Meaning of REDUCTION in English



a cut/reduction in expenditure

There has been a marked reduction in expenditure on some social and welfare services.

a fall/reduction in unemployment

We are hoping to see a fall in unemployment.

a price cut/reduction

Holiday sales were down, even with drastic price cuts.

a wage reduction/cut

Those who kept their jobs had to take large wage cuts.

progressive decline/reduction/increase etc

the progressive increase in population




Even more importantly, it can achieve dramatic reductions in the amount of energy used.

The main advantage of the Flydaw dramatic reduction in the capital cost of construction.

High seed rates cause a dramatic reduction in anchorage strength because the spread of the structural roots is restricted.

This was discussed in chapter 3, but an example will illustrate the often dramatic reduction in manufacturing jobs in rural areas.

In future, the hon. Gentleman should acknowledge the dramatic reduction in unemployment in his constituency during this Parliament.

The report was commissioned from scientists in five countries in order to assess the impact of dramatic reductions in carbon emissions.

Mr. Higgins My right hon. Friend is to be congratulated on the dramatic reduction in the inflation rate.


Another reason is the drastic reduction in housing benefit in 1988.

The drastic reduction in the number of committees was felt to be impracticable.

He and Dean had just been laid off during a seniority lapse because of a drastic reduction of crews.


It is to be hoped that Essex and Kent will soon assist in further reduction !.

Congress could extend its temporary funding -- with or without further reductions -- for another month or even a year.

The profits squeeze has reduced bonuses while a further reduction in overtime means operatives' earnings have suffered.

Any possibility of further reductions in respite care should be strenuously resisted.

Thus, beyond a certain point the marginal social benefit of further risk reduction will exceed the marginal social cost.

And now the Thatcher government threatens further reductions .

Those who do not wish the Territorial Army well will point to reduced recruiting figures and make claims for further reductions .

They must show potential proliferators that they are prepared to secure further reductions in their nuclear arsenals.


The largest overall reductions have been achieved in the 85 + age group.

Yet large and sudden reductions in stock values are not remote events.

The large reduction in ripple currents is an advantage, but input and output decoupling capacitors are still required.

In species that forage inshore, clutches are usually larger but brood reduction may occur under adverse circumstances.

These changes, appropriately pursued, could also bring large long-term reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide and other environmental impacts.

The largest reduction was in the number of elderly casualties.

The use of a morphologically-based lexicon can lead to a large reduction in the storage requirements for the lexical information.


The acceleration of a major cost reduction exercise initiated in 1991 and an active portfolio re-focusing programme helped to limit losses.

We can expect major reductions in the generation of some wastes, and minor reductions in others.

We did in fact get through a very major reduction at Bournville without any forced redundancies.

The concessions provided for a total dismantling of customs duties for some products and for major reductions in duties for others.

The government was committed to further major reductions in defence spending.


The largest overall reductions have been achieved in the 85 + age group.

Desulphurization was approximately 73 % with an overall ash reduction estimated at greater than 90 %.

Furthermore, the overall reduction in residential capacity sometimes means that the most troubled youngsters do not get the help they require.

This would result in an overall reduction of 30 casualties.


A progressive reduction in tissue perfusion may accompany recurrence of Crohn's disease while at a subclinical stage.


The reason for the sharp reduction is more security doors, screens, lighting, and alarms.

The result has been a saving on energy of Aus$90,000 a year and a sharp reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide..

Mr. Heathcoat-Amory Yes, the sharpest reduction in disconnections for debt has occurred since the companies were put into the private sector.

However, other observers attributed the sharp reduction in rainfall to the accelerated destruction of tropical forests.

One of the consequences of the 1988 drought was a sharp reduction in the set-aside programme.

That's led to a sharp reduction in the volume of other rubbish that's collected in the normal way.


There was no significant reduction in deaths from myocardial infarction.

New inventions like the steam plow threshing machine, and reaper led to significant farm workforce reductions .

The recently published Medical Research Council trial showed a reduction in strokes but no significant reduction in coronary events.

As expected, shadowing did result in a significant reduction in right field advantage for the verbal task.

These contributed to a significant reduction in stock losses.

The last decade has witnessed significant reductions in regulatory barriers to investment in foreign securities.

Along with this there was a significant reduction in circulating platelet aggregates.

Both National Westminster and Barclays said earlier this year that there would be significant manpower reductions when their annual results were published.


One is an area protection grant which gives extra to areas that suffered a substantial reduction in income from the business rate.

Instead of expanding nurse training, colleges are planning a substantial reduction in intakes.

While the urban groups have experienced substantial reductions in real income, their rural cousins have maintained and maybe improved their incomes.

He could have used exports to get the economy going with a substantial reduction in the exchange rate and greater devaluation.

Despite substantial reductions in mortgage interest rates confidence did not return to the marketplace.

The House of Lords held that it was of merchantable quality because it was saleable without any substantial reduction of the price.



On top of the recovery in demand, Forte stands to gain the full benefit of cost reductions of £40m made last year.

An open environment is good for the industry because it promotes innovation and cost reduction , which in turn promote competitiveness.

The basic driving forces propelling firms abroad come from managers' desires for growth, for cost reduction and for control.

Even cost reduction , except through material substitution, does not seem to be a focus.

Predictions for 1993 are only marginally better, hence the emphasis on efficiency and cost reduction will be stronger than ever.

These cost reductions occurred gradually over a six-year period.

These cost reductions are improving our margins and profitability.

The main argument then turned largely to cost-accounting and cost reduction .


Multilateral institutions would be asked for debt reductions equivalent to those agreed by the private banks.

He also would establish a national debt-elimination sinking fund to set aside the fruits of economic growth for debt reduction .

The alternative is to push the task of debt reduction even further into the future.

Baldwin had aimed by his example at a debt reduction of £1000 million.

Managers charge a fee and a cut of any debt reduction .


Otherwise Congress would have to face the consequences of automatic across-the-board cuts under the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings budget deficit reduction law.

It is widely asserted, with little evidence, that deficit reduction reduces interest rates.

The outcome is foreshadowed by the radio speeches, in which he devoted more attention to tax relief than deficit reduction .

Christopher Shays, R-Conn., announced that he would vote against repeal because it would undercut deficit reduction .

The projected deficit reduction depended on government revenue rising 22 percent in 1989, and on spending increasing by only 15 percent.

Bonds began falling late yesterday after talks aimed at crafting a seven-year deficit reduction plan broke off.

Some of his supporters on the Hill told him to press on further with deficit reduction while he had a fair wind.

Although money is technically building up in the trust funds, a portion often is withheld as a part of deficit reduction .


The battle ahead is about what should be in the poverty reduction plans .

The remainder of the charge will be used to cover other cost-reduction plans .

Bonds began falling late yesterday after talks aimed at crafting a seven-year deficit reduction plan broke off.


The most widely used consumer promotion is the price reduction or price promotion.

They may also feature brand name products whose price reductions are subsidized by food manufacturers.

The resulting estimates will then be used to calculate the changes in welfare resulting from some simple price reduction scenarios of 1992.

For instance, an ill-judged price reduction may have an opposite effect to that desired.

Most supermarkets sell a wide range of products - often with special offers and price reductions .

Following due diligence the purchaser may try to seek price reductions to cover issues which their accountant's have identified.

In early June the price was affected by a story concerning price reductions in champagne.

However, Vantec has tiny margins and Nissan will demand further price reductions .


We have decided that in April 1992 there will be a flat rate reduction of £2 rather than the £3 of last year.

Leading lenders were last night warning they may not be able to pass on any further rate reductions to mortgage holders.


Foot said that he could cut unemployment to under one million in five years by public spending, tax reduction and devaluation.

The goals of the Administration remained the same: tax reductions , not tax increases, spending restraint, not spending cuts.

Automatically this implies substantial tax reductions .

The Dole plan is vague as to what programs would be reduced or eliminated to pay for the tax reductions .

While the president has recommended targeted tax reductions for families with children and education, administration officials oppose across-the-board cuts.

Knowing that for Republicans a capital gains tax reduction for investors is paramount, the president obligingly provided one of his own.


The victimization which occurred, the loss of trade union membership, and the wage reductions all seemed to confirm this impression.

Deregulation clearly led to some wage reductions .

Widespread wage reductions were imposed during the recession of 1906-9 and price inflation thereafter impeded the recovery of real wage levels.

It is precisely this group that also took the biggest wage reductions in the 1970s and 1980s.

The summer of 1925 was hardly the most propitious moment for the textile unions to make their stand against further wage reductions .

If anything, wage reductions are going to be accelerating.

Let us assume that insiders are now willing to accept a real wage reduction soas to protect their jobs.

If a company survives through government subsidies, tax breaks, and wage reductions , is it competitive?



Many hoped to achieve a reduction in numbers of follow up appointments.

How does Health Secretary Virginia Bottomley hope to achieve a ten percent reduction in smokers without a ban on tobacco ads?

Even more importantly, it can achieve dramatic reductions in the amount of energy used.

For this reason it is not often possible to achieve a reduction in space requirement by using an inverted file.

It is unlikely that when they signed they could ever have had the slightest hope of achieving such a reduction .

Naturally, networks that achieve such frequency-dependent reduction are termed filters.

Therefore after six months the dieter is behaving according to all twenty-six goals and she has achieved a considerable reduction in sugar intake.

To set up a working group to look at ways of achieving a reduction of differentials for next year.


Much concern has been expressed that acid precipitation causes a reduction in forest productivity.

Shortened red cell survival in patients with uraemia may have caused a reduction in carbamylated haemoglobin in all study groups.

High seed rates cause a dramatic reduction in anchorage strength because the spread of the structural roots is restricted.

This causes an immediate reduction in anxiety so in a sense the person is rewarded for running away.

Hydrogen peroxide and its metabolites do not reduce nitroblue tetrazolium, so superoxide may cause the reduction .

The latter is thought to cause a reduction in blood flow and may predispose to perforation.

Compaction of the sediments under very high overburden pressure has caused appreciable porosity reduction .


These include code reduction functions, prefix and suffix operations, scatter operations and data sorting.

Punishment has included reduction in rank, forfeiture of pay, confinement and bad conduct discharge.

The restructuring will include job reductions and the closing of two manufacturing plants.

Group health promotions could include work on weight reduction , diet, exercise and mobility.

This agreement includes pay reductions at all levels, contracting out of non-core activities and a three year industrial peace clause.

Our initiatives include cost reduction and operating efficiency programmes and changes to our portfolio of assets.


Provision of fire corridors and lobbies could involve a reduction in the net space occupied by the company doing the sub-leasing.

So it appeared obvious that in the absence of a known cause, any rational prevention strategy must involve partner reduction .

This amount can be estimated from purely private choices involving small risk reductions .


A currency union is likely to lead to a reduction in member countries' natural rate of unemployment.

Deregulation clearly led to some wage reductions .

It would change the military strategies of the former Warsaw Pact countries and lead to troop reductions .

Three regular meals a day avoiding snacks often leads to weight reduction .

Although large numbers of staff are not involved, the changes will lead to a reduction in Home Office manpower.

Sintering usually leads to a reduction in mass with pores becoming more spherical or being eliminated.

A first step could be to increase regulation, leading to reduction and finally abolition of arms trading.

New procedures and improved works instructions have led to a dramatic reduction in the manufacture of below-specification material.


For bonds and other financial assets, this means a reduction in their rate of interest.

An interruption in the increase in debt means an actual reduction in demand for goods.

Inevitably this means a reduction in the standard of graduate turned out.

It pointed out that drilling levels were already falling and predicted this would mean a further considerable reduction .

This means that the total reduction in particulate emissions will be 90% compared to an untreated engine.

For many pensioner couples, this should mean a reduction in their tax liability.

An additional benefit is that the machine is easy to clean, meaning a reduction in labour time.

Langbaurgh's budget has been limited to £16.5m which will mean a reduction in poll tax bills of £18 a head.


That effort produced only modest reductions in uniformed personnel and military units and preserved all major procurement programs.

The diet worked especially well for those with high blood pressure, producing reductions similar to those from single-drug therapy.

A return to the old plastic sack would presumably produce an equally instant reduction .

But industry analysts assert that the proposed merger, announced Monday, could produce significant job reductions .

Rising unemployment was important in producing the reductions in unions' members, funds, and militancy.


In response, the Guard is resorting to political clout to reverse the proposed reductions .

Human rights groups object to the proposed 50 percent reduction in the number of refugees who could be admitted to the country.

The Pentagon study does propose personnel reductions from programmed levels.


This can result due to reductions in overmanning and improvements in other types of slack management procedures.

This resulted in a marked reduction in the construction of dwellings in the public sector.

These changes may result in somewhat greater reductions in employee numbers than we had previously envisaged, in addition to any transfer out of teams.

As expected, shadowing did result in a significant reduction in right field advantage for the verbal task.

My amendment would result in a reduction in the burden on these people to the tune of 50 percent.

But both suffered from the blurring of detail which resulted from the reduction in size that their drawings underwent in printed form.

Helen's frustration with people who don't appreciate her could result in a marked reduction in her tolerance level.

The current recommended diabetic dietary regimen appears to result in a reduction in lipid cardiovascular risk.


The recently published Medical Research Council trial showed a reduction in strokes but no significant reduction in coronary events.

Percentage Defects continue to improve as shown by a noticeable reduction in variability and level.

Other studies have shown that the reduction of risk of heart attack is not the only health benefit of exercise.

Some 64 % showed reduced fine wrinkling, and 65 % showed reductions in brown spots.

The data have been verified immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 to show a reduction in the labelling index.

Patients with frontal lobe damage also show a reduction in emotional responsiveness.

A subsequent trial in children previously infected with respiratory syncytial virus showed no reduction in either incidence or days of symptoms.

And many more of the neurons show reductions in activity-inhibition-than do neurons on the right.


A spokesman for Nissan confirmed that the reduction in component spending would run into millions of pounds annually.

She funded the reductions by cutting spending and reducing state contributions to various pension and trust funds.

Republicans have been diligent about insisting that their reductions in spending growth are not actually cuts.

Over seven years, the change could mean a $ 200 billion reduction in state spending for Medicaid.


a reduction in working hours

Cleaner fuel has contributed to a reduction in air pollution.

New production methods led to a cost reduction of about 50 percent.

Several holiday firms are offering huge price reductions on winter holidays.

The U.S. has agreed to an arms reduction proposal.

There has been a big reduction in the number of issues the president addresses in any given week.

There were reductions of up to 50% in some stores.

We offer a reduction for groups of 10 or more.


And now the Thatcher government threatens further reductions.

As the formula clearly involved some reduction in wages, this was much more than a formality.

But industry analysts assert that the proposed merger, announced Monday, could produce significant job reductions.

Despite considerable reductions in pollution into the estuaries such as the Tees, Northumbrian region did not achieve the expected upgrade.

Managers charge a fee and a cut of any debt reduction .

Prosecutors are now discussing a reduction of the charges against Lundwall to a misdemeanor for his cooperation.

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