

All its letters are in lower case and the picture cards incorporate both approaches.

Input was lower case handwritten print via a graphics tablet.

The text which appears in them is usually in lower case , but this doesn't matter.

In some systems the input script is restricted to upper case unconnected letters, or lower case unconnected characters.

Since variables named in lower case will never be confused with keywords, many programmers use upper case only for keywords.

class

Its latent function was to ensure that the lower classes fitted in with the designs of their betters.

In college he loved a young girl of a lower class and ruined her; she died a suicide.

Fish knives were therefore only used by the middle and lower classes , and in this way it was considered non-U.

One evening at supper he told a story illustrating his refusal to tolerate the insolence of the lower classes .

Teachers find that the children become unteachable - those in the lower classes have to be fed sedatives to calm them down.

Then you got the beatnik, maybe a lower class of person.

Well, maybe, they could be, for once, treated just like their lower class brothers the football fans.

There is substantial political energy inherent in the lower classes , and they are the active agents of major political change.

cost

It thus provides lower cost loans by operating with narrower interest rate margins than those of domestic banking operations.

For investors, this means lower costs .

It is often possible to get money at much lower cost without risking your home, he said.

Could resources be combined efficiently or different resources be used so that the same activities could be produced at lower costs ?

Leland realised that precise work equated to a better product at a lower cost .

In addition to its lower cost , short-term debt offers one other advantage over long-term debt and that is its added flexibility.

If the lower cost of funding is reflected in lease payments, leasing can be more attractive for small companies.

A new soy-beef product was introduced to the consumer in March, 1973, as a lower cost alternative to ground beef.

costs

Even farmer groups admit the policy is simply the result of the drive for higher productivity and lower costs .

The goal is to cut the time it takes to develop new styles of sunglasses and lower costs , said Bausch&038;.

Earlier settlements mean lower costs for the claimant's solicitor and big savings on experts' fees and other disbursements.

Could resources be combined efficiently or different resources be used so that the same activities could be produced at lower costs ?

This combination of lower costs and increased market share makes the business well placed to benefit from any improvement in trading conditions.

Would another strategy accomplish the same objective at lower costs ?

Coupled with this expertise, lower costs make arbitration a very attractive option.

For investors, this means lower costs .

court

Though flogging was restricted, the length of sentences which lower courts were empowered to impose was doubled.

By its split vote, the justices upheld a lower court ruling against Lotus.

The lower courts have approved the average cost basis, as contended by the Crown.

A lower court forgave the debt, but the case went all the way to the Supreme Court.

Despite the wide-ranging ramifications of the misappropriation theory, the lower courts have endorsed it in a number of important rulings.

The case is pending before the lower court .

Circuit in Atlanta unanimously dismissed great-uncle Lazaro Gonzalez's appeal of a lower court ruling earlier this year.

She has already lost in the lower courts .

deck

They were so named because of their comfortable leather seats on the lower deck .

The lower deck , below the water line, was for cargo.

On the lower deck , where all the people are, there is the sense of an outrageous and clarifying happiness.

She climbed aboard the Mumbles train and huddled in a seat in the warmth of the lower deck .

The lower deck , shining clean now, was thronged with steerage passengers.

At first he had assumed that she had climbed down to the lower deck and gone forward.

The Hearthware armour was a shining pile on the lower deck .

Cabins include a toilet, shower and two lower deck beds.

end

These changes in perception of distension at the lower end of the gut seem to be mirrored in the stomach.

Under arbitrary regulation the costs of every program are greater than the possible benefits at the lower end of the range.

On the lower end of the job market, the most popular employer, certainly for girls, was Lyons.

At the lower end of the market much has also happened.

The material taken out of the higher point of the site was deemed unsuitable for use at the lower end .

These, thicker at their lower ends , had the plug or wedge driven between them.

In contrast, the effect of expenditure appears to be progressive, with cash transfers being sizeable at the lower end .

half

Jamila was fast asleep with a sheet over her lower half .

Cybil was twisting Paw-paw so that the lower half of the body was doing the hula.

Plastic pins simply pushed in to secure the lower half of the handle to the body of the mower.

He sees a team that finished in the lower half of the National League in hitting, pitching and fielding.

The third type seem to be solid, and are largely confined to the lower half of the main cloud.

Here the monk was fumbling with the appalled geisha and tearing at the lower half of her kimono.

A big brown beard covered the lower half of his thin, pale, serious face.

Glover felt how the entire lower half of himself was beginning to go numb.

house

Any proposal will be in trouble if it has to be approved by the upper house of parliament as well as the lower house.

Cardoso passed his first and toughest hurdle when the lower house voted in favor of the measure two weeks ago.

All told, the Communists could come out of the general election with some 45-50 seats in the revised 500-seat lower house .

He was first elected to the lower house of parliament in 1963, taking the seat of his late father.

Referendums can not be used to make significant changes in the voting system for the lower house of parliament.

If there is a party with an absolute majority in the lower house it will form the government.

A lower house of parliament would be elected by a system of proportional representation on the basis of universal non-racial adult franchise.

The government still has a majority of 19 in the 545-seat lower house .

income

All the studies have shown that there is a redistribution of income from the higher to the lower income groups.

With lower incomes , businesses and households will be forced to curtail their investment and consumption spending.

The two sets of allowances are a great benefit to many couples, particularly those on lower incomes .

There are more people at higher incomes applying for apartments and they are squeezing out the people at the lower incomes.

The danger is that the younger people with below median incomes actually have lower incomes than older people with below median incomes.

Always vulnerable because they lack financial clout, lower income families are an easy target.

What about the effects of lower income tax rates?

Those with lower incomes pay, or should pay, a lower share of their income in tax.

interest

Talk of lower interest rates in the New Year provided the main boost to sentiment.

Much of the $ 154 billion cut will come from lower interest rates.

Nevertheless, in so far as changes in interest rates affect expectations, lower interest rates may still contribute to higher investment.

But along with the reduced risk comes lower interest rates.

The figures have also been given a boost by much lower interest charges as a result of strong cash flow.

Therefore, even firms that are a hundred percent domestic get an extra lift from lower interest rates.

Hence they are more liquid than money market deposits and so carry a lower interest rate.

A budget that stays in balance will mean lower interest rates and an end to the hidden tax I mentioned earlier.

jaw

Mr Hallam was seen by a surgeon who found that his lower jaw was broken and he had damaged teeth.

Rothman believes the muscle helps to lift the lower jaw and move it from side to side.

For this species also, therefore, preferential destruction of upper and lower jaws is indicated.

The lower jaw is easily unhinged and brought aboard.

However, some skins had long side-burns terminating at the lower jaw .

The other end attached to a bony spot on the mandible, or lower jaw .

It has relatively large eyes and a small mouth, with small sharp teeth on both upper and lower jaws .

Abscesses form classically under the lower jaw but can occur in other sites.

leg

Perhaps he is bringing his forearm forwards and leaving the lower leg hanging down.

Trainer D.. Wayne Lukas said the horse tore his right front suspensory ligament, which is in the lower leg .

Lie on your side and bend the lower leg .

Initial word from the training room was a lower leg contusion.

Throw a reverse punch as before and bring the kicking knee forwards without raising the lower leg or turning the hips.

Jones had the hairline fracture of his lower leg examined by a doctor....

Lying on your stomach, lift your lower legs and let your partner push both heels against your thighs.

level

At lower levels the proportion of wealth belonging to each group was smaller in Coventry.

Interest expense will also be reduced since there will be a lower level of accounts receivable to finance.

The two polls revealed lower levels of trust in those countries and people that historically have been Britain's enemies.

Several sociological studies have shown that churchgoers have sharply lower levels of illegitimacy and divorce than others in the population.

There are of course all kinds of truths that are not of this sort; but they lie on a lower level altogether.

Both projects reported success in delaying onset of smoking among adolescents and in achieving lower levels of smoking uptake.

In addition, blacks are still disproportionately represented in the lower levels of the stratification system.

limb

Awards made during and after World War Two have the year of the award engraved on the reverse lower limb .

The lower limbs are very high, allowing in morning sun and filtered or dappled light during the rest of the day.

Symmetrical wasting and weakness was present in the upper and lower limbs and all tendon reflexes were absent.

Jeanie the Half Woman, born without lower limbs , walks on her hands, cooks and even raised a family.

Immobile, her lower limbs yet had the ripple of fined-down muscle about them, the promise of animal movement.

She moaned and her body stretched, her lower limbs pressing tight against him, his thigh filling her inner thighs.

Anyway, there's considerable loss of blood, massive lower limb and pelvic damage and some chest injuries.

limit

Both have pushed up against a lower limit which is, I believe, economic in character.

The lower limits of normal for serum uric acid are arbitrarily defined and may vary from one lab to another.

Should there be a lower limit for undersize fish?

In large transactions vendors may also negotiate a lower limit for individual items.

This expression is an inequality, giving upper and lower limits on relationships between the measured variables.

The lower limits of sensitivity for glucagon and atrial natriuretic peptide assay were 3.7 pmol/l and 1.1 pmol/l, respectively.

But it would give them much-needed practice in monitoring lower limits in future.

The present experimental lower limit on the lifetime is about 10 30 years, and it should be possible to improve this.

lip

The latter's lower lip stuck out and her eyes flickered.

He chewed his lower lip in a grudging silence.

He nervously bites his lower lip and slowly shakes his head.

He extended his lower lip and exhaled.

Chewing on her lower lip , she trundled after him along a flagged passageway and up an ornate wooden staircase.

Bigelow extended his lower lip again and blew.

Biting hard on her lower lip , Isabel brushed away a traitorous tear.

Her mouth was full, and a half-moon of light accentuated the lustrous curve of her lower lip .

order

The lower orders were denied the privilege of the back door and entered through the front.

These are of a lower order of urgency.

Herzberg developed a more sophisticated analysis of the significance of higher and lower order needs.

Second, the actual difficulties encountered overseas appeared to be of a considerably lower order of intensity than had been feared.

Some worksheets may begin with simple lower order questions, leading on to a higher order question.

He shows no urge to rub shoulders with the lower orders but, if anything, a tendency to keep his distance.

In approaching any historical document there should be a progression from lower order to higher order thinking.

The company blamed lower order levels for the decline.

part

Joan wrapped the sturdy cloak more closely around herself, concealing all but the lower part of her face.

The lower part of the course.

Put it well into the lower part of the flame so that soot is deposited on both sides of the strip.

Stone or marble was used for the lower parts of the walls, the upper being of sun-dried brick and timber.

The movement falls into two repeated halves, the second having more chromatic lower parts .

His face looked odd, the upper part brown, the lower part white.

By 1901, the population had grown considerably but increased use of birth control was narrowing the lower part of the pyramid.

Fish moved from the lower parts to the headwaters soon evolve local ways.

price

Invariably, the own-brand range is offered at lower prices than the competing brands.

The system went wrong in the 1970s when long-distance attracted new carriers with new technologies enabling them to offer lower prices .

The advantages offered by mail order suppliers over retail outlets include a wider range of oils and lower prices on larger quantities.

Private firms must be formidably efficient to overcome these handicaps and offer facilities at the same or lower prices .

For 100 years, publicly owned utilities have sold electricity at lower prices than their private counterparts.

Therefore providers ought to be able to agree to contracts for these services at a lower price .

Jim McCrery, R-La., said competition among oil companies would guarantee lower prices for consumers.

rate

Large body-size would, in fact, isolate them from their thermal environment because they would exchange heat at lower rates .

Consumers will see lower rates on home equity loans and adjustable rate mortgages.

Probably because of the very much greater stick forces and lower rates of pitch occurring in most light aircraft.

The lower rates may be a better deal for most employers, but health coverage could be cut back too.

The lower rate can be paid if any one of the requirements is satisfied either by day or at night.

Accounts that pay monthly interest may offer lower rates than those where the interest is paid annually.

Local authorities would get a lower rate of grant the more they let spending rise above these levels. 3.

Some old people who were not included in the scheme as contributors receive a lower rate of pension.

reach

We used the tongue in its lower reaches , where it licked land close to the edge of the Skaftafell site.

It became a rough bridleway, leading through a series of gates on to the lower reaches of moorland.

Councillor Enderby had all the fluency of a life spent in the lower reaches of local government.

There's many more like them, and not just in the lower reaches of the Football League.

Indeed, Rosebury could detect no microbial life at all in the bladder and lower reaches of the lungs.

Quality flounder from the lower reaches of Poole harbour.

Many males do not go far and remain in the lower reaches .

She could either turn round, or brazen her way past the pressmen to the lower reaches of the parkland.

school

We were asked to sit in the third and fourth rows and the lower school children filed in.

During the lower school period there are no grades on these report slips.

It is organize into upper and lower schools with a library in each building.

Kirkby firemen prevented flames reaching the lower school annexe and nursery school, where classes continued close to normal for 140 youngsters.

Consequently children in that school follow aspects of the arts throughout their time at the lower school.

In the school , the fiction section of the lower school was catalogued first.

The lower school had its own grassed and paved play area with plentiful equipment.

slope

The village of Juniper Green may take its name from the Juniper bushes which once covered the lower slopes of the Pentlands.

Lights were already beginning to diamond out of the shadowed pine woods on the lower slopes .

The islands were not visible at all and only the lower slopes of Vesuvius could be seen.

Subsoil Principally Belemnite chalk on the upper slopes , with Micraster chalk on the lower slopes.

So they choose to plant grass and root crops in the few fields on the lower slopes .

Above them rose the poor fields, littered with rock and gorse, the lower slopes of the mountain.

The vegetated lower slopes are a Nature Reserve providing sanctuary for creatures of the wild.

On the lower slopes the boundary hedges are of ancient and solid holly.

standard

The general interior layout is magnificent, but later alterations have made the decoration of a lower standard .

Conversely, they were punished with a lower standard of living and consequent lower status if they chose to have large ones.

This dual negative combination may indicate a lower standard of research conducted in these departments. 7.9 Productivity.

Q: Do crews of bargain airlines have lower standards ?

They often receive a far lower standard of care than patients in this country.

This means that society is increasingly experiencing a lower standard of living than would be possible without rising levels of unemployment.

Even accounting for the generally lower standard of software then, I reckon the reviewers were feeling generous.

A lower classification does not imply lower standards .

tax

In addition they called for lower taxes , free health care, cheaper housing loans and increased spending on state-owned industries.

Presidents have been promising lower taxes since Washington crossed the Delaware by hand in a row boat.

He believed that lower taxes were the route to higher growth and more jobs.

Foreign money capitalized the long expansion that lower taxes helped to create.

But lower taxes and a prudent approach to borrowing do not mean public spending fall; quite the reverse.

To many voters, that means lower taxes .

And once tax evasion becomes a habit it will continue even after lower tax rates are introduced.

People want just taxes , more than they want lower taxes.

temperature

This means that large fibrous structures form near T m, whereas greater numbers of small spherulites grow at lower temperatures .

The heat can penetrate combustible materials, alter their composition and make them ignite at lower temperatures .

If lower temperatures are used, the reducing sugar level may become too high.

Bake in 450-degree oven for 15 minutes, then lower temperature to 325 degrees and bake 25 minutes more.

C, as they seem more susceptible to the disease when kept at lower temperatures .

A lower temperature brings deeper sleep with fewer awakenings.

It does well at the lower temperature , and will take some time to adapt to the temperatures above 70°F.

Calcium chloride, another useful salt, will melt ice at even lower temperatures .

PHRASES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

raise/lower the tone (of sth)

Far from lowering the tone , the changes are set to improve it.

the higher/lower reaches of sth

A booming hearty from the higher reaches of Personnel fills our glasses and remembers nearly everyone's name.

A clutch of them have clawed their way to the higher reaches of educational administration.

But in the higher reaches of the Yorkshire Dales, there is nowhere to hide.

Councillor Enderby had all the fluency of a life spent in the lower reaches of local government.

It became a rough bridleway, leading through a series of gates on to the lower reaches of moorland.

Quality flounder from the lower reaches of Poole harbour.

She could either turn round, or brazen her way past the pressmen to the lower reaches of the parkland.

There's many more like them, and not just in the lower reaches of the Football League.

the lower orders

For example, the first rise in expectations of the lower orders would be for more and better food before manufactured goods.

For the most part the lower orders depended on selling their labour.

Gin was, after all, commercially produced and consumed only by the lower orders.

He shows no urge to rub shoulders with the lower orders but, if anything, a tendency to keep his distance.

Journalists believed that their message could reach even the lower orders.

The riots of 1736, too, had crystallized general resentments of the lower orders.

We must have the freedom to make our mills successful, so that we can offer the lower orders employment.

When friendships finally became possible for him they were with children of the lower orders.

the lower orders

For example, the first rise in expectations of the lower orders would be for more and better food before manufactured goods.

For the most part the lower orders depended on selling their labour.

Gin was, after all, commercially produced and consumed only by the lower orders .

He shows no urge to rub shoulders with the lower orders but, if anything, a tendency to keep his distance.

Journalists believed that their message could reach even the lower orders .

The riots of 1736, too, had crystallized general resentments of the lower orders .

We must have the freedom to make our mills successful, so that we can offer the lower orders employment.

When friendships finally became possible for him they were with children of the lower orders .

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Foreign workers have fewer rights and get lower wages.

I got lower grades than the other students in my class.

muscles of the lower leg

the lower deck of the stadium

The baby's lower lip quivered and then she began crying.

The dentist filled two teeth in my lower jaw.

The divorce rate in Japan is much lower than in the U.S.

The program is broadcast in the morning, a time when advertising rates are much lower .

There's no doubt that lower energy prices are having some short-term impact on the stock market.

They rejected our estimate and suggested a lower figure.

We drove onto the lower deck of the ferry.

your lower lip

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

A higher interest rate will allow a smaller lump sum and lower annual deposits.

Everyone knows that you get a lower air fare if you stay over a Saturday night.

Her irises rest above the horizon of her lower eyelids; the stare fixes me.

The 15 percent. was largely accounted for in the lower ranks.

The alternative - that these lower levels are partly responsible for the development of oesophagitis - is also possible.

The magic, upper and lower case, is gone.

The second was added to the first, over the cheek and lower jaw, to give a further stage of disintegration.

This expression is an inequality, giving upper and lower limits on relationships between the measured variables.

II. verb

COLLOCATIONS FROM CORPUS

■ NOUN

age

Gay activists might offer the lowering of the age of consent or the war on Section 28.

The Labour Party's manifestos at the last two general elections contained proposals to lower the main retirement age .

Most of the sequence is middle Cambrian to lower Silurian age .

bank

But will the banks not then lower their interest rates, thus encouraging people to borrow?

The central bank last lowered interest rates on Dec. 14.

If banks lower the interest rates they charge to borrowers, they must also lower the rate they pay to depositors.

On Thursday, the central bank lowered both its floor and ceiling rates by a quarter point.

If loan demand were weaker, you might see banks lowering the prime more.

Traders said they expect the central bank to lower the key rates when it next lowers the two-week rates.

barrier

This echoed a national unease at lowering complicated inter-provincial trade barriers which would upset thousands of special interest groups throughout the country.

Crews lowered boom barriers several feet high around the nearby ponds.

This torsion-angle strain would lower the activation-energy barrier for the phosphorylation of His15.

Lowering the cost, yes, but also lowering the barriers that made them hard to use.

After his election in 1984, Leon Febres Cordero lowered import barriers and subsidies, and ran a tight fiscal policy.

Albright will be lowering yet another barrier to the advancement of women in public life.

During phosphorylation, the active-centre torsion-angle strain should facilitate the phosphotransfer reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier .

body

Bend your arms at the elbow to lower body .

Keeping the heat inside Sitting in a draughty room will lower your body temperature and make you feel cold and uncomfortable.

Most reptiles utilize the buffering aquatic environment to lower body heat.

Slowly lower your hands and body towards that leg.

Bending your arms, lower your upper body backwards towards the ground and then straighten them without locking the elbows.

She recognised his need, and lowered her body so that his anxious pego infiltrated deeper and deeper into her heavenly playground.

Sit in a full splits position and lower the body gently to the floor in front.

cost

In product markets characterised by complex production processes long-term supply contracts or sub-contracts are commonly used to try and lower these costs .

If government subsidizes the production of some good, it in effect lowers costs and increases supply.

A firm which innocently seeks to lower costs and improve product quality may simultaneously be making it harder for entry to occur.

Similar House and Senate bills, which would lower campaign costs and restrict contributions and spending, were introduced last fall.

Technology also plays a key role in lowering our costs .

Similarly, in one situation, illegal non-capitalist practices -- labor fines -- lower the labor costs of a highly capitalist owner.

Reducing their earnings lowers the airline's cost curves and therefore will most likely cause the airline to reduce its prices.

As a result, insurance companies have no incentive to lower their costs , to find efficiencies, or to control fraud.

costs

Meanwhile an intensive modernisation programme will attempt to lower production costs .

If government subsidizes the production of some good, it in effect lowers costs and increases supply.

To keep profits up, firms will need to lower costs or get more value for their money.

Similarly, in one situation, illegal non-capitalist practices -- labor fines -- lower the labor costs of a highly capitalist owner.

Clearly, if that leads to lower costs and more services, we support it.

As a result, insurance companies have no incentive to lower their costs , to find efficiencies, or to control fraud.

Technology also plays a key role in lowering our costs .

By doing this, he lowers costs and raises profits.

expectations

Just that the latter will have to lower their expectations and make do with imperfect versions of the former.

First, we must lower our expectations .

In many cases you have to lower your expectations accordingly.

Others argued that, unless the families lowered their profit expectations , Iberian could never change.

The suspicion is that Mr Koogle may have lowered expectations so he can later surpass them.

But overall Niccol has done a fine, restrained job in a genre for which many of us have lowered our expectations .

If the diamond fields were the key test, then Col Kposowa was keen to lower expectations .

People lower their expectations according to their age, looks, and wealth.

gaze

He stepped back from the microphone and lowered his gaze , lost in painful emotion.

When Ryan read the charge of homicide of Menendez, Franco lowered his gaze from the bench and stared at his feet.

She lowered her gaze hastily and found her irrepressible sense of humour surfacing.

ground

Jackson lowered himself to the ground .

His son was too heavy, and he lowered him to the ground , where he would stay.

You will need a rope to lower them to the ground as they are heavy - throwing them down is dangerous.

Frank lowered me to the ground .

Masklin felt himself being slowly lowered towards the ground .

The body will begin to lower towards the ground .

As the body lowers towards the ground , place the palms of both hands on the floor for support.

Ali lowers him to the ground , holding his left hand, and tries to get him to walk.

hand

With every nerve tingling she lowered her hand , barely feeling the comb bite into her palm as her grip tightened.

He looked straight ahead and lowered his hands slowly to his sides.

Joe lowered his hands , with the belt still around them.

At their services they sat quietly, eyes lowered and hands folded, waiting for the Spirit to prompt some one to speak.

Slowly lower your hands and body towards that leg.

He lowered his hand and put it over his chest.

Bobo touched her crooked finger to her lips and then lowered her hand , palm upwards.

Sitting with legs apart, stretch up, then twist at the waist and lower the hands and body towards one leg.

head

Her head was lowered in obedience, but there was a faint smile on her cherry lips.

Her head was lowered and her eyes were looking down.

His very stance could be intimidating, standing with his head lowered , bull-like.

Jack sat at the second mirror, his head lowered for maximum listening.

Maria couldn't move her head or even lower her eyes, and time had slipped.

Panting and cursing with pain and rage he came back, head lowered .

Its body is hunched up in a strange way, with its wings drooped, its feathers ruffled and its head lowered .

He found it and clung there for a while, then pushed clear and knelt among the waves, head lowered .

interest

If banks lower the interest rates they charge to borrowers, they must also lower the rate they pay to depositors.

If this were to inhibit credit expansion it could lead to lower interest rates.

The central bank last lowered interest rates on Dec. 14.

Thus an increase in money supply will lower interest rates.

Also, if we slip into a recession the Fed could lower interest rates, forcing long-term Treasuries' prices higher.

The policy-making Central Bank Council meets next Thursday to consider whether to lower key interest rates.

The initial effect of a higher money growth rate is to lower the interest rate.

level

At Foxton, the side ponds allow refilling immediately after down traffic has lowered the water level , saving valuable time.

The three warm days that awoke the flies in the house have also considerably lowered the snow level .

Information flows in both directions at once - from lower to higher levels and from higher to lower levels.

Scientists will know more when they start lowering the water level next Tuesday.

This type of migraine is triggered by lowered oestrogen levels which occur around the time of a period.

Uricosuric agents generally do not lower uric acid levels below the normal range.

In 1992, used car values have fallen to even lower levels .

Hence, no exemplary model or incentive for change is provided to lower level managers.

limit

We will lower the limit on the Post office monopoly much closer to the level of the first class stamp.

Think small One such should be to lower the limits on the size and frequency of nuclear tests.

market

Mr Petty is hoping to gain market share by lowering prices on popular menu combinations under a new three-tiered pricing program.

Last month, after its preliminary soundings of the market , Dataquest lowered its industry sales forecasts.

Current federal farm programs often guarantee growers a minimum price even if the market price drops lower .

percent

The 9.57 percent devaluation lowered the value of the yuan from US$1.00 to US$1.00 yuan.

Exports from that lovely island could be 40 percent lower in 1989 than in 1988.

The evening cortisol level should be 50 percent lower then the morning result.

On average prices were around 25 percent lower between 1720 and 1780 than they had been between 1660 and 1680.

They closed 3. 0 percent lower at 474. 5p, down 14. 5p.

pressure

Walking is a prevention against heart and circulatory disorders and may lower blood pressure .

It may lower your blood pressure .

The cooling fan blows air out of the system unit thus lowering the pressure inside.

That diet lowered their blood pressure as much as a typical blood-pressure-lowering medication would.

Before 1950 there were no generally recommended drugs to lower the blood pressure .

One acupuncture patient was able to lower his blood pressure from more than 240 to 180 without drugs.

The boiling point of a liquid can be reduced by lowering the external pressure .

price

If the price had been £50 lower it would have earned a fourth star.

Slumping heating oil prices drove other oil prices lower as well.

His main concern was that prices were even lower .

The companies have recently been negotiating deals with individual governments to lower prices .

If he is not able to secure those approvals in a year, the price may be lowered .

Current federal farm programs often guarantee growers a minimum price even if the market price drops lower .

rate

Lavish praise given for undemanding and second rate efforts lowers standards rather then enhances them.

Empowerment increases the opportunity costs of children, prompting later marriages and increasing the divorce rate , similarly lowering fertility.

Interest rates have been cautiously lowered .

Many deductions and tax shelters would disappear and in return, rates would be lowered under most flat tax plans.

Interest rates must be lowered and the system suffused with liquidity.

The initial effect of a higher money growth rate is to lower the interest rate.

With the downward-sloping supply curve, higher interest rates lead to lower demand and lower supply.

Traders said they expect the central bank to lower the key rates when it next lowers the two-week rates.

risk

For there is by now a mountain of medical evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol dramatically lowers the risk of heart disease.

Doing so lowers the risk of waking up stiff and sore.

By diversifying your team, you lower the risk of being beaten on the playing field.

By adding to your portfolio share with low betas, you can lower the combined risk of your holdings.

sail

It only needed two men working in unison to raise and lower the junk sails to suit the wind strength.

standard

Developing countries are attracting investment not by lowering their standards , but because they are making the best of their comparative advantage.

Suddenly interested in the achievement of poor black schoolchildren, pundits, federal officials and policy-makers unanimously condemn Ebonics for lowering standards .

Lavish praise given for undemanding and second rate efforts lowers standards rather then enhances them.

He refused to lower his ethical standards for higher ratings.

Food safety guarantees can lock food processors and distributors into purchasing home-produced food and not imports produced to lower standards .

It may become dull and mechanized, lowering its performance standards and expectations in the inter-est of predictable functionality.

Another response has been to dig deeper than usual into waiting lists or to lower admissions standards .

tax

Under a social compact which runs until the end of 1990, the investing organizations will pay lower income taxes .

Many deductions and tax shelters would disappear and in return, rates would be lowered under most flat tax plans.

Boys, we lowered your taxes .

The Nationalist plan would also lower the stock transaction tax to 0. 2 percent from the present 0. 3 percent.

temperature

Keeping the heat inside Sitting in a draughty room will lower your body temperature and make you feel cold and uncomfortable.

They then fan the water so that it evaporates and in doing so lowers the temperature .

To cool, the motor forces air out of the box, so lowering the temperature .

The heat evaporates the water and this also lowers the temperature .

In Winter lower the temperature to around 66°F.

Uplifted sediments would be brought from their depth-related temperature regime and subjected to lower temperatures at higher structural levels.

A spray of fresh mineral water will lower your body's temperature instantly.

tone

Far from lowering the tone , the changes are set to improve it.

water

At Foxton, the side ponds allow refilling immediately after down traffic has lowered the water level, saving valuable time.

I have to break the ice with a long pole before I can lower a bucket into water .

I gave Becky to them and lowered myself into the water .

Scientists will know more when they start lowering the water level next Tuesday.

Endlessly clear skies and lowering water tables.

Meanwhile, the draining of the small rivers for irrigation has lowered the water table in the region.

A four-year drought in East Anglia and extra demands for water from a burgeoning local population have lowered the water table.

The boats are swung out over the side, ready for lowering into the water .

■ VERB

raise

Failing all this, raising and lowering your outstretched arms at your side is an accepted international distress signal.

Missing was a windlass, used to raise and lower the anchor.

These raise or lower , level by level, as you raise or lower the flame.

A simple weaving shed or thread separator is used to raise and lower the warp threads through which the weft is woven.

The threshold time is therefore automatically raised or lowered to compensate for the reader being swept too slowly or too quickly.

It advises a user to raise or lower the number of seats at each fare.

EXAMPLES FROM OTHER ENTRIES

Lowering its head, the bull charged at him.

Houses have lowered in value recently.

The Bundesbank is under pressure to lower interest rates.

The coffin was lowered slowly into the ground.

The old man lowered himself wearily into his chair.

The old man just lowered at us as we walked by.

We're lowering prices on all of our trucks.

We had our kitchen cabinets lowered to be more accessible.

We need to lower the mirror in the bathroom.

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

At any moment he might trample into the road, lower his head, run at some one.

Larsen then passed the window pane down to Grant, and lowered himself through in turn.

Later a microphone was lowered to him.

She lowered the sleeves, down, down, until they reached her wrists.

The South Pasadena specialty food chain recently started lowering its prices for gourmet roasted whole beans.

This is effective not because it lowers serum potassium concentration but because it directly antagonizes the membrane depolarizing effect of hyperkalemia.

III. verb

EXAMPLES FROM CORPUS

At any moment he might trample into the road, lower his head, run at some one.

Larsen then passed the window pane down to Grant, and lowered himself through in turn.

Later a microphone was lowered to him.

Many brokerage house shares were also lower .

She lowered the sleeves, down, down, until they reached her wrists.

The South Pasadena specialty food chain recently started lowering its prices for gourmet roasted whole beans.

They pursue reliability just because they know it leads to lower costs and increased market share.

This is effective not because it lowers serum potassium concentration but because it directly antagonizes the membrane depolarizing effect of hyperkalemia.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.