Meaning of WORK in English



In economics and sociology, the activities and labour necessary for the survival of society.

As early as 40,000 BC, hunters worked in groups to track and kill animals, while younger or weaker members of the tribe gathered food. When agriculture replaced hunting and gathering, the resulting surplus of food allowed early societies to develop and some of its members to pursue crafts such as pottery, weaving, and metallurgy. Historically, rigid social hierarchies caused nobles, clergy, merchants, artisans, and peasants to pursue occupations defined largely by hereditary social class. Craft guild s, influential in the economic development of medieval Europe, limited the supply of labour in each profession and controlled production. The establishment of towns led to the creation of new occupations in commerce, law, medicine, and defense. The coming of the Industrial Revolution , spurred by technological advances such as steam power, changed working life profoundly. Factories divided the work once done by a single craftsman into a number of distinct tasks performed by unskilled or semiskilled workers (see division of labour ). Manufacturing firms grew larger in the 19th century as standardized parts and machine tools came into use, and ever-more-specialized positions for managers, supervisors, accountants, engineers, technicians, and salesmen became necessary. The trend toward specialization continued into the 21st century, giving rise to a number of disciplines concerned with the management and design of work, including production management , systems engineering . By the turn of the 21st century, automation and technology had spurred tremendous growth in service industries .


In physics, the measure of energy transfer that occurs when an object is moved over a distance by an external force, some component of which is applied in the direction of displacement.

For a constant force, work W is equal to the magnitude of the force F times the displacement d of the object, or W = F d . Work is also done by compressing a gas, by rotating a shaft, and by causing invisible motions of particles within a body by an external magnetic force . No work is accomplished by simply holding a heavy stationary object, because there is no transfer of energy and no displacement. Work done on a body is equal to the increase in energy of the body. Work is expressed in units called joules (J). One joule is equivalent to the energy transferred when a force of one newton is applied over a distance of one metre.


[c mediumvioletred] (as used in expressions)

Florentine canvas work

Cosmati work

work of God

right to work law

social work

stalactite work

Work Projects Administration

Public Works Administration

Public Works of Art Project

Saugus Iron Works

International Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works

Works Progress Administration

International Working Men's Association

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Britannica English dictionary.      Английский словарь Британика.