Meaning of DAMAGE in English

DAMAGE

INDEX:

1. to damage something

2. to damage something deliberately

3. when weather/water/chemicals etc slowly damage something

4. to damage something by using it

5. physical damage caused by something

RELATED WORDS

to have a bad effect on something : ↑ HARM

to damage something so badly it cannot be repaired : ↑ DESTROY

to hurt or injure someone : ↑ HURT/INJURE

damage to the environment : ↑ ENVIRONMENT (5)

see also

↑ BREAK

↑ BROKEN/NOT BROKEN

↑ SPOIL

↑ TEAR

↑ MARK

↑ REPAIR

↑ CONDITION (1-6)

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1. to damage something

▷ damage /ˈdæmɪdʒ/ [transitive verb]

to break part of something or spoil its appearance :

▪ The goods were damaged during transport.

▪ Don’t put any hot things on the table - you’ll damage the surface.

badly/severely damaged

▪ The building had been severely damaged by fire.

damaged [adjective]

▪ I was lucky to escape from the accident with nothing but a damaged windscreen.

▷ do/cause damage /ˌduː, ˌkɔːz ˈdæmɪdʒ/ [verb phrase]

if one thing or person does or causes damage to another, it damages that person or thing - use this especially to say how much damage there is :

▪ The explosion caused over £50,000 worth of damage.

▪ In the end, the Internet virus did little permanent damage.

do/cause damage to

▪ Too much sun can do serious damage to your skin.

▷ break /breɪk/ [transitive verb]

to damage a machine or piece of equipment so that it does not work or cannot be used :

▪ Leave that clock alone - you’ll break it!

▪ We used to have a remote control for the TV, but my brother broke it.

broken /ˈbrəʊkən/ [adjective]

▪ One of the car’s rear lights is broken.

▷ scratch /skrætʃ/ [transitive verb]

to damage a painted or polished surface by making long thin marks on it with something sharp or rough :

▪ Be careful not to scratch the table with those scissors.

▪ I scratched the side of the car as I was backing it into the driveway.

scratched [adjective]

▪ The kitchen has a beautiful wooden floor, but it’s badly scratched.

2. to damage something deliberately

▷ vandalize also vandalise British /ˈvænd ə l-aɪz/ [transitive verb usually in passive]

to deliberately damage buildings, vehicles, or public property :

▪ All the public telephones in the area had been vandalized.

▪ No-one is really sure why people vandalize their own neighbourhoods.

vandal [countable noun]

someone who vandalizes things: :

▪ Vandals broke into the school and wrecked two classrooms.

vandalism [uncountable noun]

the criminal activity of vandalizing things :

▪ In recent years, there has been an increase in vandalism in inner-city areas.

▷ smash up /ˌsmæʃ ˈʌp/ [transitive phrasal verb] British

to deliberately damage a room or building by breaking windows, furniture etc :

smash something up

▪ They didn’t only rob the house, they smashed it up too.

smash up something

▪ About 400 rioters had seized control and were smashing up the jail.

smash the place up

▪ Some of the men got drunk and smashed the place up.

▷ trash /træʃ/ [transitive verb] especially American, informal

to cause a lot of damage to a thing or place, either deliberately or by using it carelessly :

▪ That kid of yours has trashed my VCR.

trash the place

spoken cause a lot of damage to a room or building

▪ Dad says it’s OK to have the party here, as long as we don’t trash the place.

▷ sabotage /ˈsæbətɑːʒ/ [transitive verb]

to secretly damage machines or equipment so that they cannot be used, especially in order to harm an enemy :

▪ The railway line had been sabotaged by enemy commandos.

▪ Security lighting was sabotaged before the theft took place.

sabotage [uncountable noun]

when people secretly damage machines or equipment: :

▪ Armed soldiers patrol the airbase to guard against sabotage.

▷ tamper with /ˈtæmpəʳ wɪð/ [transitive phrasal verb]

to deliberately and illegally damage or change a part of something in order to prevent it from working properly :

▪ Someone had tampered with the lock on my door.

▪ After the accident, police discovered that the car’s brakes had been tampered with.

▷ deface /dɪˈfeɪs/ [transitive verb]

to deliberately spoil the appearance of something by writing on it, spraying paint on it etc :

▪ Several of the gravestones had been defaced and were impossible to read.

deface something with something

▪ The Central Bank issued a statement warning against defacing bank notes with what it called ‘indecent expressions’.

▷ desecrate /ˈdesɪkreɪt/ [transitive verb]

to damage a church or other holy place :

▪ The church had been desecrated by vandals.

▪ Most of the Egyptian tombs were desecrated and robbed.

desecration /ˌdesɪˈkreɪʃ ə n, ˌdesəˈkreɪʃ ə n/ [uncountable noun]

3. when weather/water/chemicals etc slowly damage something

▷ wear away /ˌweər əˈweɪ/ [transitive phrasal verb]

if the wind, rain, sea etc wears something away, it very gradually destroys its surface until there is nothing left :

wear away something

▪ The action of the sea is constantly wearing away the cliff face.

wear something away

▪ Environmentalists are concerned that rock climbers are wearing the crags away in some places.

get worn away

▪ The cathedral steps were getting worn away by the feet of thousands of visitors.

▷ erode /ɪˈrəʊd/ [transitive verb]

if water, wind, air etc erodes rock, land, soil etc, it gradually damages it over a long time by removing little pieces of it :

▪ Caves are formed by water eroding rock.

▪ If the river is not controlled, it will erode its banks as well as the surrounding farmland.

erosion /ɪˈrəʊʒ ə n/ [uncountable noun]

▪ the erosion of the coastline

▪ soil erosion on hillsides

▷ corrode /kəˈrəʊd/ [transitive verb]

if a chemical corrodes something metal, it damages it and makes it gradually disappear or become weaker :

▪ Salt corrodes metal.

▪ If the batteries leak, they can corrode the case of your flashlight.

▪ The pipework was badly corroded in places.

corrosion /kəˈrəʊʒ ə n/ [uncountable noun]

▪ The problem is how to protect the metal surface from corrosion.

corrosive /kəˈrəʊsɪv/ [adjective]

▪ a bottle of corrosive acid

▷ rust/rust away /rʌst, ˌrʌst əˈweɪ/ []

if something made of iron rusts, it is gradually damaged by a chemical reaction with water and turns red-brown in colour :

▪ The iron crosses that marked the graves had rusted badly over the years.

▪ The underside of the car had virtually rusted away.

rust [uncountable noun]

4. to damage something by using it

▷ wear out /ˌweər ˈaʊt/ [transitive phrasal verb]

to damage clothes, material, or equipment by wearing them or using them a lot :

wear out something

▪ After only a month Terry had worn out the soles of his shoes.

wear something out

▪ If you drive as fast as this all the time, you’ll wear the brakes out.

get worn out

▪ The carpet on the stairs is getting worn out.

▷ wear /weəʳ/ [uncountable noun]

damage caused by continuous use over a long period :

▪ Excessive tyre wear may be caused by faulty brakes.

heavy wear

a lot of wear

▪ Dalton said that the machine showed signs of heavy wear and had not been well-maintained.

▷ wear and tear /ˌweər ən ˈteəʳ/ [noun phrase]

the normal amount of damage that is caused to furniture, cars, pieces of equipment etc, by using them :

wear and tear on

▪ Having a large family obviously increases the wear and tear on your furniture.

normal/everyday wear and tear

the degree of wear and tear you expect

▪ Allowing for normal wear and tear, a washing machine should last at least ten years.

5. physical damage caused by something

▷ damage /ˈdæmɪdʒ/ [uncountable noun]

the physical damage that spoils the way something looks or the way it works :

▪ It will take many years to repair the damage caused by the floods.

▪ The vandals did over £20,000 worth of damage.

damage to

▪ New ways of reducing the damage to the environment are urgently needed.

severe/serious damage

▪ Acid rain has caused serious damage to the pine forests of northern Europe.

Longman Activator English vocab.      Английский словарь Longman активатор .