Meaning of EXPERIMENT in English

EXPERIMENT

I. ex ‧ per ‧ i ‧ ment 1 S3 W2 /ɪkˈsperəmənt, ɪkˈsperɪmənt/ BrE AmE noun [countable]

[ Word Family: noun : ↑ experiment , ↑ experimentation ; verb : ↑ experiment ; adverb : ↑ experimentally ; adjective : ↑ experimental ]

[ Date: 1300-1400 ; Language: Old French ; Origin: Latin experimentum , from experiri ; ⇨ ↑ experience 1 ]

1 . a scientific test done to find out how something reacts under certain conditions, or to find out if a particular idea is true

experiment with/in/on

experiments with alcohol-fuelled cars

experiments on sleep deprivation

by experiment

Many small birds guide themselves by the stars, as has been verified by experiment.

2 . a process in which you test a new idea or method to see if it is useful or effective

experiment with/in/on

an experiment in state socialism

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COLLOCATIONS (for Meaning 1)

■ verbs

▪ do/carry out an experiment

They carried out a series of experiments to test the theory.

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He did some experiments with bats.

▪ perform/conduct an experiment formal (=do an experiment)

The laboratory began conducting experiments on rats.

▪ an experiment shows/proves/demonstrates something

His experiment showed that lightning was a kind of electricity.

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The experiment proved that fabrics treated with the chemical are much less likely to catch fire.

■ ADJECTIVES/NOUN + experiment

▪ a scientific experiment

Astronauts performed scientific experiments during the flight.

▪ animal experiments (=experiments using animals)

I think most animal experiments are cruel and unnecessary.

▪ a laboratory experiment (=one that takes place in a laboratory)

They did a series of laboratory experiments on human sleep patterns in the 1960s.

▪ a field experiment (=one that takes place in the real world, not in a laboratory)

In field experiments, we used patients who did not know that it was a test situation.

▪ a controlled experiment (=one that is done using correct scientific methods)

The theory has not yet been tested by a properly controlled experiment.

▪ a practical experiment (=one that relates to real situations or events, not scientific theories)

The research team compiled a set of practical experiments in Modern Astronomy.

■ phrases

▪ an experiment to test/measure/find out something

We did an experiment to test the acidity of the soil.

■ COMMON ERRORS

► Do not say ' make an experiment '. Say carry out an experiment or do an experiement .

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COLLOCATIONS (for Meaning 2)

■ adjectives

▪ a bold experiment (=one that tries to achieve a lot and takes risks)

The country's bold experiment with economic reform has not paid off yet.

▪ a unique experiment (=one that has not been done before)

Congestion charging is a unique experiment that other UK cities are watching with interest.

▪ a democratic/socialist/communist experiment (=one in which a country tries a new political system)

He went to Havana to judge for himself the success or failure of the socialist experiment.

▪ a social experiment (=one in which people try a new way of living and organizing society)

The community started out as a social experiment.

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THESAURUS

▪ research noun [uncountable] careful detailed work that is done in order to find out more about a subject, especially as a part of a scientific or academic project:

Billions of dollars have been spent on research into the causes and treatment of cancer.

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The University has for a long time been a leading centre for research in this field.

▪ work noun [uncountable] the studies that have been done on a particular subject:

Faraday is famous for his work on electricity.

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A lot of work has been done on hydrogen-powered cars.

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Their work had an enormous influence on the study of genetics.

▪ study noun [countable] a piece of work in which someone examines a particular subject in order to find out more about it, and writes about what they have found:

The study showed that 25 percent of adults do not eat breakfast at all, compared with 14 percent in 1961.

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Recent studies suggest that our sense of smell is closely linked with the part of the brain that deals with memory.

▪ experiment noun [countable] a scientific test in order to find out what happens when you do something:

They carried out a series of experiments (=they did a series of experiments) in order to try to prove their theory.

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Experiments have shown that there is an increased risk of some forms of cancer.

II. ex ‧ per ‧ i ‧ ment 2 /ɪkˈsperəment, ɪkˈsperɪment/ BrE AmE verb [intransitive]

[ Word Family: noun : ↑ experiment , ↑ experimentation ; verb : ↑ experiment ; adverb : ↑ experimentally ; adjective : ↑ experimental ]

1 . to try using various ideas, methods etc to find out how good or effective they are

experiment with/on/in

He experimented with lighter-than-air flight.

The teacher provided some different materials and left the children to experiment.

2 . to do a scientific test to find out if a particular idea is true or to obtain more information

experiment with/on

I would defend the right of scientists to experiment on animals.

3 . to try doing something to find out what it feels like, for example having sex or using illegal drugs

experiment with

She admitted she had experimented with cocaine.

—experimenter noun [countable]

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.      Longman - Словарь современного английского языка.