Meaning of DIRECT in English

I. adjective


a direct appeal

The police have issued a direct appeal to the witness to come forward with information.

a direct approach

We would do better to adopt a direct approach and tackle the problem at its source.

a direct benefit

The money sent has been of direct benefit to the islanders.

a direct comparison

You can’t really make a direct comparison between the the two schools.

a direct competitor (= competing directly with you )

He knew she was a successful businesswoman and a direct competitor.

a direct connection

Many people see a direct connection between these events.

a direct consequence of sth (= a consequence directly caused by sth )

The spread of information has been a direct consequence of the Internet.

a direct correlation

Research shows a direct correlation between TV viewing and poor academic work.

a direct measurement (= one made by measuring the thing itself, not a photograph of it )

Instruments in space allowed a direct measurement of Jupiter’s temperature.

a direct order (= a clear order )

What happens to a soldier who disobeys a direct order?

a direct question (= one that asks for information in a very direct way )

She was startled by the direct question.

a direct reflection

The child’s behaviour is a direct reflection of its parents' behaviour.

a direct relationship (= when one thing has an effect or influence on another, without any other things being involved )

There is a direct relationship between the demand for a particular product and its price.

a direct response

Her resignation was in direct response to the party’s poor results in the local elections.

a direct result

The closure of the hospital is a direct result of Government reforms.

a direct route

The motorway is the most direct route.

a direct tax (= a tax on income )

The government’s revenue comes mainly from direct taxes.

a direct threat

The workers destroyed the textile machinery which they saw as a direct threat to their jobs.

a direct/exact equivalent

The word has no direct equivalent in English.

a direct/indirect cause

Government policies are the direct cause of the problems facing the economy.

a direct/indirect influence

The Cubist painters had a direct influence on his work.

The federal government has an indirect influence on investment through its control of bank credits.

a direct/non-stop flight (= a flight going straight from one place to another without stopping )

the first direct flight to Tokyo

a judge directs/instructs a jury (= tells it what to decide )

The judge directed the jury to find her not guilty.

a specific/direct/explicit reference (= mentioning something specifically/directly etc )

No specific reference was made to the race of the children.

direct a film

The film was directed by Jean-Luc Godard.

direct a movie

He wrote and directed the movie.

direct a play (= tell the actors what to do )

The play is directed by Paulette Randall.

direct access

direct action (= that is aimed at making a government or company do something )

In a bid to stop whale hunting, Greenpeace have threatened direct action.

direct action

Peaceful direct action by pressure groups has a powerful effect on public opinion.

direct communication

The new system allows more direct communication between teachers and parents.

direct contact (= spending time with sb )

Our volunteers work in direct contact with people who need help.

direct current

direct debit

direct deposit

direct discourse

direct hit

Our ship took a direct hit and sank.

direct inspiration (= in which someone copies an idea directly from a person or thing )

She took direct inspiration from the films of John Ford.

direct mail

direct marketing

direct method

direct object

direct observation

Piaget developed his theories based on direct observation of children.

direct responsibility (= when no other person is involved )

He has direct responsibility for all the programmes on Radio 1.

direct speech

direct sunlight

This plant prefers to be kept out of direct sunlight.

direct supervision

Trainees need direct supervision for at least the first week.

direct talks

The President declared that he was now prepared to enter into direct talks with the rebels.

direct tax

direct taxation (= tax on income )


The office has direct computer links to over 100 firms.

in direct contrast to sth/sb (= completely different to something or someone )

She’s fun and warm and amusing – in direct contrast to James.

the exact/precise/direct opposite

My own experience says that the exact opposite is true.




Musically and lyrically more direct than its predecessor, it reached deeper into the storytelling tradition.

So-called solvent processing is more direct .

If the theories are successful, some one will find a more direct way of showing that the hypothetical entities are actually there.

We had to adapt and play more direct .

However, particularly for the gamma-ray contribution, more direct measurement of the radiation dose is usually employed.

He can be more direct in sharing his beliefs and opinions with us.

Occasionally the demands of senior politics and junior fun could clash in a more direct way.

She slouches less in her wheelchair, raises her head more and looks at people in a more direct manner.


Employers have the clearest and most direct channels of communication to enormous numbers of people.

Malcolm wanted to create the most direct statement of what clothes were about.

That dispute was settled in the most direct way -- they lined up and hit each other for four hours.

The study of small mammal fossils Fossils provide one of our most direct links with the prehistoric past.

Among the inputs from the environment, the most direct inputs to the political system are demands and supports.

The most direct way of doing so was by prospecting and directing capital to developing mines in new lands.

The most direct methods to achieve political objectives involve some form of political action.



I've seen the homes they live in-mud-floored shacks with no sanitation or direct access to running water.

Never before have so many people had direct access to information from every angle.

The former will tend to require an indexed sequential file on a direct access device.

CompuServe recently shut down direct access to certain newsgroups containing indecent photographs and material.

It has opened up a market to Apple, to which it previously had no direct access .

AlterNet customers use dial-up or high-speed leased lines for direct access to the full range of services available over the Internet.

They have also signed a deal with Freeserve, the internet service provider, offering direct access for students.

Simply ideal for families it has direct access on to the beach and offers a wide range of holiday activities for children.


I don't think our direct actions are a problem reducing our effectiveness.

Before this period, behavior has always been a direct action of the child on objects.

We felt we had to take direct action .

The first is the sensorimotor level of direct action on the environment.

You may be surprised by the success our direct actions have achieved so far.

These charges were dropped in 1916, but by then Sanger was looking to-ward more direct action .

They are spooking away at the window and Charlie and Emma take some direct action and soak them in water.

The group, he said, owed its origins to direct action by environmentalists in Britain.


The direct approach will be hardest for environmentalists to accept.

With her, a direct approach could be quicksand.

Taking the direct approach requires planning, organisation, and a short, positive, action-demanding covering letter.

On the other hand, sometimes a direct approach may be more appropriate.

Deception, in the case before him, he deemed justifiable, preferable to a direct approach .

Will New York's taxi-drivers, known everywhere for their direct approach , heed this message?

The landowner, estate agent or speculator may make a direct approach to the developer.

That she favoured the direct approach ?


Yet the symbol of feminism was perceived as a direct challenge to Catholicism and Catholic values.

Clinton rarely offers direct challenges to the people; he prefers to play the preacher and the conciliator.

A direct challenge to the orthodox test arose in two cases decided in 1987.

It had now become a direct challenge to his manhood.

Each broadcasting organization could henceforth pursue its programme policies without fear of a direct challenge to its sources of revenue.

Nor has there been any direct challenge to the chairman.

This was a direct challenge to Urban, who had not been consulted or even properly informed.

D'Arcy was throwing down a direct challenge for him to come clean, and he knew it.


It is hard to make a direct comparison , for relative prices have changed.

I have yet to get my hands on a 200-megahertz Pentium-based computer to do a direct comparison .

In questions 3 and 7 it is essential that making and buying prices are on a basis allowing direct comparison .

The profitability index allows a direct comparison between the projects in terms of the present value of benefit per unit cost.

The result of this is that a direct comparison with the other regional data is not possible.

But for a direct comparison of clocks to be made, the traveler must return.

In helping to answer this question two direct comparisons are available.

Fig. 10.3 shows the direct comparison of recall efficiency for two bilingual groups and a deaf group.


Each of them has many adherents in the discipline, and at first sight it looks as if the approaches are in direct competition .

Many of the companies appear to have avoided direct competition in the computer or semiconductor market by staking out a profitable niche.

They try to minimize electronics imports from each other and are often in direct competition in export markets.

The Justice Department must consider whether dry kibble and those waxy, doggy burger meals provide direct competition with canned food.

The bid was in direct competition with the offer from Manchester made last week.

Cart transport survived both in direct competition on shorter routes and by taking goods to and from railway stations.

Stallions usually only fight when in direct competition for a harem or a waterhole.


But there is little direct connection .

But it was not until much later that any direct connection between asteroids and Earth could be established.

You can use a terminal program for direct connection to another user.

Testers will need a direct connection to the Internet, as opposed to the dial-up connections popular with home Internet subscribers.

There will be no direct connection between Musselburgh and the Musselburgh Bypass at this location.

It is essential to see the direct connection between the production and distribution of goods in this unified process.

There is little direct connection , because many early ecologists were not interested in evolution.


The report had been generally very favourable and his and his colleagues' morale had improved as a direct consequence .

The first of these events was a direct consequence of the war.

Beyond these direct consequences such labs have implications for the long term development of the host-country's scientific capacity and capability.

The change was thought to be a direct consequence of the protest action taken by conscripts in May.

This was often a direct consequence of bad diet: too much matooke and nothing else.

Each operator adds a single new fact which is a direct consequence of what is known already.

One direct consequence of the amino acid changes is the well recognised reduction in dopamine and serotonin turnover.

The claim by the widow was allowed by the court applying the direct consequence test for remoteness.


He then brings in both feet so that the soles are placed in direct contact with each other.

Managers need to handle highly sensitive direct contacts with clients.

He didn't think much of the unions and their so-called democracy, preferring to rely on direct contact with the leaders.

Blood is very toxic to neurons, which stop working and often die when the blood comes in direct contact with them.

Skin diseases, such as impetigo or scabies, are transmitted by direct contact .

This would constitute direct contact between the bloodstreams of the two people.

The coals constitute a proven commercial gas source which is in direct contact with the recognised potential reservoirs.

It has within it the experiences of direct contacts with the peoples of the world.


From this perspective we can see a direct contrast with the normativist style.

This is in direct contrast to the company's more secretive past as part of the Central Electricity Generating Board.

And in direct contrast again, this approach may bring you long-term loyalty rather than compliance.


One method may be through variations in government expenditure and taxation since these flows are under the direct control of the authorities.

But that was under the direct control of Langley.

The second row is about mine clearance, which was until recently under the direct control of the president's office.

Mackenzie assumed direct control , with his partners in subordinate positions.

Only London's Metropolitan Police currently falls under direct control from Whitehall.

Are you forgetting that we are under the direct control of the Emperor himself?

I thought it was military to allow the top brass at home a more direct control .

It felt like there was no direct control of the machine.


Forms to arrange direct debit payment are available on request.

It's simple to do this now by filling in the direct debit and covenant on the back of the donation form.

Donation by direct debit is now the lifeblood for most charities.

Payments can be made by direct debit and standing orders.

With a direct debit the person receiving payment tells your branch how much is due and when.

In many cases, higher rates apply for those holders who do not pay their accounts by direct debit .

If you incur bank charges, some banks operate a slightly cheaper tariff for direct debits because they are more easily handled.

I instruct you to pay direct debits from my account at the request of Campaign for Real Ale Limited.


The system of direct democracy made the Soviet immediately responsive to the mood of rank-and-file workers.

His ideal was to transplant the classical Athenian model of direct democracy to the new world.

Democracy meant government by the people themselves; what is now tendentiously termed direct democracy.

But direct democracy could not survive the size and complexity of the pluralistic, sprawling nation-states that developed in modern times.

Mr Kinnock hinted at the weekend that direct democracy was likely to become mandatory relatively soon.

Like or dislike it, direct democracy is on the way.

The court was confident that elements of direct democracy can coexist within the representative republic.

Many people argue that direct democracy is unworkable, that society needs representatives to debate and decide issues, Davis said.


Six generations of his direct descendants continued to live in Myddle throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The professor said he has no idea if Ayi is a direct descendant of other Glidji monarchs.

He was an O'Conor and a direct descendant of the last High King of Ireland.

I don't care for the practice of polling because of polling because it is direct descendant of that fraudulent invention sociology.

In many ways the Aphrodisians were the direct descendants of Hellenistic and, more specifically, Pergamene sculpture.

Those who made it an issue were the direct descendants of the anti-military counter-culture of the 1960s.

Fly-leaf of a 1599 Bible perhaps inscribed by her husband to Shakespeare's last direct descendant , his grand-daughter Elizabeth Bernard.

Both marriages were childless; so that Elizabeth was the last direct descendant of William Shakespeare.


Answer guide: They have no direct effect but often the debtor is the other side of the sales entry.

Outdoors Wisconsin clearly has little direct effect on anyone but the suckers.

The departure of Mark, now a professor of engineering at the University of Texas, also had a more direct effect .

Though we found no direct effects on pay, holding other things equal, we found indirect effects of motherhood on pay.

It is, of course, conceivable that the community charge will have a bigger direct effect on local elections in future years.

She couldn't feel any direct effect from the brandy, but she felt looser and more able to talk.

Coefficient b shows the direct effect of being one of the richer respondents on preparedness to break the law.


Now he is giving himself the chance to be chosen by direct election again, thus gaining a mantle of legitimacy.

His opponents say his return was a violation of a town code calling for direct election of the mayor.

Liberal democrats remained in a minority on the Legco, despite their success in the direct elections .

In the event direct elections were held.

His own new powers, however, should last only until direct elections for a President were held.

One made the protection of the environment a constitutional obligation; the other provided for the direct election of mayors and Landräte.

Of the total seats, 75 are filled by direct election and 25 on the basis of proportional representation.

He not only saw off no-confidence motions, but won the Congress round to supporting direct elections for an executive presidency.


This report provides the first direct evidence for expression of P3A + variant mRNA in human thymus.

There is no direct evidence of the prion hypothesis.

We have recently produced direct evidence supporting the possibility of amplification of the birth weight-blood pressure relation in childhood.

Accounting reports measure profit and therefore provide direct evidence as to the organization's performance in a year.

Now the same team has more direct evidence .

There is indeed direct evidence that mechanical stress can generate intracellular signals that regulate gene expression.

Secondly, this third stage, was also vouched for by much more direct evidence .

Sponge-fishing may also have gone on from the ports, though there is no direct evidence of it.


Such direct experience helps the nurse to develop sensitivity and self-awareness.

Few people learn about politics through direct experience .

In this paragraph we have the basis for Brian Way's philosophy: he is interested in introducing direct experience into education.

She has no direct experience but has heard from other kids that it exists.

But Wilkes said they can offer something unique to their practice because of their direct experience of oppression.

There is a freeing of thought from direct experience .

As the first medical officer of health for Lambeth he gained direct experience of cholera and other water-borne diseases.

My only direct experience with murder weapons was Cluedo, but even I knew enough not to mess with it.


There are also new direct flights from Newcastle, Norwich and Birmingham.

Nova was developing in parallel as a booster capable of hurling a spacecraft to the Moon on a direct flight mission.

She argued in favour of a direct flight to London and then on to Jersey.

A late morning direct flight takes you to Kathmandu where you will stay at the Oberoi Soaltee Hotel for 2 nights.

On the grounds of minimizing risk, many of them had decided on a direct flight that did not involve docking spacecraft.

Fast direct flight with quick clipped wing-beats; at rest bobs head when suspicious.

However, direct flight had its drawbacks as well.


Opposite An archer fish achieves a direct hit .

With a beautiful clean throw Trondur made a direct hit .

One scored a direct hit but, despite being showered with glass, there were no serious injuries.

Both were direct hits , as he knew they would be.

The bomb had been a direct hit and only the last few dwellings had still been standing afterwards.

He was killed instantly, a direct hit .

A direct hit on the Al-Rasheed was ruled out because of the western journalists there.

I lay under my cot and prayed that our hooch would not take a direct hit with a rocket.


For developing countries, volatility increased the direct impact on their domestic policies and plans.

This had a direct impact on the problem-solving time which is now on average 8.5 times longer than in the 1980s.

The direct impact of improving health in later life has been relatively recent.

National systems of testing use light sampling methods and therefore the direct impact on the curriculum is unlikely to be large.

It has a direct impact on our growth as persons, happy or unhappy.

The policies which had the most direct impact concerned income tax.

The use of computers or programmable logic controllers in systems which have a direct impact on safety obviously requires special care.

As you might expect, some behaviours are more influential than others but all behaviours have a direct impact on other people.


Probably the most effective direct influence by employment interests on the college curriculum comes from their membership of course committees.

The evidence suggests, then, that the direct influence of religious doctrine on individual reproductive decisions is weak.

Notice that few of these regulations have any direct influence upon the direction of insurance companies' investment funds.

It is difficult to detect any direct influence of Darwin's writings on the development of the main stream of plant ecology.

In the provincial press, and especially the local weeklies, it is more difficult to believe that direct influence was rare.

Within the health service the very direct influence of the doctors has been subjected to considerable attention by policy analysts.

Results from the project have had a direct influence on the development of a new model of human memory.

It is in the field of editorial content that the Great and Good of independent television have exercised their most direct influence .


As this century has advanced, so investment trusts have developed to embrace more direct investment in the shares of other companies.

He pointed to a lag in technology as a factor against such direct investment .

We are trying to drag them here soas to get direct investment and to get foreign capital without incurring foreign debt.

In the 1990s such investment has grown more quickly than direct investment.

They became less willing to transfer capital to the most troubled borrowers by the conventional means of foreign direct investment .

In principle, direct investment brings with it better management, improved technology, and marketing expertise.

That direct investment is itself controversial.


They are a useful alternative for small companies whose overseas operations are limited, not warranting the expense of direct involvement .

But Bonior, the second-ranking House Democrat, denied any direct involvement .

By and large, Sussex escaped a very direct involvement in the war since the main battles were fought elsewhere.

We invited direct involvement from the profession.

This can only be achieved with the direct involvement of current and potential service users and frontline staff in setting service targets.

It is only through direct involvement that Guinness can guarantee that local marketing is consistent with its international strategy.

Dearlove focuses on the pressures to encourage the direct involvement of business interests at local level.


Do not put fluffy rugs in front of open fires, where they are in the direct line of sparks.

As far as I could remember I'd rowed ashore in a fairly direct line from Joanna to the beach.

For information on this, please contact Drew Jamieson of this department on direct line 031-469 3849.

We're in a direct line from Tara for Medoc's spies.

The fires and entrance are oriented in direct line with the midsummer sunset.

Since Sussex offered the most direct line of communication with Normandy, it received special attention.

These entreaties, though modified, come in a direct line from the prophets of the Old Testament.

Positioned at the far end of the lake was a clump of trees in direct line to the aircraft's take-off path.


These are the indirect links and they are as essential for profit contribution as the direct links.

But so far, no direct link has been made between any of these corpses and the Pernkopf anatomy.

In fact there is no direct link between the status of women and the reckoning of descent in one line or another.

Not all studies support a direct link between fat malabsorption and faecal bile acid losses.

The M56 and A56 provide a direct link with the A55, from Manchester.

There may be merely a less direct link .

Gatwick in on the Victoria line, offering a direct link with Hastings, and is approximately 50 miles by road.

The man was another one of those loose ends, potentially a direct link to himself.


The Advertising Standards Authority embraces press, poster, cinema advertising and direct mail .

And, coupons come via direct mail .

The direct mail business is a growth industry.

The program includes brochures, direct mail , television and radio ads, utility bill inserts and the live-operator call center.

Direct Mail One of the most effective ways to recruit and encourage members and supporters is by direct mail.

Airlines run tours, sell junk by direct mail , arrange hotel reservations, while computer companies hardly even handle computer hardware.

If you don't want direct mail from any company there is a surprisingly easy remedy.

Some £930 million was spent on direct mail in 1990.


Honda is supporting the ads for its new Civic model with a £750,000 direct marketing campaign through Jane Porter Direct.

A direct marketing channel moves goods directly from manufacturer to consumer.

In the case of direct marketing the immediate purchaser may be the actual consumer.

Channel A represents a direct marketing channel.

In the 1980s geodemographic systems were hailed as the powerful new direct marketing technique.

In combination, the two data sources and techniques probably provide the latest sate-of-the-art in direct marketing .

A computer database and direct marketing mail shots are among ideas under consideration.

Britain's direct marketing industry employs more than 25,000 people and generates more than £9 billion in trade and revenue a year.


As such it can be an indirect as well as direct method of exporting, depending upon the arrangement.

The most direct methods to achieve political objectives involve some form of political action.

Indeed the Post Office is believed to be the first major organisation to provide the details by the direct method .

Such direct methods were hardly possible except with the backing of military power.

Venus has no satellite and so this less direct method had to be used.

Particularly useful in drawing and design, the two button pen provides the user with a very direct method of control.

It's only thirty miles away, but there's no direct method of getting there because of the reef.

A less direct method is to encourage the growth of clovers in the sward.


The predictability of the direct objects of gnash and purse is revealed by the pleonastic nature of?


Accounting tends to supersede direct observation because the units to be controlled are usually many and they are also probably geographically dispersed.

Addams' work is filled with direct observations and descriptions of happenings.

There is never any sense of working from direct observation of nature.

From their direct observations they absorb a model of marriage.

Generally, however, worksheets should ask questions that require direct observation on site.

Analysis at this level of detail is not usually attempted by direct observation but rather by film or video analysis.

Assistance must likely be uncovered through direct observation , or through accounts of people who worked with the visionary.

Possession of such direct observations on expectations would allow us to test the validity of the rational expectations hypothesis in two ways.


Could it be that Europeanism is in direct proportion to dissatisfaction with one's own political institutions?

And as the country got wilder, the population grew thinner and loveliness increased in direct proportion to danger.

The value of higher education, on this view, is in direct proportion to the critical capacities of its graduates.

This indicates that ferritin is released into the serum normally in direct proportion to the amount stored in tissues.

Latin temperaments rose in exasperation in direct proportion to their owners' frustration.

As one grows the other grows in direct proportion .

A spinning cylinder generates lift in direct proportion to the acceleration it imparts on the air streaming by.

Faith's value, some even suggest, grows in direct proportion to its lack of a rational basis.


Initially, he had bucked against her restraints, often asking her direct questions about her previous life, about his father.

No one in our family answered direct questions very well.

The direct questions we needed to ask of deaf people could not be asked adequately, since we were only language learners.

Is the apparently overconfident patient too afraid to ask a direct question ?

It made Auntie Lou nervous to be asked direct questions .

Faced with such a direct question , and from Mrs Langham, he felt obliged to reply.

Had he been there earlier he might have been asked a less direct question .

Day asked a direct question like a dagger pointed at the jugular.


Thus a direct relationship can be established between bidirectional reflectance and biomass for the grasses.

There is a positive or direct relationship between a change in demand and the resulting changes in equilibrium price and quantity.

It is a tradition in which each devotee must have a direct relationship with a Sufi sheikh.

Clergy have a prime role in setting up schools and a favoured position of direct relationships with the appropriate state institutions.

It is always difficult to establish any direct relationship between campaign contributions and specific legislation.

When the effects of this additional factor are analysed, the direct relationship between economic development and institutional performance disappears.

It was the 1960s before the bishops began to distance themselves from direct relationships with the government of the day.


But caution had reasserted itself, a direct response to his mockery.

Gamble, announced last week that it would follow a direct response model for Web advertising.

You rarely see a direct response ad which does not put a clear offer - and the price - in its headline.

She nursed them, but they talked to him, vocalising in direct response to his cooing-even as tiny infants.

Furthermore, these forms of behaviour are not simply direct responses to external stimuli.

This is, clearly, a pretty naive view, even of a direct response campaign.

The first is through what is called direct response - where people volunteer information about themselves.

In poetry, it is the student's direct response which is called for.


They were a direct result of the Uprising.

Much of this is the direct result of the selection of more optimal sites for planting the grape.

The rise of corporate power is a direct result of governments' actively adopting neoliberal economic policies.

What they often fail to see is that cults are a direct result of blocked politics.

This return to a leaner structure is a direct result of the downturn in sales in key areas such as Impressionist paintings.

I think we should see this pessimism as a direct result of adopting the representational theory of the mind.

Looking back from the 860s, Charles saw this as the direct result of divine intervention.


Previously a runner could choose to make the 900 foot ascent on the same direct route as the descent.

It looked as if the most direct route was through the green blotch on the map and the horizon: pines.

From here it's a pretty direct route back to National Airport tomorrow.

In general, pedestrians prefer to walk on the level and by direct routes .

This was the most direct route from Rome to Byzantium.

These two mills were also on the direct route to Bristol and within a few miles of Fromebridge.

All the direct routes to Ireland are carefully guarded.


The decision to impose direct rule followed the expiry of Governor's rule at midnight on July 18.

By midnight, there was no indication that Milosevic had imposed direct rule in the capital.

For example this happened in 1972 when the Westminster Parliament reimposed direct rule in Northern Ireland.

In March 1972, the Stormont parliament and executive were abolished and direct rule was applied.

The path least likely to cause trouble appears to be the continuation of direct rule from Westminster.

Introducing direct rule had been easy enough; ending it was a problem.

Apparently fearing that direct rule might be imposed, the Moldavian Supreme Soviet voted on Dec. 30 to endorse the decree.

The period of the King's direct rule was one of peace and prosperity.


These arrangements with established publishers also make it possible to reach bookshops through direct sales representation.

Since then, the number of direct sales outlets has increased significantly.

The result has been an explosion in direct sales .

Netwise thought direct sales would increase by expanding into potential geographical markets.

Stratus attributes part of the decline to an increase in its own direct sales .

These direct sales forecasts may be constructed using the methods described in this chapter, and Chapter Eight.

Each of the five centres intends to provide direct sales , demonstrations, project design and planning and systems integration.

Ask also set up a new distribution business unit which will integrate its worldwide direct sales operations.


Unfortunately it get direct sunlight , and is afflicted with algae.

Winter, summer, spring, or fall, the Vanyas' house received no direct sunlight .

Never fall asleep in direct sunlight .

They need bright light, but should be watched for signs of scorching in strong direct sunlight during the summer.

For one thing, the rate is dependent on temperature, and exposure to direct sunlight over long periods increases hydration.

In bright or open shade, there is no direct sunlight but plenty of indirect light.

It is important to store pressed material flat, away from direct sunlight and as free from dust as possible.

In full shade there is no direct sunlight , but there is some indirect light.


This points to shifting the emphasis away from direct tax on people's incomes and on to taxes on wealth or on spending.

Moving on, Doumer increased his revenues by funneling customs duties and direct taxes into his central treasury.

In 1294-7, it has been calculated, the laity and clergy together yielded £280,000 in direct taxes to the king.

Then on March 22, 1765, Parliament in the Stamp Act imposed the first direct tax on the colonies.

But the larger part is supposed to come from direct taxes .

To recap the method, direct taxes have a legal framework facilitating the assessment of the overall effective marginal tax rates.

In contrast, direct taxes can only be changed at Budget time.

Income tax is by far the most important direct tax, alone contributing almost 26% of government receipts.


For example, the Long-term programme of Economic Stabilization recommended that there should be a shift away from indirect taxation towards direct taxation.

Some income will be taken in direct taxation , such as income tax and so will not be available for other uses.

That is the policy which we have pursued consistently, with the result that direct taxation has come down substantially.

Strictly speaking we should add the various National Insurance contributions to the total for direct taxation .

Given the progressive nature of taxation , the proportion of earnings paid in direct taxation varies.

In 1980-81 the highest 10% of earners paid approximately one-quarter of their earnings in direct taxation .

A local income tax would give councils the power to jeopardise Britain's belated conversion to a belief in low direct taxation .

These negative effects of direct taxation can not any longer be ignored.


Royal power worked through the church in more direct ways .

But a more direct way exists for the Moon to influence fertility.

Instead, he chose to reply to Goma's letter in his own direct way .

That dispute was settled in the most direct way -- they lined up and hit each other for four hours.

If the theories are successful, some one will find a more direct way of showing that the hypothetical entities are actually there.

He liked her direct way , always liked that in people; not having to figure out where somebody stood.

The most direct way of doing so was by prospecting and directing capital to developing mines in new lands.

For all of them, collage is the most direct way of disrupting the ordered world of published images.


in (direct) contradiction to sth

Hatred is in contradiction to Christian values.

Delusions are based on wishes too, but they are in contradiction to reality.

He sees the trajectory of his industrial social formation in contradiction to meeting fundamental human and social needs.

Many broadcasters felt that they were expected not to say anything on the air which was in contradiction to Government policy.

Of course, our bodily forms and somewhat disorganized working systems were in contradiction to their understanding of the correct codes of policing.

Schor's evidence is in direct contradiction to the neo-classical income / leisure trade-off model outlined above.

There are thus no circumstances in which the Chewong may behave in contradiction to their ideologically constructed concept of human nature.

This was totally in contradiction to Mr Venables' claim that he was promised security of tenure.

Will there not be a continuity of evolution implied, in contradiction to our postulated discontinuous collapse?


Cutbacks in defense spending will have a direct impact on 80,000 jobs.

From 1914 to 1918 the British people had their first direct experience of war from the air.

I'm not in direct contact with them.

I have direct access to the company's database.

It's best to be direct when talking with the management.

People were often scared of my father, who was very direct .

Shade Road would be a more direct route to the freeway.

Sue has direct control over the business.

The Chin tracks in India follow the most direct line between villages, regardless of gradient.

Tyler's fierce public image was a direct contrast to his tender love for his family.

We can get a direct flight to New York.

We have had no direct contact with any government officials.

Weight increases in direct proportion to mass.

Which is the most direct route to London from here?

With her direct manner and good head for business she was soon promoted.


A satisfactory alternative or addition to biliary brush cytology is direct biopsy of the stricture using small forceps under fluoroscopic control.

Accounting tends to supersede direct observation because the units to be controlled are usually many and they are also probably geographically dispersed.

But poverty is also the direct result of a new historical disadvantage: the exclusion of older men and women from work.

Russell Glass of Premier Partners is more direct .

The file designer will find it worthwhile to examine every direct processing application of an indexed sequential file critically.

The government's concern has led it to exert fairly direct , although informal, control over the pay bargaining process.

There are also new direct flights from Newcastle, Norwich and Birmingham.

II. verb




This book is directed toward informing action .

It was nationalised in 1946, and has the power to direct the actions of other banks.

They must interpret the internal logic which directs the actions of the actor.

Yet the ideal of perfect love still informs the spirit in which we live directing our thoughts and actions .

Since humans have no instincts to direct their actions , their behaviour must be based on guidelines which are learned.

Similarly, during the Renaissance, humanist theory was directed at language in action .

Would any direct action stem from promptings of age or gender?


Given the nature of the project, Pontus Hulten was an obvious choice to direct the artistic activities of the new Kunsthalle.

These actions are directed by cognitive activity rather than dominated by perceptions, as was the case with preoperational thought.

Those trained allegedly formed a death squad which directed its activity against pro-ANC activists.

They direct and coordinate activities of deans of individual colleges and chairpersons of academic departments.

The right to organize and direct the activities of others is built into the role of leader-manager.

Humphrey knew about it, but decided not to make it public because he could not prove Nixon personally directed those activities .

He might also, quite obviously, direct the activities of bishops throughout the Church, translate them and control them.


The bronze horse-bits, well known from the northern steppelands, also direct our attention that way.

At first they directed all their attention to identifying the right strategy for the organization.

All boys were expected to play sport twice a week-here the manager directed my attention to the window.

Both schizophrenia and mood disorders show evidence of decreased activity in frontal lobes and abnormal function of the system for directed attention .

It directs our attention away from the language itself.

Doing so directs their attention to their drinking and reminds them that they are trying to moderate their consumption.

Then if you find it is starting to gnaw something which it shouldn't you can direct its attention elsewhere.

Broadly speaking, elite analysis directs the researcher's attention towards socio-political determination as opposed to economic determination.


Zimmerman and Associates was paid about $ 100, 000 in 1995 to direct the failed campaign to defeat Prop 200.

No one directed the campaign from above.


An application may be made without notice to the other parties unless the court directs otherwise.

If the court gives leave, the trustee must make provision in respect of the proof in question as the court directs .

In practice this order will also be followed for the purposes of cross-examination and closing speeches unless the court directs otherwise.

The local authority must complete the investigation and report back to the court within eight weeks unless the court directs otherwise.

Therefore, on payment out, the court must direct what is to happen to the accrued interest.


If Tebbit wished to attack bias as such he should have directed his criticism at the press rather than television.


But how best to direct our efforts for improvement is bound up with our perceptions of the reasons for the differences.

A former Thompson campaign worker, Mary Crutchfield, 30, is directing the Dole effort in that state.

We are committed to prudent exploration and will direct efforts to ventures which offer significant potential.

This focus can be used to direct all recruitment efforts .

Negotiations with Moda'i Initially, Peres directed his efforts towards winning the support of small orthodox religious parties.

In the post-war period Moscow directed much effort towards overcoming its agricultural inferiority vis-à-vis the West, especially the United States.


He's directing a new film , Shadowlands, based on the life of C.S. Lewis.

He set out on his own, acting, writing and directing his own films .

But when these documentary imports came to direct films of their own, they revealed distinct personal leanings.

At that stage, Nichols had yet to direct a film .

When Callow himself chooses to direct a film , he finds that Makavejev has told the truth.


The judge is there to hold the ring impartially and to direct the jury on the law.

The Court of Appeal quashed the conviction because the judge had directed the jury in Caldwell terms.

The trial judge did not so direct the jury .

He directed the jury to return verdicts of not guilty, which they did.


Cliff was visible through the windows as he went from room to room directing operations .

Food and beverage managers direct the food service operations of hotels.

Under the state of emergency, the government can take over or direct the operation of public utilities and businesses.

Here General Bragg was directing operations in person...

Then, on-screen menus automatically direct every operation .


Why should the department suddenly have directed its policies to the benefit of the inner city?

It must initiate, formulate and direct general policy .

How far judicial discretion on sentencing should be directed by Government policy is problematic.

The Bureau is directed by a Policy Board of leading elected members and officers from its parent Associations.

A natural endowment approach to equity would direct policy towards the gifted, who are better able to benefit from the policy.


In 1955 Kramer decided to direct his own productions , keeping a shrewd eye on both the box-office and the Oscar donors.

Fugard will not act in or direct the La Jolla production , as he did in New York.

Trevor Nunn is directing both productions .

Thus, a reasonable immediate goal would be to direct our domestic oil Production towards fulfilling domestic transportation needs.

In fact, Ninagawa takes just one month to direct a production and rehearses only five hours a day.

And with Herbert Ross initially set to direct , the production has undergone many changes before reaching the Emerald Isle.


One could well direct that question to the Labour party.

I was directing this question at Jen, who was fishing in her coffee for something.

He directed his question at no-one in particular.

She directs the question to Primo this time.


Sometimes chance discovery directs research on to new and profitable lines.

In 1964 he founded the Glynn Research Laboratories, where he directed biochemical research until 1986.

Accordingly I directed my researches to the first steps on the ladder, the branch and workshop.


They need initiative, self-discipline, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others.

These higher-ranked demons have the responsibility of directing the work of the lower ranking ones.



Don't miss this funny, poignant, visual production written and directed by acclaimed playwright John Godber.

A confused treatment of a good idea, written and directed by Mark Peploe.

He set out on his own, acting, writing and directing his own films.

Friday at the Opera Plaza. wrote and directed .


A steward directed us behind the stage and towards the dressing rooms.

Go and ask the patrolman - he'll direct you to the freeway.

Steinberg directed Argonne's chemistry division from 1982 to 1988.


A former Thompson campaign worker, Mary Crutchfield, 30, is directing the Dole effort in that state.

All too often attention is directed away from the present encounter to the next so that response is reduced to a minimum.

Evaluation can be directed towards the various aspects of the educational course or programme.

It was a troubled film, directed by Sam Peckinpah who constantly had the Columbia Studio brass breathing down his neck.

Now he directed a section of the Military Intelligence unit concerned with the security of the state from threats outside its boundaries.

Those who are directing the ballpark construction say the lift technology is tested and will pose little danger to workers.

Top level managers direct all computer-related activities in an organization.

III. adverb


Dole spoke directly about his age, saying it was not a liability.

I'm flying direct to Dallas from Los Angeles.

It's usually cheaper to buy the goods direct from the wholesaler.

She's not directly involved in the selling side of the business.


Don the swank, hop on the Vespa, and scoot on down for a lesson in ska direct from Fresno.

Its knowledge comes to it direct .

They wanted to talk to you direct , but I said that would frighten you off.

Longman DOCE5 Extras English vocabulary.      Дополнительный английский словарь Longman DOCE5.